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Index of
Fast Sailing Ships: Their Design and Construction, 1775-1875

by
David R. MacGregor


© 1988

Reproduced 2001 with permission of the publisher Naval Institute Press

  Sources cited   |   Table of Contents   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog


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INDEX

Page numbers in italics refer to captions of Illustrations. Vessels are British, except where stated. A Abeona, smuggling cutter, 54 Aberdonian, schooner, 107; costs, 276 Aberdeen, photographs of ships at, 195, 220, 230; schooners replace Leith smacks, 99 Aberdeen bow, 108, 181; copied abroad, 116, 124, 209, 267; development of, 105 et seq, 216; extreme forms, 109-10, 113-14, 173; first appearance, 100; first three-masted square-rigged vessel, 106, 108; fitting of bowsprit, 105; influence of, 115-21, 134; list of vessels having it, 107; reduces new meausurement tonnage, 106-07, 114-15; use in Holland, 116, 118; variations adopted in many schooners, 85 'Aberdeen' house, 111, 246 Aberdeen Journal, copying of Aberdeen bow, 116, describes launches, 159, 225; describes Cairngorm 178, Robin Hood 182, Schomberg, 195; Scottish Maid, 100, lists vessels with Aberdeen bow, 107; reports on Bon Accord, 111; Thermopylae's fast speed, 247-48 Aberdeen & London Steam Navigation Co, 99 Aberdeen Public Library, 182 Aberdeen Maritime Museum, 177, 182, 230, 245 Aberdonian, schooner, 101, 107 Abundance, brig, cost, 274 Acadia, ship, 139 Acasta, barque, 109, 110; compared with ordi- nary vessel, 106-07; with other clippers, 109-10, 116; with unknown barques, 108-111; costs, 277; deck layout and sail plan, 110-11; extreme raking stem, 109; hull-form, 107, 109-10, 119; listed, 106-07; reconstruction of lines plan, 109-10; sliding gunter masts, 65, 111 Actaeon, wood construction illustrated, 137 HMS Active, flying kites set, 221, 233, 233 Acts of Parliament, against smuggling, 14-15; Merchant Shipping Act 1854, 23, 114, 151-52, 154; Navigation Acts, 24; Plantation Registration Act, 24; 'Registry Act' 1786, 24; Registry Act for New Measurement tonnage, 97-98 Ada, ship, 224; costs, 278 Adam Sedgwick, ship, costs, 278 Adams, Balthazar and Edward, builders of Mary, 62, 68, of Thalia, 62, 68; hull-form of their ships compared, 62, 68 Adams, Edward, builder of Australia, 65-66, of Friendship, 63, of Neilson, 68-69 Adams, Henry, shipbuilder, 62 Adams, Capt James, 172 Admiral (1850), ship, 160 ss Admiral (1865), schooner, costs, 278 Admiral Collingwood, barque, 141 Admiralty, commissions building of second Transit, 51; declines to buy first Transit, 50; lines taken off vessels, 38, 168; takes over Post Office packets, 14, 48, 59 Admiralty draughts, of Anonyma, 101, of Britannia and Cupid, 40, of HMS Fly, 26, of French ships, 38, of HM Helena 31; of HMS Lyme, 28; of Nightingale ex Marchioness of Salisbury, 62, of HMS Rambler, 29, of Shamrock 55; of ships bought into Navy 13, 40 Adventure, brig cost, 275 Aerolite, ship, described, 201; passages 201 Agamemnon, ship, 137-38, beam-to-length ratio, 164 Agda ex Waitangi, capstan, 147 Agnes, brig, costs, 274 Agnes Rose, ship, 230, 230 Agricola, brig, costs, 278 Aimwell, brig, 83 Albion, brig, costs, 275 Albion, (Liverpool), describes Fiery Cross (1855), 188; describes Margaret Deane, 166 Aldous of Brightlingsea, 19 Alert, brig, costs, 275 Alexander (c1770-80), Science Museum model, 33; compared with Jupiter, 44, hull-form and deck layout, 32, 34 Alexander (rebuilt 1777), Bristol privateer, 32 Alexander (1785), cutter brig, 24 Alexander (1833), schooner, 80, 84, 84 Alexander Baring, ship, 95-96 Alexander Hall, barque, costs, 277, half-model, 104, 104; hull-form, 104, 107; listed 109 SS Alexander Pirie, costs, 279 Alfred Graving dock, Williamstown, 263 Alhambra, ship, 141 Alive, barque, costs, 279 All About Ships (Chapman), 258, 258 Alma, iron schooner, 214 Alnwick Castle, schooner, costs, 276 Altcar, ship, 135 Ambassador, ship, 145, 263 Amelia, schooner, 107; costs, 277 America, operates packet ships, 97, 123; War of Independence, 13, 28-29, 38 America, schooner yacht, 55; compared with Storm Cloud, 167-68; with Mosquito, 122, with Sunny South, 169; hull-form, 167, 169 American Revolution, see America, War of Independence Amur, barque, 161, 143 Anderson, Dr R C, 114, 164 Andrew Forbes, smack, costs, 275 Andromeda, ship, 146 Angler, brigantine, costs, 276 Anglesea, Marquis of, 73 Anglo-Chinese War, 74, 95 Ann Duthie, ship, 230; described, 229-30 Ann McKim, 96, 97, American ship, compared with Falcon, 72; hull-form 97; not the first clipper, 72; prismatic coefficient, 20; lines and sail plans redrawn 97; passages 97 Ann Smith, barque, 109; costs, 276 Annabella (1834), barque, 88 Annabella (1842), schooner, costs, 276 Annan, shipbuilding at, 173-74 Annandale (1827), 173 Annandale (1854), 173, 174; compared with Thermopylae, 175, with Chariot of Fame, 136-37, with Storm Cloud, 170, 172; deck layout, 175; design not dictated by owner, 172, 174, 270; dimensions analysed, 173; extreme clipper, 155, 172, 174; hull-form, 174-75; beam-to-length ratio, 164, 175; journalist's description, 173-74; timber con- struction, 131, 137, 175, 194; passages, 175; sail plan, 175; scantlings, 137, 200, 217; speed, 199-201; two partial dis- mastings, 174-75 Annesley, William, diagonal construction, 23, 140 SS Annette, auxiliary, 133 Annie Dixon, brig, 183 Annsbro', schooner, 120 Anonyma, brig yacht, 93, 94; becomes opium clipper, 92-93, 95; compared with Scottish Maid, 105, with William Punton, 111; development of cutter hull, 55, 59, 92; hull-form, 92; reconstructed sail plan, 93-94 Anstruther, Captain, 88 HMS Ant, Bermudian schooner, 16 Antiope, ship, 150 Aphrodita, ship, 134-35, 150 Arabia, ship, 96 SS Arabia, 138 Aracan, ship, described, 201 Archduke, steamer, 142 Archer, American clipper, 153 Architectura Navalis Mercatoria, 32, 243 Arctic, American packet, 139 Ardaseer, opium clipper, 94 HMS Arethusa (1781), frigate, 37 Argonaut (1858), Dutch ship, 179 Argonaut (1876), ship, 258-59, 260, 261 Argus (Melbourne), detailed reports of ships, 190, 215 Ariel (1837), opium clipper barque, 94 Ariel (1865), ship, 235, 236, 238; compared with Maitland 231-32, with William Le Lacheur 228; hull-form and deck layout compared with other ships 234-38, 241; speed and fast passage, 335; type of wind- lass, 147; photograph, 216; measurements, 234; scantlings, 237 Ariel (1870), schooner, 279 Arima, ship, 144 Armament, of Bristol privateers, 32-33; of Cupid, 41; of HMS Dolphin, 89; of East India- man, 71; French privateer, 38; opium clipper Time, 95; regulated by Smuggling Acts, 14; of smuggler (1791), 54 Armstrong patent windlass, 146, 146 Artizan, brig, costs, 278 Artizan (London), 142; technical description of Storm Cloud, 167-68, 193 Asia, ship, costs, 274 Assam, steamer, 91, 142 Assam Co, 91 Asterope, ship, costs, 278 Atkins, George, draughtsman, 93 Atkinson, Capt John A, 57 Atlas (Boston), detailed reports of ships, 126, 184, 190 Aultnaskiach, smack, costs, 275 Aurora, ship, 183 Australia, gold rush to, 157, 159 Australia, ship, hull-form, 62 Auxiliary ships, Annette, 133; boom in build- ing, 216; extra expenses involved, 250; SS Euphrates, 169; Highflyer designed as one, 226; Hurricane converted, 162-63. Q.E.D. 148; Sea King, 220, 221-25; Sobraon designed as one, 224, 249; Tempest, 164 Avalanche, ship, costs, 279 B SS Bahama, tea steamer, 223-24 Baines, James, buys Marco Polo, 187; charters Startled Fawn, 199; orders clipper from Aberdeen, 215-16, 219; orders clippers from America, 189; owner of Donald McKay, 150, of Schomberg, 137, 193, 196, of other ships, 192 Baker, William A, 28 Ballarat, ship, 158; compared with Chrysolite, 177, with James Booth, 158, with Marco Polo, 211, with Three Bells, 155; hull-form, 158 Ballast, permanent iron, 202, 235, 246 Balley, James B, ships built by, 83-84, 214 Ballingall, Capt James, 62-63 Balmoral, ship, 159 Baltimore clippers, 38-40, 42; Ann McKim, 72; examples described, 38-40; extreme models, 20, 39, 79; Fly, later HMS Sea Lark, 39; hull- form, 102; influence on fast sailing vessels, 27, 243, on opium clippers, 40; Musquidobit, 39, 40; Nonpareil, 20, 39; refers to any fast schooner, 38 Banchory, brig, costs, 275 Bank Quay Foundry Co, builders of Lady Octavia, Sarah Palmer, Startled Fawn, and Tayleur, 134; list of ships built at, 198 Banian, ship, 201 SS Banshee, blockade runner, 135 Barbara, brig, costs, 274 Barbara Allan, brig, costs, 275 Barclay, Curle & Co, build big iron clippers, 258-61; builders of City of Nankin, 134, of Mermerus, 130, 230, 258-59, of Montrose, 150, of Shandon, 165; names of medium clippers built 1857-60, 204, names of ships built 1869, 233; style of ships built, 224-26, 230, 250, 253, 258; steam donkey engines, 260 Baring Brothers, owners of Alexander Baring, 95, of Falcon, 74, of Norman Court, 255-56; require fast ships, 87 Barquentines, 265-67; Transit, an early example, 50-51, 51; Bonanza (1830), 77, 78; rig development, 78 Barquetta, see Jackass Barques Barranca, ship, costs, 279 Bates, Joshua, 74 Bates Family, ship, large tonnage, 134-35, 198 Baugean, Jean, artist, 15, 31 Bay of Cadiz, ship, 135 Bay of Naples, ship, costs, 279 Bayley, George, shipbuilder, 17, 51, 80 Bayley, W A, 251 Beale, John H, draughtsman, 36, 63 Beam-to-length ratio, clipper barques, 264; cutters in 1763, 29; high ratio did not make a clipper, 155; increases for vessels of cutter-build after 1815, 59; privateer, 37; reduced by smuggling Acts, 14-15, 52; sloop 1745, 28; very high examples, 50-52; tabulated 1825-52, 18; two ships by A Hall & Sons, 108; vessels listed with more than 6 1/2 beams to length, 164 Beaufoy, Col, 14 Beazley, James, owner of Robin Hood, 182, of Vision, 182, of Star of the East, 191 Belfast, Lord, 73, 89, 94 Bell, Jacob, shipbuilder, 126 Bell, John, shipowner, 156, 172 Bell, William and Findlay, shipowners, 156 Belle of Lagos, deck layout, 237 Belle of the Clyde, brig, 132, 149 Belmore, Earl of, 74 Belted Will, ship, described, 201-02 Ben Avon, ship, 159 Ben Muick Dui, barque, costs, 277; listed, 107; possible picture, 110, 110 Ben Nevis, ship, 258 Ben Voirlich, ship, 151 Benham, Hervey, author, 212 Benjamin Elkin, barque, compared with Rein- deer, 113, 114; costs, 114, 277; extreme raking stem, 108-09; half-model, 113, 154; listed 108 Bentham, Sir Samuel, 21 Bentinck, ex-pilot brig, 94 Beraza, barque, 121, 165 Bermudian model, influence on design, 27-28; schooners, 16; sloops, 27-28, 68 Berwick Shipping Co, 118 Berwick smack, 79, 82 Bessemer steel, 135 Bessy Robertson, brig, costs, 276 Bilbe & Perry, composite construction, 142-43; diagonal construction, 140-41, 281; lists of ships built, 144-42 Bilbe, Thomas, takes out patent, 142-43 Bilbe, Thomas & Co, see under Bilbe & Perry Bill, Robert, patentee of iron spars, 147-48 Bird, Ralph, draughtsman, 264 Blackadder, ship, 273; clipper status, 253, 258 Black Ball Line, of trans-Atlantic packets, 66 Black Ball Line (James Baines), 187, 190-92 HMS Black Joke, ex Henriquetta, brig, 87 Black Prince, ship, 220; compared with Fiery Cross, 200-21; with Maitland, 231-32; cost of building, 221, 278; described by Capt Shewan, 221; designed, by Rennie, 167, 220; low forecastle, 155, 221, 231; passages and earnings, 221; spar dimensions, 221; compared with The Caliph, 257 Blackwall Frigates, 137 Blackwall Yard, 126, 184 Blenheim, ship, 137 Block Coefficient, explained, 20 Blockade runners, American, 135 Blyth, Greene, Jourdain & Co, 87-88 Blyth, James, merchant, 84, 87-88 Bon Accord (1846), ship, 108; costs, 277; described at sea, 111, 124; listed, 107 Bon Accord (1857), barque, costs, 278 Bonanza (1830), barquentine offsets, 77; plans, 77, 78; reconstruction, 77-78; sail plan, 77-78; record passage, 96-97 HMS Bonetta, ex Les Huits Amis, ex-privateer, 37 Bonita, ship, 113; compared with Reindeer, 113, 114; costs, 277; listed, 107; painting by Smith, 111, 114 Bonnie Dundee, steamer, 107 Boolds, H J, draughtsman, 141 Border Maid, schooner, 107; costs, 276 Bouguer, Pierre, author, 15-16 Bouquet, Michael, 83, 120 Bowman & Vernon, windlass makers, 146 Boyle, Vernon, 197 Boyd, M F, 231 Brazils Packet, brig, 70 Bridge Foundry Co, shipbuilders, 197 Brierly, Sir Oswald W, artist, 86 Brig-cutters, see Cutter-brigs Brilliant (1814), ship, costs, 274 Brilliant (1850), ship, 158 HMS Brisk, 168 Bristol, privateers fitted out, 32-33; ships built by J M Hilhouse, 47, 73-74 Bristow, barque, 115; composite construction, 142; had Aberdeen bow, 115, 181, 182 Britannia, ship, bought 1781 by Navy, 40 Britannia (1813), brig, costs, 274 Britain's Glory, or Ship-Building Unvail'd, 15 British Ambassador, ship, 196 British Association, 97, 168 Brockbank, John, builder of Thetis, 34; possible designer of privateer, 34; tonnage formula, 23 Brocklebank, Daniel, builder of Jupiter, 20, 42, 44 Brocklebank, T. & J., builders of Bonanza, 97, of Dash, 75-78, of Everest, 225-26, of Rajmahal, 138, of Susanna, 85; some ships described, 76-77; two of their clippers, 201 Brooklands, ex Susan Vittery, schooner, 214, 215 Brown, Walter, shipbuilder, 186, 192 Brown & Bell, shipbuilders, 126 Brown & Harfield, patent capstan replaces windlass, 146, 147, 162; windlass, 146-47, 259 Browning, A S E, 102 Browning, Drew & Co, owners of Fling, 211 Brucklay Castle, ship, costs, 278 Bruhn, Jorgen, builder of Cimber, 205, 206 Brunel, Sir Marc, 22 Buchan, brigantine, costs, 275 Buckle, Capt, 111 Budge, Capt, 159 Burney, Dr William, 15 Burns, ship, described, 173; half-model, 174 Burnswark, ship, listed, 173 HMS Busy, cutter, 29-30 Butterman, defined, 212 Buttersworth, Thomas, artist, 67 Cable, Boyd, article on Scottish Maid, 102-04; on first square-rigged clipper, 118; 'World's First Clipper', 102 C Cairngorm, ship, 178, 179; colour of hull, 182, compared with The Caliph, 257; costs, 140, 179, 277; described by 2 journalists, 178-79; design not dictated by owners, 178-79, 270; dimensions, 176; fast passages, 179; half-model, 103, 154, 176, 177; hull- form, 178-79; larger version of Vision, 179; new lines plan, 178, 179; very steep dead- rise, 178-79 Cairnsmore, ship, compared with Thermopylie, 243; hull-form, 165, 243; listed, 134, 164 Caledonia, schooner, 119, 120; Aberdeen bow, 116; costs, 120; hull-form, 119; plan survives, 206; reduced version of Three Bells, 155; sailplan, 119-20, 264 Caledonian, brig, costs, 275 Calypso, ship, costs, 279 Cambalu, ship, 201 HMS Camelion, brig, 29-30 Camertonian, ship, 126-29; compared with Three Bells, 155; deck layout, 128-29; sail plan, 128, 129; model and hull-form, 126-29; newspaper description, 126; whisker booms, 25; windlass, 128, 128, 146; scantlings, 127 Cammell, Laird, 118 Campbell, John, shipowner, 135, 166, 219 Camper, William, shipbuilder, 92 Canada, large wooden ships constructed, 138-39 Canada Works, builder of Simla, 134 Canton Register, 90, 94 Cape Town, St Helena sails into harbour, 57 Capstan, being operated, 147; geared to wind- lass, 162; see also Brown & Harfield SS Carbon, listed, 166 Cargo capacity, greater in iron than in wooden ships, 131, 150, 173, 270 Carlisle Castle, ship, 250 Carmichael, A & J, shipowners, names of ships owned, 258-59 Caroline, barque, 165 Carpenters Society, 199 Catherine, barque, costs, 275 Cato, Miller & Co, builders of Conflict and Talavera, 134 Cecile, schooner yacht, 140 Celaeno, ship, costs, 278 Celestial, ship, 220, 141 Centreboard, 120 Ceres, brig, costs, 275 Chaa-sze, ship, costs, 278; designed by Rennie, 167, 220; diagonal build, 140, 181; wind- lass, 147 Challenge, Baltimore clipper schooner, 38 Challenge, American ship, 185, 186; hull-form, 185; listed, 139; lines to be taken off, 184; passages 185-86; sail plan, 185, 186 Challenger, ship, 196; tea clipper, 183, 185; hull-form, 196 Chaloner, shipbuilder, 166, 219 Champion of the Seas, ship, bows sketched, 184; compared with other clippers, 139, 189, speed, 190 Chapelle, Howard I, comments on Bermudian model, 28 on design of Shamrock, 55; defines clipper characteristics, 102; finds sail plan of English cutter, 27; hull analysis, 20; on evolution of British and American clippers, 179, 186; reproduces plans, 86, 97, 123; reconstructs sail plan of Lady Hamond, 28, of HMS Sea Lark, 39; Chapman, partner in Gladstone & Co, 222 Chapman, Capt C, author, 258, 258; quoted, 267-68 Chapman, af, F H, 16, 26, 28, 105; privateer plans, 32, 34, 35, 36, 243; packets, 50 Chariot of Fame, ship, 136, 136-37, 139 Charlemagne, ship, 134, 171-72 Charles Horsfall, ship, 141; costs, 277 Charlotte (1808), pilot cutter, 48 Charnock, John, 26 Chepica, ship, costs, 278 Chesapeake model, bought by Royal Navy 1745, 27 Childe Harold, brig, costs, 275 Childers, ship, described, 226; listed 225 China Bird (MacGregor), 183, 196 China Clippers (Lubbock), 218, 236 Chinaman, ship, 221, 234 China trade, American competition, 95-96, 154; in 1860s, 216-19; fast ships in 1830s, 74, 95-97; packet ship design, 123-26; new clippers, 154 Chowringhee, ship, 182 Christiana Thompson, ship, 243; brace winch, 151, 246; resembles Thermopylae, 246; roller-reefing topgallant, 149, 264 Chrysolite, ship, 225; costs, 277; famous cap- tain, 114; half-model, 103, 134, 176, 177; hull-form, 177-78, 182; speed, 177-78; article by Griffiths, 177 Cimber, Danish ship, 205, 205; hull-form, 205; described, 205 Circular Quay, Sydney, 159 City Line (G Smith & Sons), 204 City of Bombay, ship, 144 City of Calcutta, ship, 143 City of Canton, ship, 134 City of Hamilton, ship, costs, 277 City of Hankow, ship, 146, 253 City of Lucknow, ship, 253 City of Madras (1855), ship, 134 City of Madras (1859), ship, 134 City of Nankin, ship, 134, 204 City of Perth, ship, described, 204 City of Shanghai, ship, described, 204 Clara Sayers, barque, costs, 278 Clark Collection, of plans, 189 Clark, William, artist, 237, 242, 245 Claydon, F A, draws plans, 240, 240-41, 241, 257 Clinker build, 14, 29, 31 Clippers, Aberdeen bow, 99 et seq, 154; American clippers of over 1500 tons listed, 139; Australia trade, 218; British did not copy American, 184-85, 214, 270; boom in building for China trade 1865-69, 154, 218, 253, 282; building boom 1853-55, 138-39, 154, 270; building boom in America, 154; compared with French privateers, 37; design evolved from cutter, 29, 58, 61, 270; development, 34, 58, 61; ideal form of clipper, 168-69, 174, 214, 270; early, 236; early use in tea trade, 74, 124-25; extreme, 154, 174; extreme British as sharp as American, 214; extreme clippers needed high freights, 172, 217; extreme form in ships, 159 et seq; and 235 et seq; Spindrift 240; large iron built, 15 et seq; large size of American and Canadian, 138-39, 186; listed with Aberdeen bow, 107-08; long sharp entrance of Storm Cloud, 170; loss of cargo capacity in extreme vessels, 131, 172, 202, 217; Mauritius trade in 1830s, 87-88; new American style in Sea Witch, 124-25; com- pared wit L'lnvention (1801) 37; naval, 90; no first clipper, 72, 153, 270; opium trade, 91-95; Reindeer one of sharpest built before 1848, 113; schooners of new style in 1840s, 82-86; terminology, 26, 154; uniden- tified fruiter 1860-70, 263-64, 264; use of word in 1819, 52, 53 'World's First Clipper', 112; see also Baltimore Clipper Clyde and Australian Shipping Co, names of ships owned, 160 Clytemnestria, ship, 135 Coalbrookdale iron, 122 Coats & Young, shipbuilders, 155 Cock of the North, cutter, costs, 80, 275 Cock, Robert, shipbuilder, 263 Cod's head and mackerel tail, 47-48, 122 Coefficient of Under Deck Tonnage, explained, 20; tea clippers compared, 234 Colliers, 81 Colling, John, 148 Colling & Pinkney, roller-reefing gear, 148-49, 149, 241; roller-reefing gear in Thermopylae, 242, 247 Colloony, barque, 107-08; costs, 276; hull-form, 109 HMS Columbine (1826), 12-gun sloop, 88 Columbine (1839), brig, costs, 276 Colonial Empire, ship, 151 Comet (1810), Leith smack, 79, 80, 82; model, 80 Comet (1851), American ship, 214, 184 Commerce, brigantine, costs, 275 Commerce de Paris, French clipper ship, 243 Commissary, ship, costs, 279 Commodore, brig, costs, 275 Compass deviation, 162, 199 Composite construction, 142-43; advantages, 132; last in UK, 146; history of, 144-46; largest ships, 146, 267; royalties paid on Jordan's patent, 160-1; A Stephen obtains Lloyds consent, 143-44 variations built, 146 Confederate Government of America, blockade runners, 135, 223; cruiser Shenandoah, 221 Conference, ship, 198-200 Conflict, ship, 134 Connell, Charles, 218; names of ships built, 239-40; Conqueror, ship, 181; costs, 277 Constance, barque, 188, 192 Construction, Annesley's laminated, 23; com- parison of British and American in wood, 136-37, 139; corrosion between copper and iron, 132; diagonal planking, 140-41; Hall's diagonal, 22; innovations before 1850, 21-23; number of iron plates in Typhoon's hull, 160; timber consumed in a ship, 20; under a roof, 160; see also Diagonal, Scantling sizes, Wood Shipbuilding Contract, in form of letter, 257 Copper sheathing, 132 Coquette, brig yacht, 73, 74 Coral Nymph, ship, 233 Coriolanus, ship, 260, 263 Corsican, brig, costs, 275 Cornwallis, ship, 150, 150 Cossipore, ship, 226 Costagliola, Michael, draws plan, 190 Costs of building Annabella, 88, of Black Prince, 231, of Caledonia, 120, of Cairngorm and Stornoway, 179, of Falcon (1824), 74, of Fling, 212, of Hurricane, 160, of Irt, 76, of John Lidgett, 144, of Leith smacks, 80, of Reindeer itemised, 125, of St Helena, 55, of Salamander, 204, of Schomberg, 193, of Scottish Maid itemized, 101, of SS Sea King, 221-24, of Sobraon, 250, of Storm Cloud, 172, of Tayleur, 199 of Transit (1800), 51, of Typhoon, 160; building in steel, 135; of diagonal construction, 140; of early com- posite ships, 142; Emerson & Walker wind- lass, 147; estimate of composite ship (1861), 143; estimate for Samoa and periods of pay- ment, 251; fitting propellor to Hurricane, 162-63; of iron shipbuilding, 130; list of vessels built by A Hall & Sons 1811-75, 274-80; of roller-reefing gear, 148, 208; royalties on composite construction patent, 144-46; of scraping and painting bottom of iron ship, 132; of tea clippers in 1860s, 235; of White's diagonal construction, 140; of wooden ships in 1850s, 136 Coulnakyle, ship, costs, 278 Coulson, Capt, 233 Countess of Chichester, packet, 60 Countess of Seafield, ship, 117 County of Peebles, 262 Courant, schooner of Kiel, 209 Courier, schooner, 77 Courier de St Paul, 87 Coutts & Co, builders of Q.E.D., 148 Coutts, John, 23 Coutts & Parkinson, 133; builders of Sir Charles Napier, Swarthmore and W S Lindsay, 134 Cowasjee Family, opium clipper, 23, 91-92, 94 Cowasjee Jehangeer, later Ranee, 133 Cowasjee, Rustomjee, merchant, 91 Cox, George, of Bideford, builder of Jane Leech, Shuttle, and Sarah Neumann, 198 Cox, John, shipbuilders, 266 Cox & Con, of Bridport, shipbuilders, 197 Cradock H, naval architect, 97 Craigievar, brig, costs, 275 Cram H, builder of Winefred, 134 Crest of the Wave, ship, 182, 254 Creuze, Augustin F B, 17, 132 Crew, of St Helena, 57; of Schomberg, 195; smuggler (1791), 54; of Thermopylae, 245; wages during Australian gold rush, 157, 189; Crimean War, clipper carries news, 191; effect on shipping industry, 154, 202, 204 Crockett, Capt William, 174-75 Crusader, barque, 109; costs, 276 Cuirassier, steamer, 135 Cunard, Joseph, shipbuilder, 121, 121-22 Cunningham, H D P, brace winch and list of ships fitted, 150-51, 154; brace winches in Maitland, 51, 232-33, 246, in Thermopylae, 151, 246; stunsail booms fit below his yards, 270; roller-reefing gear to topsails, 148, 148-50, 150, 208, 221; roller-reefing topgallants, 148 Cupid, ship bought by Navy, 40; hull-form 40-41; plans 41, 46; spar dimensions, 41; compared with other ships, 40-41 Curlew, schooner, 106; costs, 277; listed, 107 Custom House Registers, commencement date, 24 Cutler, Carl C, 139, 190 Cutters, Abeona, 54; compared with French lugger, 39; with sloop, 15; development of hull-form in larger vessels, 32, 53, 59, 92, 110, 243; Dutch naval, 31, HMS Dwarf, 26; eighteenth-century sail plan described, 27; favoured by British, 13, 28; HMS Fly, 26-27; HMS Hawke, 28; inspired design of fast ships, 20, 26-32, 53, 55, 59, 66, 92, 101, 243, 270; lengthened and rigged as schooners, 66; mizen mast, 29,30; Naval cl800, 29; HMS Pitt, 26, Rebecca, 48; rerigged as brigs or schooners, 29, 97; as smuggler, 14; square sails listed, 28; Sylph, 60-61, HMS Viper, 28; see also Leith smacks Cutter brigs, 29, 47, 55, 58; Alexander, 29; HMS Rambler, 29; Shamrock, 55 Cutter-build (cutter-built), definition, 27; equivalent to clipper-built, 29; examples listed, 29, 55 Cutty Sark, ship, 255, 256; an extreme clipper, 253-54; compared with Mirzapore, 226; compared with other ships, 182, 228-29, 234, 253-54; dimensions compared with Mermerus, 259; hull-form, 254; influences affecting her hull-form, 254, 258; spars and sail plan compared, 247, 255; speed, 254; unique survival described, 254; spar dimen- sions listed, 247; was she designed to beat Thermopylae? 254 Cyclone, ship, 159 Cyclopaedia (Rees'), 63, 64 Cynthia, barque, 109; costs, 276 D Damier Powell, J W, 32 Dandridge, C, draughtsman, 63 Dandy rig, 29 Danish Royal Archives, 27 Darby & Sim, shipowners, 123 HMS Daring, brig, 89 Darra, ship, costs, 278 Dart, schooner, 107; costs, 277 Dash, brigantine, 75, 76; compared with Neilson, 75-76; hull-form, 75-76; old- fashioned design, 76; retains rounded body form, 53; sail and rigging plan, 76 Davis, Charles G, plan of Peri, 212, 213 Davy, Robert, shipbuilder, 82 Deadrise, as steep in British vessels as in American, 39, 179; enormous in Cairngorm, 179; reasons for steepness in American ships, 44; steep in Hilhouse vessels, 48, 66, 68; in Richard Cobden, 122; in Spindrift, 240-41; in all Symondites, 89; steep in Post Office packets, 48 Deck fittings, improvements to, 146-47, 150-51; Cunningham's brace winch, see Cunningham; mechanical gear on Pride of Canada, 165; see also Aberdeen house, Anchors, Boats, Capstan, Windlass Deck layouts, distinguishing merchantmen from navel ships, 37, 64; East Indiamen, 64; Neilson, 69-70 SS Dee, costs, 279 Deerhound, ship, 233 Deerslayer, barque, listed, 198, 200; speci- fication, 135, 200 Defiance, ship, 134 Demerara, ketch, for Demerara pilot company, 142 Denny, Alexander, 155 Denny, James, 155 Denny, Peter, 143, 155, 165 Denny, William, shipbuilder, 155, 206 Denny, Wm & Bros, builders of Caledonia, 119-20, 155, 207; of Three Bells, 155; iron schooners described, 119-20; tank tests, 105 Denny & Rankin, 133; builders of Gauntlet, 162, 165, 166; of Glen Roy, 134, 187 Denton, Gray & Co, 183 Depth in hold, defined, 283-4 Derwent, barque, described, 230 Design, Aberdeen bow variations, 124; at A Stephen & Sons' yard, 160, 168-70; by arcs of circles, 16, 18, 32-33, 44, 52-53, 76; British did not copy American and Canadian clippers, 214; Baltimore clippers not restricted by rules, 38; coastal craft, 14; described by Fincham, 16-18; by Hedder- wick (1830), 18; by shipbuilder's Repository, 16; by Steel, 16; by Sutherland (1794), 53; of East Indiamen, 64; eighteenth century, 15, 16, 42, 52-53; favoured by Ditchburn, 122; freedom from owners' restrictions yields extreme clippers, 168-69, 174, 179; foreign influence over-emphasised, 20, 32, 41; of Hall, 44-45; influence of Bermudian model, 27-28; of cutters, 28, 29, 53; of wave form theory, 190, 193. J W Griffiths' theories for fast ships, 124, 168, 189; Leith smacks, 79-80; midship section, 52-53; naval brigs, 39, 88-89; one plan applicable to many vessels, 81, 89; opium clippers, 91-95; Post Office packets 1793, 48; raking mid- section, 84-85, 202; schooners, 66; slavers, 14, 36; Steele's tea clippers, 234-39; three Transit's compared, 50-11; tonnage reduction, 99-100, 106; Waymouth's skill in clippers, 243 Devana, ship, costs, 278 Devitt & Moore, shipowners, 249 Diagonal construction, Bilbe & Perry, 140-41; Fearnall and Fletcher, 23; Hall, 23, 140-41, 181, 195; Seppings, 22-23, 140; in Royal yachts, 23; White, 23, 140; other builders, 141; radiating frames, 141 Diagonal iron trussing, 22, 22 Diagonal wood trussing, in Renown, 25, 151 Dickie, James, collector, 219 Dickinson, Robert, engineer, 147 Die Sciffbankunst, 228 Dilawar, ship, 146 Dilbur, ship, 146 Diligente, slaver brig, 202 Dilpussund, ship, 146 Dinapore, ship, 226 Directions for Laying off Ships, 17 Ditchburn, Thomas J, naval architect, career, 122; describes design of vessel, 84, 85; designer of Swordfish, 121-22; methods of design, 132; patent for composite con- struction, 141-42, 161 Dodgson, Thomas, shipbuilder, 32 Dolphin (1815), smack, costs, 274 HMS Dolphin (1836), true brigantine, 89; hull- form, deck fittings, and sail plan, 89; sail plan compared with Psyche, 94; slave chaser, 14, 90; outsails Waterwitch, 90 Dolphin striker, in use by 1794, 47 Domitila, schooner, 135 Donald McKay, American ship, double topsails, 150; hull-form, 189; listed 139; medium clipper, 189, speed, 190, very long lower yards, 196 Don (1814), ship, costs, 274 SS Don (1873), costs, 279 Donegal, Marquis of, 89 Donietta, schooner, 135 Dorothy, ship, costs, 277 SS Douglas, schooner, costs, 278 Dove, iron schooner, 23 Dragon, ship, 151 Druid, schooner, later Susanna, 84 du Monceau, Duhamel, 15 Duke of Abercorn, ship, 239 Duke of Marlborough, Falmouth packet, 49 Duke of Sutherland, smack, costs, 275 Duke of York, packet brig, 59 Dunbar, Duncan, shipowner, 158, 249 Dunbar, ship, 138, 174 Duncan Dunbar, ship, 138 Dunmail, ship, described, 201-02; painting, 202, 203 Dunrobin Castle, ship, costs, 277 Dusty Miller, schooner, 83 Duthie, Alexander & Co, shipbuilders, 130, 158-59 Duthie, George, shipwright, 118 Duthie, John, description of ships built, 117-18 Duthie, John, jnr, shipwright, 118, 118, 141 Duthie, John, Sons & Co, shipbuilders, 118, 229 Duthie, Robert, shipwright, 118 Duthie, Wm Bros, shipbuilders, 118, 158 Dutton, T G, artist, 74, 204, 231, 233, 238, HMS Dwarf cutter, 28 Dyer, Capt Samuel, 148 E Eagle, Leith smack, 79 Earl of Eglinton, ship, 138, 166 Earl of Fife, brigantine, costs, 275 Earl of Mulgrave, brigantine, 242 Earle, C & W, shipbuilders, 134 Earnings, of Hurricane, 162; of Storm Cloud, 172 East India Company, abolition of monopoly, 95; builds packet schooner St. Helena, 55; declines to buy first Transit, 51; grants trade licences, 62; experts in transporting troops, 73; its surveyor, 21 East India outfit, cost of, 235 East Indiamen, calling at St Helena, 55; Farquharson, 63-66; London, 66; of 1200-ton class, 63-65 Eastern Monarch, ship, 135, 137-38 Ebenezer, schooner, 107; costs, 276 Echo, Emsworth smack, 109 Eckford, Henry, shipbuilder, 123 Eckford Webb, American schooner, 185 SS Eclipse, ship, costs, 278 Edinburgh Packet, smack, costs, 274 Edith Moore, ship, 134 Edward P. Bouverie, ship, costs, 279 Edward, Thomas, shipbuilder, 103 Edwards & Balley, shipbuilders, 83 Edwards, John, shipbuilder, 83 Edye, John, 65 Electra (1846), barque, 107; costs, 277 Electra (1866), ship, costs, 278 Electric Telegraph, barque, 121, 197 Elements de l'Architecture Navale (du Monceau), 15 Elements and Practice of Naval Architecture (Steel), 16, 49, 63 Elfin, steam yacht, 23 Elinor, schooner, 212 Eliza Shaw, ship, described, 172, 218, 226; royalty fee, 145; listed, 225 Elizabeth (1840), schooner, 107; costs, 276 Elizabeth (1872), schooner, costs, 279 Elizabeth Barter, barque, listed, 166 Elizabeth Nicholson, ship, listed, 173; hull-form, 174; roller-reefing topgallant, 148 Elien Bates, ship, 134 Ellen Rodger, ship, 202, 234 Ellen Stuart, ship, 134 Elliot Joseph, ship draughtsman, 44-45 Elmslie, Capt J A, 249 El Zeide, schooner, 120, 206 Eme, ship, 239 Emerald, cutter yacht, 73 Emerson & Walker, modernise windlass, 147, 147, 241 Emigrant, barque, 181 Emigration, to Australia, 187-88 Emily, brig, costs, 278 Emma (c1810-20), schooner, Science Museum model, 84 Emma (1824), brig, 67 Emma (1826), built by Hilhouse, 67 Emma (1830), schooner, built by James Balley, 83 Emperor, barque, 108; costs, 277; painting, 114; compared to Reindeer, 114 Empress, ship, 140 SS Empress Eugenie, 166 Empress of the Seas, American ship, 139 Emsworth smacks, 109 Enchantress (1839), barque, costs, 276 HMS Enchantress, ex Manuela, ex Sunny South (1854), 168 Encyclopaedia Britannica (1841), article 'Ship- building', 17 Encyclopaedia Britannica (1861), article 'Ship- building', 133, 140, 181, 193 Enoch Train, American ship, 184 Enright, Capt Anthony, 114 Enterprise (1852), schooner, costs, 277 Enterprize (1846), schooner, 198 Esther, barque, 166 Ethiopian, ship, 149, 226, 246 Euphrates (1834), ship, 95-96 SS Euphrates (1855), auxiliary ship, hull-form, 169; sail plan, 171; measurements, 169 Europa, barque, costs, 275 Evangeline, ship, 134 Everest, ship, 226; described, 226; listed, 225 Excelsior, schooner, 141-42 Expedition, brig, costs, 274 Express, schooner, plans, 267, 268, 269 F Fairfax, Capt James, 57 Fairlight, ship, 148, 164 Fairy (1833), brig, 91 Fairy (1842), schooner, 107; costs, 276 Fairy (1845), steam yacht, 122 Falcon (1815), brig yacht, 71, 74, 195 Falcon (1824), ship, yacht, 72, 73, 75; altered in 1839, 74; as tea clipper, 71, 74, 96; becomes opium clipper, 74, 95; bought by Baring's, 74, 87; cost of building and sale price, 74; cutter-built hull, 55; discrepancies between model and Fincham's measure- ments, 71, 74; engravings, 72, 75; hull- form, 71-74; passages, 74; plans found, 71, 73; spar dimensions listed, 73 Falcon (1838), schooner costs, 276 Falcon (1859), ship, 202; dimensions, 234; hull-form, 234-35; in tea trade, 218-19; compared with other ships, 220-21 Falconer's Dictionary (1815), 15-17 Falconer, William, 17-18 Falmouth packets, 49, 63 Fanny (1850) of Bremen, 77 SS Far East, tea steamer, 224 Farewell, brigantine, 122 Farquharson, East Indiaman, 64, 65; compared with warship, 64-65; hull-form and deck layout, 63-64; sail and rigging plan, 64-66; speed, 63; passages from China, 63; plans analysed, 63-65 Farrer, T H, 152 Fast ships, absence of design rules, 20; design factors, 14-16, 18, 88; inference from ships names, 42, 75; influence of English cutter, 27, 58-59; needed in competitive com- merce, 85, 87, 172; see also Clippers Fast-sailing ships, see Fast ships Favourite, schooner, 115 Fawn, brig, 264 Feathers, inside iron masts, 201 Fearnall, William, shipbuilder, 23, 140 Fedi, Guiseppi, artist, 71 Fell, Jonathan, shipbuilder, 126, 128; ship- builder career and ships designed, 201-02 Ferguson, Peter, draughtsman, 266 Ferme, French ship, 32 Ferreira, ex Cutty Sark photographed at Pensacola, 256 Ferrett, smuggler, 68 Ferris, William, shipbuilder, 19 Fiery Cross (1855), ship, compared with Rein- deer, 167; dimensions, 166; hull-form and passages, 166-67 Fiery Cross (1860), ship, 219; compared with Black Prince, 219-21; with John R. Worcester, 228; with Norman Court, 272; designed by Rennie, 167, 219-21; model and hull-form, 220, 222-23, 256; roller-reefing sails, 148; sailplan, 220 Fincham, John, analyses five yachts, 73; com- piles tables of spar dimensions, 93; his books, 16-17, 51; on how to design a ship, 17-18; plan of clipper schooner, 116; recommendations on sails, 71 Findlay, J, owner of Serica, of Spindrift and Taitsing, 240 Fisher, John, shipbuilder, 45 Flash, iron schooner, 23 Fletcher, Joseph, shipbuilder, 23, 154 Fletcher & Fearnall, shipbuilders, 23, 140 Fletcher, Son & Fearnall, builders of Time, 84, 122 Fling, schooner, 211; hull-form, 211, 263; sail plan, 212; hull-form compared with John Williams, 252; half-model, 19; 212 Flora, brig, costs, 276 Florence, schooner, 165 Flower of the Fal, schooner, 268 Flush decks, see Ariel, Titania HMS Fly, bought 1763, cutter, 26, 27; hull- form, 26; sail plan and square canvas, 26, 27, 31, 53, 84 Fly, captured 1811, American schooner, 39, 57 Flying Dragon, barque, 182, 183 Flying Fish (1802), pilot cutter, 48 Flying kites, Aberdeen schooners, 102; clipper ships, 202, 203, 221, 233, 238, 239; cutters, 28; East Indiamen, 65-66; Midas, 40; opium clipper barque, 91; photo- graphed, 233 Flying Scud, American ship, 190 Flying Spur, ship, 224; costs, 278 Flying Venus, ship, 134 Foam, ship, 95 Foig a Ballagh, iron schooner, 23 Forbes, Capt J N, 188-89 Forbes, Robert B, double topsails, 148-49 Formby, ship, cost, 135; plans, 135; windlass, 147 Fortitude, barque, costs, 276 Fouling of iron ships' bottoms, 131-32 Four-masted ship, 276, 37, 37-38 Fowler, Capt, 251 SS Fox, schooner, costs, 277 France, composite shipbuilding, 157 France et Chili, French clipper ship plan, 243 Francis Henty, ship, 181; costs, 277 Freak, schooner, 83 Freights, from China in 1834, 96; from China in 1850s, 154; from China in 1860s, 217-18; from China in 1878, 263; to and from Australia in 1850s, 162, 172; effect of Suez Canal, 253 Friar Tuck, ship, costs, 278 Friendship, schooner, 68-70 Fruit trade, fast schooners, used, 83-86, 209, 211-12; Hilhouse schooners, 66-67; uniden- tified clipper, 263; schooner described, 267-68 Furnaux, shipbuilder, 277 Fusi Yama, tea clipper, 228; hull-form, 227 Fusilier, ship, listed, 166 Fy-Chow, ship, costs, 278; tea clipper, 221 G HMS Galatea (1859), frigate, 252 Ganges, ship, compared with Maitland, 253; hull-form, 225-26; half-model, 183, 226; listed, 225 Gauntlet, ship, 163; coefficient of UD tons, 165; compared with Hurricane, 162; described, 163, 165; designed by Rennie, 166-67 Gazehound, barque, 141 SS Gazelle, schooner, costs, 276 Geddie, James, shipbuilder, 207, 265 Geelong, ship, 160 Gellatly, Hankey & Sewell, owners of Sobraon, 249 Gem, brig, costs, 276 Genoese pink (1800), lines plan, 42 George Jordan, schooner, 142 George Marshall, ship, 138 Getty, John, shipbuilder, 142 Getty, John, & Co, builders of James Pilkington, 134 Getty Jones & Co, builders of Ellen Stuart, 134 Gitana, schooner, 107; costs, 277 Gladstone & Co, 222 Glasgow, schooner, 79, 80 Glasgow Herald, describes Hurricane, 160, 162; describes Typhoon, 160, reports on clipper Storm Cloud, 167-68; reports on ship- building, 134 Glasgow Museum and Art Gallery, half-models of Aberdeen clippers, 102-04, 176, 179, 194, model of Helen Nicholson, 225, model of Spindrift, 240-41; model of Vision, 180, 206; paintings by R Salmon, 71 Glasgow Packet, costs, 274 Glassford, R W, 249 Gleam, barque, 142 Glen Roy, ship, 134, 164; speed, 165 Glentanner, ship, 108; costs, 276; listed, 109 Gold, discovered in Australia, 129, 153, 157; discovered in California, 129, 153; problems arising, 157 Gold rush, demand for large clippers, 139, 159; to Australia, 157, 159 Golden Fleece, ship, 259; photographed, 253 Golden Fleece Line, 258 Goliath, ketch, 132 Gondola, barque, 142 Good, shipbuilder, 81 Gore, Charles, 52 Gordon, shipbuilder, 63 Gould, F G, photographer, 250, 260 Gourlay Brothers, shipbuilders, 214 Gourock Rope Co, 198 Governor MacLean, brig, 94 Gowan, A B, & Sons, shipbuilders, 118 Gower, ketch, 50 Gower, Richard Hall, designer of Transit, 281 Gracie, Beazley & Co, 180 Grand Banks, schooners, 109 Granite, brig, 116 Grantham, John, consulting naval architect, 270; on iron ships, 122, 130-31; speci- fications of iron clippers, 135, 224 SS Graphic, costs, 279 HMS Grasshopper, ex London (1770), 40-41 Gray, John, builder of Electric Telegraph, 121, 197, of Lewes, 121, of Watkins, 120-21, 220 SS Great Britain, saved by iron construction, 130; shape of midship section, 122; sur- veyed, 132 Great Exhibition 1851, 130, 141 Great Republic, American ship, 188; huge size, 139-40, 193; photograph, 188 SS Great Western, 122 HMS Grecian, brig, 95 Green, Capt, 166 Green, Richard, builder of Agamemnon, 137-38; of Challenger, 183, 196; owns Blackwall Yard, 183 Green, R & H, builders of Childers and High- flyer, 225-26, of Melbourne, 242 Greenhill, Basil, 83, 263 SS Greenland, barque, costs, 279 Greenock, ship, 164 Greig, Hood's yard manager, 245 Greville, Hon R F, 86, 92 Greyhounds of the Sea (Cutler), 139 Griffiths, J W, apprenticed 123; design theories for fast ships, 124-25, 168, 189; his book known in Britain, 168, 184; pub- lishes lines of America, 168; writes about Chrysolite, 177 Griswold, N L and Co, shipowners, 185 Guibert Collection of Plans at Mariner's Museum, 35, 36, 36, 38, 38, 43, 86 Guide, schooner, costs, 277 Guiding Star, ship, 139 Guinevere, ship, 234; hull-form, 234 Gun Brigs, plan of 18-gun, 18; Rolla class, 41; 10-gun, 41, 95; 12-gun Recruit, 135 Guns, see Armament Guppy, T R, shipbuilder, 122-23 Gwyn, Edward, artist, 31 H Half-models, bird's nest type, 19, 212; bracket type, 19, 212; lift model, 19-20; Robin Hood, 182; Scawfell, 202; ships built by A Hall & Son, 154, 176; survival of some of Hall's, 176 Hall (1785) West Indiaman, design of, 44-45; hull-form, 45-46; plans, 45 Hall, Alexander, & Sons, build Cairngorm as ideal clipper, 179, 270; build clippers in 1850s, 154; build clipper schooners in 1890s, 207-08, 208; build composite ships, 144; builders of Black Prince, 220-21; Acasta, 106-07; of Nicoya and Herrandura, 228, 250; of Reindeer (1863), 150; of packets, 80; of Schomberg, 138, 193-96; of Scottish Maid, 99; of Sobraon, 196, 249-50; of other ships, 51, 205, 218, 221, 225, 249-53, 257, 265; building costs compared, 84, 114; car- penter's tonnage formula, 25; comparison of their clippers, 108 et seq, 176-82; copies of their Aberdeen bow, 115-21; diagonal con- struction, 23, 140-41, 180-81, 217, 281; diagram comparing clipper and traditional hulls, 106; evasion of tonnage laws with clipper bow, 98, 99-100, 106-07, 114-15; their half-models, 102-04, 176; hollow lines, 102, 104; list of non-clipper ships, 108-09; list of ships built by diagonal construction, 140; list of ships built 1811-75, 274-80; launch problems of ships with sharp bottoms, 178, 182; list of 36 vessels built with Aberdeen bow, 117; models and plans burnt, 104, 176; offer to build auxiliary steamer, 222; offer to build Samoa, 250-52; port side of half-model, 20; raking stem rabbet a success, 100, 270; tank tests, 104, 104-05; windlass, 147; see also ships by name. Hall, Henry, 95, 97 Hall, James, 79, 100, 104, 116, 134, 144, 222, 251 Hall, James and William, managed A Hall & Sons, 94, 250; visit Liverpool to secure orders, 193-94 Hall, Ross & Co, shipowners, 248 Hall, Russell & Co, 244, 289 Hall, William, 99, 100, 104, 116, 134, 181; disliked a hollow entrance, 114; patented screw treenails, 206 Hallowe'en, ship, 253; fast passages, 258; clipper status, 254, 258; at Sydney, 259 Handyside & Co, 164 Handyside & Henderson, 172 Hannah More, brig, costs, 274-75 Hannibal, ship, 181; costs, 272 Hanscomb, Samuel, jnr, shipbuilder, 185 Harbinger, ship, 262 Harlaw, ship, described, 231 Harmonie, Danish brigantine, 116 Harmony (1823), cutter, costs, 275; sail plan, 82 Harmony (1834), brig, costs, 275 Harmony (1838), brig, costs, 276 Harratt, Charles, shipbuilder, 141 Harrier (1816), schooner, 68 Harriet, cutter yacht, 89 Harriet (1834), schooner, 83 Harriet Armitage, barque, costs, 83, 277 Harvey, Thomas, & Son, shipbuilders, 61, 212, 213 Hawk, schooner, costs, 275 HMS Hawke, cutter, 27 Hay, John, shipowner, 233 Heard, Joseph, artist, 130, 221 Heathcote, shipyard manager, 199 Heaton, Capt G H, 157 Hebe, Norwegian ship, lines and sail plan, 206 Hector, Alexander, owned the Caliph, 257 Hedderwick's 500-ton ship, sail plan, 63, 109 Hedderwick, Peter, designer of Leith smack, 17, 79, 80, 82; evidence before Select Committee, 79, 82; naval architect and author, 18; sail plan of 500-ton ship, 63; ship curves, 19; submits plan of cutter, 60 Helen Black, barque, costs, 279 Helen Nicholson, ship, described, 225; listed 225 HMS Helena (1778), schooner, hull-form, 31; lines plan, 30; measurements, 29-31; sail plan, 30, 31-32; spar dimensions, 31-32 Helena (1841), American ship, 123, 123 Helena Mena, barque, 146 Helens and Eleonora, schooner, costs, 275 Hellas, brigantine, 86; bought for opium trade, 84, 85, 95; rig described, 76, 86 Hely, F G, artist, 91, 94 Henderson, Capt Andrew, builds with com- posite construction, 142; designer of Kelpie, 91; of Waterwitch, 91, names of ships designed, 91 Henderson, James, draws new lines plan of Cairngorm, 178, 179; draws lines plan of Thermopylae, 243, 244-45; draws line plans of Ann Duthie, 230; makes model of Storno- way, 154, 154, 177; model of Vision, 180; reconstructs sail plans, 111, 114; research into Aberdeen clippers, 102, 104; research on John Williams, 252; on Schomberg, 194; takes Lines off half-models, 158, 182, 229 Henderson, Patrick, shipowner, 172 Henriequetta, slaver brig, 87 Henry Moore, ship, 134 Henslowe, Sir John, surveyor to the Navy, 52 Herald, ship, 233 Hero, schooner, 107; costs, 276 Heroes of Alma, ship, 140 Heroine, schooner, 107; costs, 276 Herradura, ship, built for coffee trade, 228; costs, 279; hull-form, 250 Hickson, R, & Co, builders of Mary Stenhouse, 134; of Norah Greame, 134 Highflyer, ship, described, 226; listed, 225 Hilhouse Collection of Plans, 28, 38, 47, 66-68 Hilhouse, George, 28, 47 Hilhouse, Hill & Co, successors to J M Hil- house, 47 Hilhouse, J M, builder of 'Beal's Schooner', 68; of Charlotte, 48; of 'Cunningham schooner', 48; of Flying Fish, 48; of Harrier, 68; of Maris, 32-33; of Post Office packet, 47-48, 53, 55, 58, 68; of Rebecca, 48; of Renown, 137; of Sappho, 66-68; of steep- floored schooners, 66-68, 68; collects plans, 28, 38; design of privateer, 33-34; list of vessels built, 48 Hill, Charles, & Sons, 33, 47 Hill, John C G, 49 Hill, Laurence, & Co, builders of Pride of Canada, 165 Hillmann, G, draughtsman, 111, 185, 188, 204, 210; copying plans, 205 History of Naval Architecture (Fincham), 19, 51 Hoang Ho, clipper, 227 Hodgson, James, shipbuilder, 122, 166 Hoksitika, barque, costs, 279 Holland, composite construction liked, 162 Hollow, lines, 18, 112-14; entrance in Jupiter, 42-43; lines, 166, 168, 174 Holmsdale, ship, 138 Honduras, takes first gold from Melbourne, 157 Hood, Walter, drowned, 247 Hood, Walter, & Co, absence of models and plans, 116, 159, 230; builder of named ships, 150, 159, 162; builds clippers, 218, 245; builds Thermopylae, 242, 244-45; description of vessels built with Aberdeen bow, 115-17; three of his clippers com- pared, 116-17; roller reefing gear, 149 Hope (1843), brig, costs, 276 SS Hope (1873), ship, costs, 279 Horsfall & Co, shipowners, 135 SS Ho-Sho-Maru, barque, costs, 279 Hotham, Capt Henry, 37 Hotspur, ship, 147 House of Commons, Select Committee, 60-61, 79, 81-82; Parliamentary Papers, 184 Howden, ship, 134 Howes, Capt F, double topsails, 149-50, 210 Howland & Aspinall, shipowners, 124 Huggins, W J, artist, 72, 83, 90 Hull, Maritime Museum, 47 Hull-form, American schooners and British cutters compared, 28; Aberdeen clippers, 99-102. 113-14; Baltimore clippers described, 38-39; basic types after 1860 for smaller vessels, 263; cutters, 29; eighteenth century described, 42; clippers built by McKay, 189; Hall described by designer, 44-45, 182, 190, 194; hollow lines, 42-43, 102, 104, 124, 166, 170; influenced by ships having to take the ground, 44, 51, 79, 263, 267; influence of cutter, 92; iron clippers 1853-55, 160-64, 167-70; Jupiter described by her builders, 42-3; Leith and Berwick smacks, 79-82; pear-shaped mid- section, 36; privateers, 34-38; raking mid- section, 202, 212; raking stem rabbet, 109-10, 113-15, 24, 267; recommended by J W Griffiths for maximum speed, 24, 168; schooners in Britain after 1850, 207-08, 211-12, 214, 263-65,; shape affected by timber storage, 21-3; ships bought into Navy 1775-83, 40; steep deadrise makes launching difficult, 178, 182; Symondites, 89; see also Deadrise Humayon, ship, 109; costs, 276 Hume, Cyril, 245, 245, 249, 254 Huntress, three-masted schooner, 264 Hurricane, ship, 160, 161; Brown & Harfield windlass, 146, 162; compared with Storm Cloud, 162, 169-71; with other iron clippers, 160, 164-65, 197, 224; converted to auxliary screw, 162-63; cost, 160; deck layout, 162; earnings, 162; extreme clipper, 222; hull-form, 161, 200; iron construction absorbs little cargo space, 131; listed, 134; passages to Melbourne, 162; plans compared, 162; sail plan with pole masts, 161, 162, 171; speed, 163 Hutchins, William, 22 Hutchinson, William, author and mariner, 44-46 I SS Iberia, 148 Ibrahim, Visram, Bombay merchant, 239 Idea, half-model, 198 Ignis Fatuus, barque, 141 Illovo, ship, costs, 279 Illustrated London News, describes Cairngorm, 178; describes Gauntlet, 163; describes James Booth, 158; describes Phoenician, 117; describes SS Royal Charter, 149; describes Cimber, 206; engravings of Flying Dragon, 183; engraving of Speedy, 197; describes Marco Polo, 187; engraving of Taeping, 233, 238 Illustrated Times, 196 HMS Immortalite, frigate, 37 HMS Imperieuse, steam frigate, 15, 232 Inch, Philip, draughtsman, 55 Indagador, spanish slaver, 94 India, shipbuilding, in, 94; trade restrictions lifted, 65 India, barque, 146 India Office Library, 64 Indian Chief, ship, 151 Indianer, barque, 111 Inglis, A & J, builders of Norman Court, 255, 256; built engines for SS Sea King, 222 Inglis, Capt W, 220-21 Institution of Naval Architects, 84, 135, 202, 206 Inverness and Cromarty Packet, smack, costs, 274 SS Invincible, listed, 198 SS Iris, 107; costs, 276 Iron Duke, 132 Iron, ballast, 81, 227, 240, 256, 265; corro- sive action of copper, 144; used as struc- tural members in wooden ships, 24, 148-51, 137; see also Spars Iron ships, fouling and anti-fouling, 131-32; greater cargo capacity, 131; of sailing ships over 900 tons listed, 134; size increases after 1860, 135 Iron shipbuilding, advantages and dis- advantages, 130-32; boom years 135; costs of, 130; concentration on vessels of over 100 tons, 134; comparison of ships built at Warrington, 135, 198-201; construction of Richard Cobden, 122; Lloyd's Register rules, 132-34; longitudinal system, 133; shell expansion plan, 132; skills required in its infancy, 130; speed of construction, 199; sharp schooners, 23; survivals encourage it, 142-43; weight of metal hull, 199 Irt, barque, cost of, 78 Isis, three-masted schooner, 141 J Jack Tar, brig, costs, 275 Jackass barques, Matchless, 204, 205; Ziba, 205 HMS Jackdaw, schooner, 85, 85-86 James, schooner, costs, 275 James, William, naval historian, 37 James Livesey, ship, 134 James Matheson, ship, 96 James Pilkington, ship, 134 James Baines, American-built ship, 191; listed, 139; hull-form, 189; 100-feet mainyard, 196; speed, 190 James Booth, ship, 158, 158 Jane Leech, ship, 198 Janette, iron schooner, 267; plan, 269 SS Jardine, schooner, costs, 275 Jardine, Matheson & Co, owners of Anonyma, 93, of Cairngorm, 178-79, of Falcon (1824), 74, 75 Jason, ship, 258 Jean Steuart, brig, costs, 275 Jeanne Richard, French privateer, 48 Jhelum, construction of interior, 137 SS Jho-Sho-Maru, barque, 251; costs, 279 John Bell, ship, an extreme clipper, 172, 222; arrival in Tasmania, 190; beam-to-length ratio, 164; compared with Tempest, 186, converted into steamer, 172; hull-form, 169-70; listed, 134, 169; long mainyard, 196 John Bright, schooner, 123 John Bunyan, ship, 116-17, 159; passages, 117 John Campbell, ship, 166 John Garrow, ship, 132 John Gilpin, brig, 91 John Knox, barque, 159 John Lidgett, ship, cost of, 144; quickly built, 144; sail plan, 150 John Nicholson, ship, 173, 176 John o'Gaunt, ship, 95-96, 178 'John o'Gaunt', provisional name for Norman Court, 255 John Pirie, schooner, costs, 275 John R. Worcester, ship, 229; described, 228; designed by Rennie, 167, 220, 228; passage, 228-29 John Taylor, ship, 141, 181; costs, 277 John Walker, smack, costs, 278 John Wesley, barquentine, 251, 265; costs, 279 John Williams (1865), barque, 250-51; costs, 278 John Williams, ex Samoa (1868), barque, 252; compared with Mansfield, 252; hull-form, 252-53; spar and rigging plan, 251-53; per- formance, 251-52; dimensions, 251; scantlings, 253 Johnson, John, shipbuilder, 166 Joly (1776), French slaver, 35; hull-form, 36-37 Jones, Calvert, photographer, 25, 89 Jones, Josiah, jnr, builder of Aphrodita, 134, 150; of Khimjee Oodowjee, 134; names of ships built, 135 Jones, Palmer, & Co, shipowners, 199 Jones, Quiggin & Co, builder of Andromeda, 161; employ steam power aboard, 224; names of ships built, 135 Jordan v Moore, 145-46 Jordan, George, royalties for composite con- struction, 145-146 Jordan & Getty, builders of Evangeline, 134; names of composite ships built and costs, 142; shipyard, 142 Jordan, Henry, royalties for composite con- struction, 145-46 Jordan, John, shipbuilder, patent for composite construction, 141-45; lecture, 143; royalties on his patent, 144-45 Joseph, smack, costs, 275 Joseph Fletcher, ship, 154 Josephine, specification, 135 Joy, William, artist, 61 Juan de la Vega, brigantine, described, 253, 253; costs, 279 Jubilee, ship, described, 201-02 Julia, ship, compared with Chrysolite, 182; costs, 277 SS Juno, schooner, costs, 277 Jupiter, ship, 43; compared with clippers, 43-44; compared with Venus, 47; described by builder, 42-43; designed by arcs of circles, 44, 52; hull-form, 43-44, 58; speed- length ratio, 20 K Kagosima, ship, 149 Kaisow, ship, listed, 234; hull-form, 234 Kashgar, ex John Williams, ex Samoa, 252 Kate Carnie, ship, listed, 234 Keay, Captain, master of Ariel, 235, 239 Keel for tonnage, defined, 283 Kelly, W, builder of Teazer, 208, 214 Kelpie, captured 1836, ex-slaver, 91 Kelpie (1842), designed by Henderson, 91; hull-form, 91 Kelpie (1855), barquentine, costs, 277 Kelvinhaugh, Stephen opens shipyard, 181 Kelso (1855), ship, 183, 233 Kelso (1861), ship, 233 Kelso, John R, names of his tea clippers, 233; owner of Maitland, 231-33 Kemp, Dixon, pear-shaped curves, 109 Kennard & Williamson, shipbuilders, 97 Ketches, 144, 157; square-rigged, 50, 52 Kettle bottom hull, 242, 253 Khimjee Oodowjee, ship, 134 Kierkegaard, N C, folio of plans, 136, 267 Killick, Capt James, 197, 218, 224 Killick, Martin & Co, shipowners, 218, 233-34 King, shipbuilder, 29 King and Queen Dock, Rotherhithe, 189 King Arthur, ship, 234 King of Tyre, schooner, 82, 83-86 King William, Leith smack, 81 Kipping, Robert, author, 148-49 Kirkaldy & London Shipping Co, 63 Kirkham, ship, 134 Kitta Wake, schooner yacht, 181; costs, 278 Kitty, slaver, 14 Knight Errant, ship, 134 Knowles, John, 18, 25 Koh-i-noor, mentioned, 141 Kortum, Karl, 147 Kosciusko, ship, sail plan, 150 SS Kwang Tung, 251; costs, 279 Kyd, J, & Co, shipbuilders, 91 L La Hogue, ship, 138 PS La Perlita, listed, 198 La Vengeance, French privateer, 37 Lady Clarke, ship, 157 Lady Grant, opium clipper, 94 Lady Hamond, Bermudian sloop, hull-form, 28, 28 Lady Hood McKenzie, brig, costs, 274 Lady Octavia, ship, listed, 134, 198, 201; speci- fication, 135, 200 Lady Saltoun (1817), sloop, 274 Lady Saltoun (1854), brig, 208 Lady William Bentinck, pilot brig, 94 Labloo, ship, listed, 234 Laing, J, builder of Dunbar, Duncan Dunbar and La Hogue, 138 Laird, John, builder of Dove, 23; of Kirkham, 134, of Ma Lucy, 148; of Proto, 118; of William Fairbairn, 134 Lammermuir, claim to clipper status, 183, 234; race with Cairngorm, 179 Lamport, Charles, ships he built listed and des- cribed, 201-02, 201 Lancaster Museum, model of Thetis, 13, 34 Lang, Oliver, naval architect, 186, 192, 254 HMS Lapwing, captures slaver, 58 Lardner, Dr D, 168 Largest wooden merchant sailing ship built in UK, 186 Lark, taken into Danish Navy 1790, three- masted lugger, 53 HMS Lark class (1829-30), cutters, 85 Larken, ex Lark, taken into Danish Navy 1790, lugger, 53 Lattery, smuggler, 68 Lauderdale, ship, 142 Laurence, Hill & Co, builder of Pride of Canada, 134 Lavinia, jackass barque, 204 Lawrie, J G, builder of Leander, 242 Le Couveur (1775), French lugger, 53; plan, 53 Le Havre, ship entering under sail, 271 Leander, ship, 242; candidate for identification, 239; compared with Thermopylae, 244-47; with other ships, 241-42; one of six fastest tea clippers, 234; plans of, 244-45; roller- reefing topgallant, 149, 242; hull-form, 242-43; dimensions, 244; sail plan, 247 Leech, John, shipowner, 198 Liechardt, ship, 181; costs, 277 Leith & London Shipping Co., 82, 106 Leith smack of 173 tons, 79, 80; designed by Hedderwick, 79-82; hull-form, 79, 80; sail and rigging plan, 80-81; speed-length ratio, 80 Leith smacks, Comet, 79-80; compromise design, 79; Matchless, 80; Queen Charlotte, 80, 81; reasons for construction in south- west England, 81-82; replaced by schooners, 82, 99 Les Huits Amis, French privateer; hull-form, 37 Leslie, G, shipowner, 159 Lever, Darcy, author, 47 Lewes, barque, 121 Lidgett, John, & Co, order composite ship, 143-44 Light Brigade, ex Ocean Telegraph, American ship, 183 SS Light of the River, 135 Lightning (1841), schooner, 107; costs, 276 Lightning (1852), schooner, 212 Lightning (1854), American-built ship, 189, 190; deck layout and sail plan, 190, famous Captain, 114; fast passages, 191-92; hollow bow filled in, 186; hull-form, 189-90, 194; listed, 139; model, 215; prismatic coef- ficient, 20; probable sail plan, 190; speed, 190; speed-length ratio, 163 SS Lily, costs, 279 Lindsay, W S, 152, 209, 239 Linton, Hercules, designer of Cutty Sark, 254 L'Intrepide (c1800), French privateer, hull-form, 36, 36-37, 53, 71 L'Invention (1801), French privateer, captured, 37, 38; dimensions, 37; hull-form, 38; sail plan, 37, 37, 38 Lisslie, H W, collection of plans, 263, 264 List, builder of Falcon, 71-73 Little Lucy, steamer, 135 Little Western, steamer, 142 Lively, sloop, costs, 274 Liverpool, mail packet pictured at, 49; privateers fitted out, 15; shipbuilding at, 147, 187-89; wet dock in use pre-1800, 44 Liverpool Compass Committee, 199 Liverpool Museum, model of Salamis, 263; of Scawfell, 201; of Vision, 180, 205; painting of Rapido, 207 Liverpool Standard, describes Tayleur, 199 Liverpool Underwriters' Association, 133, 160 Liverpooliana, ship, 198-200 Livestock, carried on Marco Polo, 211 Livingstone, Dr, 135 Lizzie Webber, brig, 183 Llewellyn, shipowner, 67 Lloyd's Register (annual volumes), describes ship as 'sharp', 83 Lloyd's Register of Shipping, composite con- struction, 143-44; describe composite ships as experimental, 144; many iron ships not classified, 133, 135; model of ship mislaid, 141; rules for building iron ships, 132-34; rules for wood shipbuilding, 135-36; rules for composite ships, 144; survey reports, 122; survey reports for Ariel and Titania, 236-37; reclassify Titania, 238; surveyor of Aberdeen describes clippers, 112; surveys first iron vessel, 132; Thermopylae's sail plan, 247; Visitation Committee, 126, 132-33, 143 Loch Awe, ship, 253 Loch Garry, ship, 250 Loch Ness, ship, 253 Loch Tay, ship, 253 Loch Vennachar, ship, 250 Lodore, ship, 201 Log of the 'Cutty Sark' (Lubbock), 239 London (1770), American ship, 40 London (1817), East Indiaman, 66, 66 London (1840), schooner, 101, 107; costs, 276 London, shipbuilding at, 25, 67, 156-57, 219-20 London & Edinburgh Shipping Co, 99, 103 London and Leith Smack and Steam-Yacht Guide (1824), 81 London & Liverpool Shipping Co, 118 London Missionary Society, orders ships from A Hall & Sons, 250-53; renames new ship, 251 London & Waterford Shipping Association, 84 Longboat, made of iron, 124; on rollers, 180 Lord of the Isles, (1853), ship, 164; compared with Hurricane, 161, 163, 165; fast passage to Sydney, 164; plans published, 159; speed, 164; speed-length ratio, 163 Lord of the Isles (1869), barquentine, 266 Lord Saumerez, brig, 88 Lord Western, barque, 109; costs, 276 Lothair, ship, clipper status, 253 Louisa (1834), brig, 88 Louisa (1858), schooner, 141 Lowther Castle, East Indiaman, 63 Lubbock, Basil, author of China Clippers, 218, 236; compares 3- and 4-masted ships, 262; describes Cairnsmore, 165; lists Blackwall frigates, 137; lists ships built in 1869, 253; on double topgallants, 150; on Maitland, 232-33; on ships in China and opium trades, 40, 74, 91, 95; plan of Fiery Cross (1855), 166; plan of Lord of the Isles, 159; sail plan of Spindrift, 241; source material for China clippers, 218, 241, 245, 254, 256; quoted, 226; letters to MacCunn, 234-235, 239; royal masts, 250 Lufra, ship, costs, 279 Luggers, experimental, 52; French, 32, 39, 54, 55; long in proportion to breadth, 52; three-masted used for smuggling and priva- teering, 53, 53 Lund, William, shipowner, 263 Lungley, Charles, shipbuilder, 161-62 Lyman, John, comment on cutter-built, 29; finds plan of cutter brig, 29; on tonnage measurement, 104 HMS Lyme, 24-gun ship, 28 Lynn, John engraver, 84 Lynx, Baltimore clipper, 40 M Ma Roberts, 135 McCalmont, shipowner, 121 McCatcheau, Capt, 88 McClellan, Capt, 225 MacCunn, James, names of tea clippers owned, 234; letters to Lubbock on clipper ship design, 234-35, 239; John Willis com- mented on, 254 McDiarmid & Greenshields, shipowners, 234 MacDonnell, Capt Charles, 188 MacDuff, ship, costs, 278 Macfarlane, J G, shipowner, 172 McGee, Paddy, 187 McGill, J Edward, aprentice, 248 Macintyre, L H, & Co, shipowners, 142-43 McKay, Donald, apprenticed, 123; builds clippers for Baines, 189, 193-94; names of ships built, 184, 211; shipbuilder's yard, 139 Mackinnon, Frew & Co, shipowners, 242 McLean Museum, Greenock, 234 MacLean, Duncan, seaman-journalist, 136 McMillan, A, & Son, shipbuilders, 260, 263 McMinnis, partner in Robertson & Co, 221-22 Macquarie, ex Melbourne, 261, 262; clipper, 242; sail plan, 261 McTear, Thomas, shipowner, 114 Madge Wildfire, ship, 148 Magnus Troil, schooner, costs, 275 Maid of Aln, schooner, costs, 276 Maid of Judah, ship, 159 Mail packets, clippers supersede steamers in Crimean War, 215; see also Post Office Packets Maitland (1851), ship, 233 Maitland (1865), ship, 231, 232; compared with Ariel, 231-32; brace winch, 151, 232-33, 246; compared with William le Lacheur, 220; deck layout, 221, 232; fast passages, 231; half-model, 183, 231; hull- form, 232; iron and steel spars, 233; plans now complete, 231; sail plan, 232-33, 241; speed, 232; stunsails compared with Titania, 239; Undine similar, 232; spar dimensions, 232-247 Malek-Adhel, American brig lines and sail plans, 88 Manchester, barque, 87 Mangles, ship, 96 Mansfield, barque, hull-form, 174; hull-form compared with John Williams, 225, 252; listed, 173, 225 Manuel Llanguno, American ship, 250 Manuela, ex Sunny South, captured, 168 Marchioness of Salisbury, Post Office packet brig, 59; bought by Royal Navy and renamed Nightingale, 59; compared with Neilson, 69; with St. Helena, 59; hull-form and deck layout, 59; mentioned, 50; pas- sages, 59 Marco Polo, ship, 186, 187; compared with Storm Cloud, 172; design not copied in Britain, 186; deck fittings, 187-88; hull- form, 187, 211; speed, 190; passages, 187-89; passengers, 188 Mare, Charles & Co, 122, 134 Margaret Deane, ship, 166; hull-form, 166 Marine Investment Co, shipbuilders, 228 Marine Models, 64 Mariner's Mirror, cutter-brigs, 29; Leith smacks, 81; painting of John Knox, 159; plan of Vision, 179; 'Speed under Sail', 190; 'The World's First Clipper', 102 Mariner's Museum, Newport News; model of Marco Polo, 186 Marion, barque, 141, 181; costs, 277 Marion Macintyre, barque, 142, 142-43 Marlborough, ship, 137 Marmion, schooner, costs, 275 Marpesia, ship, 150 Marquand & de la Mare, shipbuilders, 204 Mars, privateer, armament and hull-form, 32-33 Marshall, George, builder and owners, 138, 143 Marshall, John, draughtsman, 55 Martaban, ship, described, 201 Martha, schooner, 84, 84 Martin, J H, surveyor, 133 Martinet, schooner, costs, 278 Mary, (1818), brig, 62, 68-70 Mary, (1820), sloop, costs, 275 Mary, (1858), barque, costs, 278 Mary and Ann, barque, costs, 275 Mary Anne Bruford, barque, 264 Mary Moore, ship, 151 Mary Stenhouse, ship, 134 Massey's log, 164 Masts, see Spars Matchless (1810), Leith smack, 79, 80, 82 Matchless (1846), schooner, 107; costs, 277 Matchless (1859), barquetta, 204, 205 Matheson, Alexander, 74 Matilda, brigantine, costs, 275 Matilda Wattenbach, ship, 138 Maudslay, Joseph, shipbuilder, 85, 202 Maudslay, Son & Field, shipbuilders, 258 Mauritius, trade with, 87-88 Maury, M F, 125, 214 Maypo (1829), barque, hull-form and offsets, 77 Maxton, Capt Peter, 164 May queen, ship, costs, 279 Mechanic's Magazine, 17, 23, 51-2, 142 Medea, ship, 258 Mediator, Bermudian sloop, 27-28 Medina, ship, 140 Mediterranean, fruit trade, 211, 212, 214 Medora, ex Liverpooliana, ship, 198 Melbourn (1847), ship, 160 Melbourne (1875), ship, described, 242; sail plan, 261 Melville, James R, naval architect, 244 Memorials of Royal Yacht Squadron, 73 Mendora, brig, costs, 276 Mercantile Navy Improved, 62 Merchant Sailing Ships 1775-1815 (MacGregor), 47 Merchant Sailing ships 1815-1850 (MacGregor) 76, 98 Merchant Sailing Ships 1850-1875 (MacGregor) 263 Mermaid, pilot brig, 94 Mermerus, ship, 260, 261; compared with Cutty Sark, 259; with other Barclay, Curle ships, 230, 253, 258-61; deck layout, 260-61; double topgallants, 150, 261; example of large iron clipper, 258; hull-form, 259; hull- form compared with Sobraon, 250; sail plan and rigging details, 261-62 Merse, ship, 254 Metero, schooner, 270 Miako, barque, 233 Midas, Baltimore schooner, 40 Middlemist, Capt 74 Midship section, importance in hull design, 19-20, 38, 53 Miles Barton, Canadian ship, 192 Millar, Capt W, 84 Miller, W C, shipbuilder, 134 Miller and Thompson, shipowners, 192 Mimosa, ship, 179; costs, 277 Min, ship, 221, 234; hull-form, 234 Minerva (1813), brig, costs, 274 Minerva (1838), brig costs, 276 Minstrel Boy, brig, 83, 83 Mirage, ship, 183 PS Mirage, steamer at Shanghai, 218 Mirzapore, ship, 226 Missionary ships, 267-70 Mosfussilite, ship, described, 226-27 Monarch, ship (1840) or barque (1844), 95-96 Monarch (1844), ship, Blackwall frigate, 137 Money, Wigram & Son, 239 Monkey forecastle, 237 Monkey poop, 237 Monsoon, ship, 161 Montauk, American ship, 123, 124 Monthly Nautical Magazine (New York), 177 Montrose, ship, 150 Moonsails, see Sails, moonsails Moore, Charles & Co, shipowners, 199 Moore, G S, shipbuilder, 145 Moore, H, shipowner, 222 Moorsom, George, America adopts his system, 154; book on history of tonnage, 97; com- pares capacity of wood and iron ships, 131; describes a barque, 121; his proposals for tonnage measurement, 151; his tonnage system, 23, 98, 151-52; on 1821 tonnage recommendations, 25 Morgan, William, editor, 17 Morning Light, Canadian ship, 139 Morning Star, ship, Canadian, 2 (frontispiece) Moseley, Ebenezer, shipbuilder, 116 Mosquito, iron yacht, 122 Moulded breadth, defined, 283-8 Mountain Maid, brig, 107, 114; costs, 276 Mountaineer, brig, costs, 275 Munro, George, shipowner, 101 Munro, G W, 64 Murray, Andrew, 133; diagonal construction, 140; reproduces plan of Lord of the Isles, 159; reproduces plan of Schomberg, 194-5; reproduces section of Vision, 181 Murray, Mungo, 15, 52 Museum of Applied Science, Melbourne, 245 HMS Musquidobit, ex Lynx, ex-privateer, 39, 40 Mystery (1841), iron yacht, 122 Mystery, ex Retriever (1855), barque, 198 N Naga, steamer, 91 Nairac, Elize, shipowner, 36, 37 Napier, Robert, shipbuilder, 133, 155, 221 Napier, W, artist, 224, 225 Napoleonic Wars, 24, 27, 56, 67 Natal Star, ship, costs, 278 Natchez, American ship, 124 National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, draw- ings and paintings examined at, 91; Lisslie plans, 263; Lloyd's Register survey reports, 111, 241, 247; model with Aberdeen bow cost, 113-14; model of Fling, 212; painting of Hurricane, 162; painting of Mermerus, 261; plans examined at, 26-27, 56, 59, 62, 63, 76, 89, 93, 150; plans of Denny's ships, 119, 207; plans of Leander and Thermopylae, 244-45; preservation of Admiralty draughts, 37 National Watercraft Collection, 27 Nautical Magazine, 148 Nautical Photo Agency, 194 Nautilus (1762), ship, privateer, 32; hull-form, 32 Nautilus (1815), brig, costs, 274 Nautilus (by c1827), cutter yacht, 73 Nautilus (c1840-50), steamer, 91 Naval architects, rise of, 121, 270; see under individual names Naval architecture, books on, 15, 270; in eigh- teenth century, 15-18; see also Design, Hull-form Naval Architecture (Stalkartt), 16, 17 Naval Science, 218 Navigation Acts, repeal of, 129, 153-54, 184; see also Acts of Parliament Neath Abbey Iron Co, builders of Ellen Bates, 134 Neilson, brig, 68, 70; compared with Dash, 75, 76; deck layout, 69-70; hull-form, 68-69; list of spar dimensions, 69; sail and rigging plans, 69-71; style of plans, 62 Nelson, ship, 148 Nelson, T, & Co, shipowners, 212 Neptune, schooner, 198 New York Tribue, 184 New Zealand Shipping Co, 172 Newall, Robert S, wire rigging, 148 Nicholas, brig, costs, 274 Nicholson, Benjamin, collects grandfather's half-models and paintings, 174-75, 225 Nicholson, Benjamin E, (d1913), builder of Mansfield, 225; designs extreme clippers, 172-74, 270; his ships described, 172-76; list of ships built, 173; took charge at ship- yard, 173 Nicholson, John, shipbuilder, 173 Nicholson, John & Co, builders and owners, 172, 175 Nicholson & McGill, shipowners, 173 Nicol, Alexander, shipowner, 101 Nicoya, ship, 228, 250; costs, 278 Nightingale, ex Marchioness of Salisbury (1816), brig, 59 Nightingale (1851), American ship, 184, 185; deadrise, 179 Noble, Capt., 199 Nonpareil, Baltimore schooner, extreme model, 390; prismatic coefficient, 20 Non-Such (non-such), schooner, 100, 101, 105; costs, 276; deck plan, 101; half-model, 103; listed, 107; passages, 106; replaces Leith smacks, 82, 107; sail plan, 102 Norah Greame, ship, 134 Norman Court, ship, 256, 257; deck layout, 256-58; dimensions, 223, 258; designed by Rennie, 157, 220; extreme clipper, 253, 255; Rennie's lines plan, 255-56, steering gear, 246; young captain, 234 Normand, Augustin, shipbuilder, 243 Norna, ship, 183 North British Daily Mail, describes Storm Cloud, 167-68 North Star, ship, 107, 113; costs, 277 Norway, Arthur H, author, 48 Nourse, James, shipowner, 226 Novidade, ex Electric Telegraph, 121 Nymph, opium clipper, 94 O Oak, brig, costs, 274 Oberon, brigantine, 76-78 Observations on Naval Architecture, 73 Ocean Bride, schooner, 214 Ocean Mail, ship, costs, 278 Ocean Queen, barque, 117, 117-18 Ocean Telegraph, American ship, 183 Oceanography, its contribution, 237 Offsets, plans drawn from, 49, 77, 244 Old England, ship, privateer, 32 Oliver Cromwell, ship, 186, 192 Oliver Lang, Canadian ship, 186, 192 Olivier van Noord, Dutch ship, 148 Omar Pasha, ship, 138; described, 159 On the Stowage of Ships and Their Cargoes, (Stevens), quoted, 212 Opium clippers, American influence in design, 40, 91; built by A. Hall & Sons, 106, 207, 209; described, 23, 90-95; Falcon (1824), 74; fruiters bought, 85-86; rig of, 85, 98, 99 Opium Clippers (Lubbock), 106 Opium trade, 90-95 Orange, brig, costs, 274 Orange Grove, barque; deck layout compared with Ariel, 259; described, 226; listed, 225 Oribe, barque, costs, 277 Orient, ship, construction, 141 Oriental, American ship, 126; lines taken off in London, 126, 183; passage from China, 117, 126, 154 Orlando, brig, costs, 275 Orwell, ship, 138 Osaka, barque, 233 Osborn, schooner, costs, 275 Osprey, schooner, 214 Osprey, smack, costs, 275 Osprey, yacht, 74 Outline of Ship Building (Fincham), 15-17, 116 Overend, Gurney & Co, 183 P P & O (Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navi- gation Co), 164 Pacific Steam Navigation Co (PSNCo), 222 Packet Ships, for East India Company, 55; trans-Atlantic, 66, 123 Pagoda Anchorage, Foochow, 216 Palladium, brig, costs, 275 Palmer, Miss Sarah, 199-200 Panama, American ship, 123 Pantaloon, brig, 88 Papers on Naval Architecture, 17, 73 Pareora ex White Eagle, 170, 172 Parga, schooner, 83, 83 Paris, Adml Edmon, 53, 245, 247 Paris Exhibition 1855, 183 Park Bros, shipowners; 234 SS Parramatta, 166 Parsons, William, naval architect, 151 Passages, Azores fruit trade, 212; record from China to New York, 125; Brazil to Liver- pool, 122; by Falmouth packets, 49, 59; 'Great Ocean Regatta', 191; to and from Australia in 1850s, 162, 164, 172, 188-89, 191; record from Macao to Liverpool, 202; to Australia, 162; passages to and from China in 1830s, 96, 97; before 1845, 95-97; in 1850s, 167, 175, 179; in 1860s, 218, 239; to Melbourne by Hurricane, 162; Virginia's trans-Atlantic, 123 Passengers, aboard Post Office packets, 81; aboard St. Helena, 57; accommodation Marco Polo, 187-88 Patriarch, ship, clipper status, 253; pole masts, 162 Patricia, barque, 140 Patten, J Wilson, 198 Patton, John, shipowner, 228, 229 SS Paul Jones, tug, 113; costs, 275 Paulista de Carioca, French ship, 243 Peabody Museum, Salem, 136 Peacock & Buchan, 132 Peake, Sir Henry, naval architect, 39, 52, 59 Pearl (1820), cutter yacht, 61, 73 HMS Pearl (1828), sloop, 61 Pearse, M, shipbuilder, 135 Pegasus, ship, costs, 278 Peile, Scott & Co, 202; builders of Banian, 201; of Camertonian, 126 HMS Pelorus, brig, 86 Pera (1831), schooner, 84 Pera (1843), schooner, 105; costs, 276; listed, 107; sail plan, 102, 102 Peri, schooner, 213; hull-form, 212; sail plan, 212, 213 Persian, schooner-brigantine, 214 Peruvian, barque, 109; costs, 277 Petersen, Jacob, artist, 75, 76 Petropolis, French clipper ship, 243 Phillips, Shaw & Lowther, shipowners, 157, 234, 235 Philort, sloop, costs, 274 Philosopher, ship, 134, 135 Phipps, John, author, 94 Phoenician, barque, 117; carries gold, 157; comapred with other ships, 116-17; dimensions compared, 116-17; hull details, 110, 117, 159; tonnage, 116, 117 Pike, Capt, 74 Pile, John, names of ships he built, 183, 203 Pile, John and William, few plans of their clip- pers, 182-83; shipbuilders, 183 Pile, Spence & Co, shipbuilders, 242, 183 Pile, William, builder of Ganges, 225; of Lammermuir, 179, 208; of Maitland, 231-33; of Rodney, 131, 263; names of ships he built, 183, 233, 255; builds clippers, 218, 233 Pilgrim, American brig, 231 Pilot boat, Virginia-built, 18, 42 Pilot brig, Bengal, 94 Pilot cutters, 179, 236; built at Bristol, 47 Pilot Fish, ship, 107; costs, 277; described, 111 Pinkney, D G, 148 HMS Pique, frigate, compared with Thermopylae, 247 Pitcher, shipbuilder, 65 HMS Pitt, cutter, 26 Planter, barque, 266 Plough, schooner, 23; costs, 274 Plover, ex Bentinck, survey ship, 94 Pocock, Nicholas, artist, 32, 33 Polly, brigantine, 277 Pook, Samuel, H, designed Red Jacket, 184, 191 Pope & Co, shipowners, 84 Port Fleetwood, schooner, 107; costs, 276 Port Jackson (1854), ship, 183 Portland, Duke of, 73, 89 Portland Shipbuilding Co, 166 Post Office packets, 14, 47-50, 59-61; accommodation on Holyhead route, 81; design of packets 79, 82; Duke of Marlborough, 49; example of cutter-build, 58; Hilhouse-built ship, 48, 49; Holyhead to Dublin, 79; Mail Packet off Liverpool, 49; Marchioness of Salisbury, 50, 59; organisation of packets, 48, 59; plan from Steel's offsets, 49, 50; 1793 design analysed, 48 Post Office packet of 179 tons, 49; example of cutter-build, 55, 58; hull-form, 48, 68; identification, 48 Potter, Alexander, 160 Potter, Lewis, 160 Potter, Wilson & Co, shipowners, 159-60 Pow & Fawcus, windlass makers, 146 Poyser, Capt F C, 193, 194 Present Imperfect State of British Naval Archi- tecture, 17 Preston (1823), brig, 70, 71 Pride of Canada, ship, 134, equipment, 165 Prince Alfred, barque, 141 Prince de Neuchatel, brigantine, 91; American privateer, 40 Prince of Wales, schooner, 106, 107; costs, 277 Prince of Waterloo, ship, costs, 274 Prince Regent, Royal yacht, 52 Prince Royal of Denmark's yacht, 16 Princess Augusta, Royal yacht, 52 SS Princess Louise, costs, 279 Princess Royal, schooner, costs, 277 Princeza, brig, 108; costs, 277 Prismatic Coefficient, explained, 20 Privateers, 13, 32-39; Alexander (rebuilt 1777), of Bristol, 32; Alexander (Science Museum model), 32, 33; characteristics of French 1795-1803, 37; Nautilus, 32; Old England, 32; Rackoon, 36; Ranger, 33; Thetis (by Brockbank), 34; Virginia-built, 16 Propellor, lifting-gear, 224 Proto, schooner, 118, 119; Aberdeen bow above waterline, 116, 118; hull-form, 118; compared with Scottish Maid, 118 Prowse, J, & Co, shipowners, 197 Psyche, ex Indagador, true brigantine, 92, 94 Pumps, insufficient number in a ship, 62 PS Punjaub, later The Tweed, 254 Punton, T W, & Son, mast makers, 233 Q Q.E.D., auxiliary barque, 148 PS Queen, steamer, 107; costs, 276 Queen Charlotte, Leith smack, 80, 81 Queen of Clippers, American ship, 139, 184 Queen of the Isles, barque, 119; costs, 276 Queen of the Tyne, schooner, 115 Queen of the West, schooner, 85, 212, 212 Queen Victoria, brigantine, costs, 275 Queensbury, ship, beam-to-length ratio, 164; compared with Annandale, 174-75; dimen- sions, 173; half-model missing, 174-75; hull- form, 179; painting of, 173, 174, 175; pas- sages and earnings, 175 R Rackoon, French corvette, 36, 68 Radiant, brig, costs, 275 Rainbow, American ship, 124 Rajmahal, ship, 138 Raking midsection, 226-27, 236 Raking stem, see Hull-form HMS Rambler (1796), cutter converted to brig, 29 Rambler (1841), schooner, costs, 276 Ranee, ex Cowasjee Jehangeer, under repair, 133 Ranger, privateer, 33 Rankin, Daniel, 165-66 Rankine, William, shipbuilder, 165 Rankine, Prof W J M, publishes plans, 135, 243 Ranterpike (rantipike), 85 Raphael (1846), barque, 121, 165 Raphael (1854), 158 Rapid (1833), schooner, 84; described, 84; fast passage to Mauritius, 87 Rapid (1842), schooner, her hull-form copied, 116; costs, 276; listed, 107; passages, 82, 106 Rapido, barque, 182 Rats, destruction of, 59 Rebecca (1791), cutter, 48 HMS Recruit (1846), iron brig, 122 Recruit (1857), schooner, costs, 278 Red Jacket, American ship, 191; earnings, 191; fast passages, 191; listed, 139; spar dimen- sions, 184 Red Riding Hood, ship, 142-43 Red Rover, opium clipper, 90, 94; passage as opium clipper, 91; source of design, 40, 91 Reed, J, shipbuilder, 138 Rees, Abraham, editor, 63, 64 Regina Maris, barquentine, 233 Registry, measurements pre-1836, 271; measurements by 1836 Act, 103, 272; measurements by 1854 Act, 273 Reid, John, & Co, builders of Antiope and Marpesia, 150; of Cairnsmore, 134, 165, 243; of Helen Nicholson, 225; of Vanguard, 165; of Weymouth, 204 Reindeer (1848), ship, 112, 113; compared with Bonita, 113, 114; with other ships, 116, 118, 166; costs, 114-15, 277; extreme raking stem, 108, 114, 130; half-model, 102, 114, 154, 176; hull-form, 113-14, 177; passages, 114 Reindeer (1863), ship, 144-45, 150; costs, 278; moonsail, 221; launch account, 225 Reliance, sloop, costs, 274 Rennie, George, engineer, 166 Rennie, Johnson & Co, shipbuilders, 166 Rennie, Johnson & Rankine, description of ships built, 166-67; firm founded, 166 Rennie & Marshall, naval architects, 167, 223 Rennie, William, builds at Aberdeen and in Canada, 121, 165; consulting naval architect, 270; designs Beraza and Raphael, 121, 166; designs Black Prince, 167, 220, 224; designs Earl of Eglinton, 186; designs Fiery Cross (1855), 166-67; designs Fiery Cross (1860), 219; designs Gauntlet, 165; designs John R. Worcester, 228; designs Margaret Deane, 166; designs Norman Court, 255-56; designs PS Parramatta, 167; designs SS Sea King, 222-24, 245; designs Strathmore, 167; designer's fee, 256; moves to London, 167; names of six ships designed in 1860s, 167, 220; partner in Rennie, Johnson & Rankine, 166; model of SS Sea King, 222, 222-23; remarks on hull-form of SS Sea King, 222-23; starts building in Liverpool, 166 Renown, ship, 121, 137 Resolution, later Shamrock (1805), 55, 56 Resolution (1818), brig, costs, 274 Resource, brig, costs, 276 Retriever, barque, 198, 200 Revenue cutters, 15; described, 53-55 Rhoda Mary, schooner, 268; hull-form, 263 Rialto, ship, 248 Richard Cobden, barque, 122, 123; hull-form, 122 Richardson, Duck & Co, shipbuilders, 135 Riddle, Edward, 97 SS Richmond, costs, 279 Rigging, lead of braces in 1870s, 261; old methods of leading braces persist, 177; rigging screws, 148; running topmast back- stay, 201; wire introduced, 148; stunsail running rigging, 261-62 Rigging and Seamanship (Steel), 45 Riley, Capt, 88 Rimac, brig, 78 Ritchie, Capt, 82, 106 Ritchie, J H, surveyor, 133, 143 Ritherdon & Thompson, naval architects, 258 Rob Roy, opium clipper, 94 Robert Bruce, Leith smack, 82 Robert Kirkwood, smack, costs, 279 Robert Miller, smack, costs, 279 Robertson, Capt John, 96, 178 Robertson, William, draughtsman to A Stephen & Sons, 144, 160, 171, 223 Robertson & Co, owners of SS Sea King, 221-22, 224 Robin Hood, ship, 182, beautiful half-model neglected, 182; compared with Cairngorm, 179; costs, 278; described, 182; dimensions, 176; half-model, 115, 134; hull-form and speed, 182; model for preliminary design, 182, 202 Robinson, R surveyor, 111 Rodger, A, names of six tea clippers owned, 234 Rodney, ship, 131; clipper status, 263 HMS Rolla, 10-gun brig, 39 Romanoff, ship, 250 Roseneath, ship, 151 Ross, William, shipowners, 248 Rotterdam Packet, cutter, 80; costs, 274 Round sterns, early use in India, 94; when first used, 94, 113 Rover, schooner, costs, 276 Row, Gilbert, designer of Stonehouse, 229 Roxburgh Castle, ship, 182 Royal Blue Jacket, schooner, 140 SS Royal Charter, auxiliary ship sail plan, described, 149-50 Royal George, Royal yacht, hull-form, 52 Royal Mail Steam Packet Co, 166 Royal Navy, adoption of new constructional methods, 22; builds two sharp schooners at New York, 38; buys cutters, 36; buys mer- chant ships, 13, 32, 40; buys Chesapeake sloop 1745, 27; fights slave trade, 14, 89-90; influence of yachts, 89; iron ships planked with wood, 132; plans of purchased vessels, 29; quantity of timber used in con- struction, 20; Sir William Symonds appointed Surveyor, 88-89 Royal Society, 22 Royal Sovereign, Royal yacht, described, 52; hull-form, 52; plans, 16, 52, 53 Royal Thames Yacht Club, 52 Royal Yachts, 23, 52-53 Royal Yacht Squadron, 71, 73 Rubens, ship, 158 Rudder, round-headed, 21 Rumford, Count, 16, 17 Russell, J Scott, on iron shipbuilding, 130, 133; wave form theory, 168; design of HMS Warrior, 243-44 Russell & Co, merchants, 74 Rustomjee Cowasjee, ship, 91 S Sail plans, Aberdeen schooners, 106; schooners 1860-75, 264-65; cutters, 26-28; early barquentine, 77-78; late-eighteenth century merchant ship reconstructed, 46-47, 46; Leith smack, 80-81; squarer plan evolving by 1850, 129, 247; Thermopylae's found, 247 Sailor's Word-Book, 28 Sails, crossjack omitted in 1855, 201; brig's single topsails, 108; early examples of double topgallants, 150, 261; early examples of double topsails, 149-50; four headsails from fore topmast, 160; jamie green, 202, 203; list of sails aboard Sir Lancelot, 239; main lower stunsail, 233, 239; mizen stun- sails, 66, 73, 91, 190, 221, 233, 233; moonsails, 65, 124, 156, 190, 191, 203, 221, 233; ringtail, 203, 233; roller-reefing, 148-49, 165; schooner or cutter's square sail with head yard, 26, 31; skysail stunsails, 191, 229, 233; spindle staysail, 65; stun- stails, unusual for builder to draw them on plan, 227; watersail, 233, 233; see also Flying Kites Sails and Sailmaking, (Kipping), 149 St Helena, 55-57 St Helena (1776), American-built ship, 44 St Helena (1814), brigantine, 55, 56; compared with Marchioness of Salisbury, 59; compared with HMS Sea Lark ex Fly, 39, 56; hull-form and deck layout, 55-56; passages described, 56-57, 97; sail plan, 56-57; speed, 57 St Nicholas, brig costs, 275 St Peter Port, Guernsey, 245 Saint Vincent, ship, 151 Sainty, Philip, 60; names of ships built, 61; submits plan of cutter, 60, 101 Salamander, schooner yacht, 208, 209; costs, 207, 278; diagonal build, 140, 181, 207; photographed, 207, 208; sail plan, 207, 208; opium clipper, 207-09 Salamis, ship, 263; brace winch, 151; com- pared with tea clippers, 263; dimensions, 244; indentification of models, 263; possible half-model, 116-263, similar to Thermopylae, 244, 262-63, 263; tea clipper, 242, 245, 263 Sales prices of, Alexander Baring, 103; Annan- dale, 201; Hurricane, 185; Lord Saumarez, 95; SS Sea King, 252; Storm Cloud and White Eagle, 196 Salisbury, William, draws plan of Post Office packet, 49; measures model of Vision, 180; model of Camertonian, 127, takes lines off models, 32-34, 262-63 Salmon, Robert, artist, 14, 49, 49, 71 Salthouse Dock, Liverpool, 164 Samoa, later John Williams, barque, 252; costs, 251, 279; description by builder in letters, 251; renamed John Williams, 251; see also John Williams Samuel Russell, American ship, 126, 179 Samuelson & Co, builders of Bates Family, 134 Samson, brigantine, costs, 275 San Francisco, American steamer, 156 San Francisco Maritime Museum, 215 Sancho Panza, schooner, 83 Sandeman & McLaurin, builders of Tempest, 164; of Vision (1854), 166 Sanderson, George S, engineer, 198 Sandridge Railway Pier, 157. Sappho (1821), schooner, 67; compared to other schooners, 68; hull-form, 66-68; influence of cutter hull, 55, 59, 66; pass- ages, 67 Sappho (1854), barque, described, 166 Sarah, brig, costs, 276 Sarah Neumann, ship, 197; compared with Tayleur, 199; half-model identified, 198; hull-form, 198; size compared, 138 Sarah Nicholson, ship, 173 Sarah Palmer, ship, 200; compared with Tayleur, 200; dimensions, 198; hull-form, 200; listed, 134, 198; premature launching, 199-200; sail plan, 200-01, specification, 135, 200, 281-82 Saucy Jack, brig, 83 Savin-Taylor, Brian, 118 Scantling sizes, Annandale, 137; Chariot of Fame, 136, 37; Storm Cloud, 170; Sarah Palmer, 281-82 Scawfell, ship, 201, 202; compared with others, 127, 201; half-model identification, 201-02; hull-form, 202; record passage from Macao, 202; listed, 201 Scheepvaart Museum, Amsterdam, 118 Schetky, J C, artist, 81, 84, 90 Schomberg, ship, 193, 194, 195, 196; big press coverage, 190, compared with Charles Tayleur's clippers, 200; costs listed, 193, 277; deck layout, 195; diagonal build, 40-41; dimensions, 176, 193; equal in size to largest American clipper, 137, 140, 186, 193; half-model, 103, 115, 154, 201; half- model and lines plan compared, 193, 194; hull-form, 194; largest ship of 1850s built in UK, 135, 137-38, 249; passage, 196; photographed, 195; plank thickness, 195; sail plan, 195-96; speed, 194-95 School of Naval Architecture, Portsmouth, 17-18, 73 Schooner-brigantine, 67, 56 Schooners, American, 32, 38-40, 86; built of iron, 23, 85, 116, 118-21, 134-35; Caledonia, 131-32; clipper style emerges in 1840s, 83-86; design by Henry Steers in 1805, 56; Fling, 235; Helena 30-32; Hil- house, 68; main topsail or two topsail, 30, 31, of clipper model, 1860-75, 263-65; photographed at Swansea, 87; replace smacks, 82; ranterpike rig, 85; relation to shallop, 15; Sappho, 66-68; Scottish Maid, 99-105; slaver, 58; smuggling, 15; sufficient square canvas equivalent to brigantine, 83, 83; survivor from past at Havana, 207; three-masted, 86, 93; 214, 264; yards on fore and main masts, 30, 32, 38; see also Baltimore clippers Science Museum, model of Alexander, 32, 33; model of Comet, 79, 80, 82; model of Emma, 84; model of Falcon, 71, 74; model of Fiery Cross (1860), 220, 222; model of SS Sea King, 221, 222; model of Stonehouse, 229; model of Titania, 235, 236; plans of Maitland, 231-233; plan of Titania, 238 Scott & Co, builders of Lord of the Isles, 164; of Serapis, 263; of Timaru, 260, 263; builders of other ships, 22 Scott, Isaac, shipowners, 126 Scott, J, & Sons, builders of Henry Moore, 134 Scott & Linton, shipbuilders, 254 Scottish Maid, schooner, 100, 102, 103; begins Hall's clipper period, 134, 257; compared with schooners from other yards, 118-19; costs, 101, 276; deck layout, 101; dimen- sions from various sources compared, 103; first of Hall's ships with Aberdeen bow, 107-08; fitting of bowsprit, 105; half-model, 102-04, 105, 176; hull-form, 100-105, 107, 139; influence of cutter hull, 59, 101; order to build, 99, 104-05; scantlings, 101; sail plan, 102, 264; 'world's first clipper', 102; tank tests, 104-05; tonnage reduced, 99-100, 107 Scottish Shipbuilders Association, 141, 143 HMS Scout, ex La Vengeance, ex-French privateer, 37 Sea Breezes, 114 Sea Gull, Canadian brigantine, 150 HMS Seagull, 92, 92, 93, 93 HMS Sea Lark, ex Fly, American-built schooner, prismatic coefficient, 20; compared with St Helena, 39, 56; hull-form and deck layout, 39; plans, 39 SS Sea King, auxiliary ship, 222, 223, 225; costs itemised, 224; deck layout, 224; designed by Rennie, 167, 220, 222-23, 245; engines, 222; hull-form, 222-23; model, 222; negotiation of price and contract, 221-22; passages, 224; Rennie's lines plan, 223; rigging compared with Maitland, 255; royalty fee, 145; sail plan, 224, 225; sold 224 SS Sea King, ex Shenandoah, ex Sea King, 225 Sea Queen, ship, 172 Sea Snake, ship, 198 Sea Star, ship, costs, 277 Sea Witch, American ship, 124, 125; hull-form, 124-25; record passages, 125; master, 185 HMS Seagull, schooner packet, 59; hull-form, 100-1 Search for Speed under Sail, 20, 86, 123, 179, 204 Sebastion Cabot, ship, 201 Sebire, James, shipbuilder, 227 Sellar, James, 104 Selkirk, Earl of, 207, 209 Seppings, Sir Robert, designer of Cowasjee Family, 23, 91-92; of Rustomjee Cowasjee, 91; of Sylph, 23, 91-92; diagonal construction, 22, 140, 281; employed cutter hull in fast ships, 71, 92; submits plan of cutter, 60; Surveyor to Royal Navy, 88 Serapis, ship, described, 276 Serica, ship, 218; compared with Taitsing, 240; dimensions, 234; hull-form, 234 Serringapatam, ship, retains rounded body form, 53 Seven Years War, 37 74-gun ship, 17, 23 Seyfang, G B, 143 Shallcross & Co, shipowners, 222 Shallop, 15, 42 Shakspere, ship, 176; compared with Annandale 174-76; dimensions, 173; hull-form, 174-76; passage, 176 Shamrock, ex Resolution (1805), Revenue cutter brig, 54; hull-form and sail plan, 55; influence of cutter hull, 55, 58 Shamrock (1849), schooner, 120 Shamrock (1872), schooner yacht, 242 Shandon, ship, hull-form, 163; roller-reefing gear to sails, 148, 165 Shanghai, photograph of Woosung River, 218 SS Shannon, 22 Sharp, James, A, author, 39, 73 Sharston, barque, 167 Shaw, Lowther & Maxton, owners of Ariel and Titania, 234; of Sobraon, 249 Sheers & Co, shipowners, 214 Shenandoah, ex Sea King, 167; Confederate cruiser, 221, 223, 223-25; see also Sea King Shenir, ship, 261-62 Shewan, Capt Andrew, describes Aberdeen clippers, 78-79, 221; describes Black Prince, 220-21; describes Capt W Inglis, 221; lists six fastest tea clippers, 234; on Leith smacks versus colliers, 81; remarks on clippers, 233 Shepherdess, barque, 118 Ship-handling, clippers lacked knowledge of winds, 214; on Black Prince, 220-21 Ship Builder's Assistant (Sutherland), 15-16 Shipbuilders, shipbuilders of the 1860s, 218; critical of Lloyd's Register, 139; listed with iron ships of over 900 tons, 134 Shipbuilder's Repository, 16 Shipbuilding, see Composite Construction, Con- struction, Iron Shipbuilding, Wood Shipbuilding Shipwright's Vade-Mecum (Steel), 16, 17, 22, 47, 45 Shoreham, ships built at, 83-84, 214 Shun Lee, ship, 242 Shuttle, barque, 197, 198 Sibbald, John, 90 Siemens-Martin steel, 135 Simla, ship, 134 Simpson, Matthew, shipbuilder, 267 Simpson, William, shipbuilder, 288 Simons, William, shipbuilder, 134, 184 Sir Charles Forbes, ship, costs, 275 Sir Charles Napier, ship, 134 Sir Lancelot, ship, compared with William le Lacheur, 228; dimensions, 234, 228; in fast passages, 239; hull-form, 234-235; iron ballast, 202, 239; plans, 236, 237; record passage from China, 239; photograph, 216; list of sails carried in 1866, 239 Sir William Wallace (1835), brig, costs, 275 Sir William Wallace (1846), schooner, 107; costs, 277 Sisters, brig, costs, 275 Sjohistoriska Museum, 71, 73 Skene, William, 110 Skillott, S D, artist (Skillett), 105, 196 Skinner, Thomas, shipowner, 239 Slade, Sir Thomas, 16 Slave trade, 14, 15, 86-87 Slavers, Henriquetta, 87; Joly, 35, 36-37; Kitty, 14; Manuela, 168; rig of true brigantine, 84, 97, 100; schooner, 58 Slieve Donard, ship, 134 Sloops, defined 1815, 15 Smacks, 14-15; see also Berwick Smacks, Leith Smacks Smith, Andrew, wire rigging, 148 Smith, Arthur, artist, 110, 110-11, 128, 129 Smith, George & Sons, cost of scraping and painting hull, 132; names of ships owned, 144, 204-05 Smith, James, shipbuilder, 186, 186 Smith, Roberts, & Co, 249 Smith, T & W, shipbuilders, 147 Smith, W T, 104 Smith & Dimani, shipbuilders, 124, 124 Smith & Rodger, shipbuilders, 133, 164 Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 27 Smugglers, built by Sainty, 61; fast cutters used, 53-54; plans in Hilhouse Collections, 68; regulations against likely vessels, 14-15 Smuggling, Acts to prevent, 14-15; fast craft required, 14, 52, 53 Smurthwaite, John, shipbuilder, 229 Smythe, Adml W H, 28 Snodgrass, Gabriel, surveyor, 21 Sobraon, ship, 249, 250; compared with Schom- berg, 196; costs, 249, 278; described, 249-50; hull-form, 249-50; largest composite sailing ship, 146, 249; petty officers, 249; designed as auxiliary, 224, 249-50; sail plan and spars, 250, 250 Society for the Improvement of Naval Archi- tecture, 14, 17, 52, 105 SS Solent (1853), 140 Solent (1857), ship, 140 Solway Queen, brig, 173 Somes, Frederick, shipowner, 143 Sophia, sloop, costs, 274 Souvenirs de Marine Conservees (Paris), 53 Sovereign of the Seas, American ship, British builder's interest, 184; listed, 139; speed, 190; clipper, 205 Spanish schooner, 234 Spars, alterations in St. Helena, 57; spars for Falcon tabulated, 73; comparison of three eighteenth-century ships, 41; comparison of six clippers tabulated, 247; crossjack yard in cutter, 26; cutters, 26-27, 55; cutter-built vessels compared 1778-81, 28, 29; East Indiaman, 64-65; eighteenth-century ships, 46-47; eighteenth-century sloops, 28; Forbes' double topsail, 149; Helena's spars, listed, 31; iron masts and yards, 147-48, 238; Howes' double topsails, 149; passaree boom, 82, 84; pole masts, 161, 162; roller- reefing gear, 148-49; spread yard, 26, 31, 34; royal masts fidded abaft, 72, 250; steel masts, 238; stunsail booms under yards, 241, 247; sliding gunter masts, 65, 111, 190, 221; spike bowsprit on Vision, 180; telescopic bowsprit and jibboom, 160, 162; Thermopylae's listed, 280; yards more than 100 feet long, 195-96; thickness of iron and steel, 238 Specifications for six ships, 200 Speed, days' runs over 400 miles, 164, 190, 248; days' runs over 350 miles, 164, 168, 172, 174, 239; high rate in knots, 164, 190; Lord of the Isles, 164 Speed-length ratio, explained, 20; examined for clippers, 163, 168, 174 Speedy, ship, described, 197-98 Spence, Joseph, 183 Spencer, James, shipwright, 47 Spencer, W B, artist, 237 Sphynx, ship, 141 Spin, J, artist, 156 Spindrift, ship, 240, 241, 242; compared with other tea clippers, 234, 239-41; deck layout, 241, 246; extreme clipper, 240-41; hull-form, 240-41; sail plan, 241; sail plan compared with Maitland, 232, 241; photo- graph, 216; spar dimensions listed, 241, 247; speed 241-42; wrecked, 242 Spirit, schooner, 83 Spirit of the Age, barque, 182 Spirit of the North, barque, 182 Spray of the Ocean, ship, 183 Spring Bok, barque, 198, 264 Stag, Canadian barque, 119 Stalkartt, Marmaduke, author, 16, 17 Standard, ship, 233 Star of China, ship, costs, 278 Star of Empire, American ship, 136, 136-37, 139, 184 Star of Peace, ship, 159; compared with Ballarat, 159 Star of Tasmania, ship, costs, 278 Star of the East, Canadian ship, 192; des- cription, 192-93 Startled Fawn, ship, chartered by James Baines, 199; dimensions, 198, 224; listed, 134, 201; hull, 199-200 Steel shipbuilding, advantages for spars, 148; Bessemer steel expensive, 135; history of, 135; named ships, 135; Siemens-Martin pro- cess, 135 Steel, David, author, his books listed, 16, 47; on cutter-brigs, 29; plan drawn from his off- sets, 49; post office packet, 48, 55; pub- lishes plans, 16, 47, 63, 77; sail plan of ship of 330 tons, 46, 47; tables of spar dimensions, 41, 47, 64, 65 Steele, James, 235 Steele, Robert (1821-90), built clippers, 235 Steele, Robert (1745-1830), founder of ship- yard, 235 Steele, Robert, & Co, shipbuilders, 221; bracket half-model, 19; builders of 'City' ships, 13; builders of clippers, 240; clipper designs listed and analysed, 202, 218, 234-39; prices for tea clippers, 235-36; royalty fees, 146; Steele, William, shipbuilder, 235 Steering gear, 246 Steers, George, naval architect, designer of America, 55, 169; of Sunny South, 194, 168, 169 Steers, Henry, shipwright, 55 Steinhaus, C F, author, 228 Stephen, Alexander, jnr, shipbuilder, advan- tages of Iron shipbuilding, 130; begins designing ships, 160; conversation with James and William Hall, 134; cost of scraping hull, 132; influenced by wave form theories, 168; interest in American ships, 169, 184-85; joins Glasgow shipyard, 160; knows Griffiths' book on naval architecture, 185; obtains class for composite ships, 143-44; obliged to build from Rennie's design, 224, 245; offers to build auxiliary steamer in 1862, 221-22; pays Jordan royalties, 144-46; promotes composite con- struction, 143-46; quotes prices 1862, 135, 144; quotes prices for tea clippers, 219, 235-36; remarks on sharpness of hull, 219; seeks orders for new ships, 116, visits to ports and shipowners, 218 Stephen, Alexander, snr, begins iron ship- building, 134, 159; builder of Eastern Monarch, 137-38; shipbuilding activities, 159-60; attitude to son, 168 Stephen, A, & Sons, 261-62; build for G Smith & Son, 205; builders and owners of Storm Cloud, 168-69, 172; builders of Charlemagne, 134; of City of Hankow, 233; of City of Madras, 134; of composite ships, 143-44; of Eliza Shaw, 225-26; of SS Euphrates, 169; of extreme iron clippers, 222; of Hurricane, 134, 162, 222; of Janette, 267; of John Bell, 134, 169, 222; of John Lidgett, 150; of Mofussilite, 226; of SS Sea King, 22-24; of Storm Cloud, 134, 167-172, 222, 270; of White Eagle, 134, 222; Connell was yard manager, 239; never built another extreme clipper, 172; prices of wooden ships, 136; rules for iron ships, 133; roller reefing gear, 148; typical ship of 1860s, 227 Stephen, James, shipbuilder, 160 Stephen, William, shipbuilder, 143, 160 Stevens, John R, draws plan of Marco Polo, 186 Stevens, Robert, engineer, 105 Stevens, R W, author, 212 Stobart, John, artist, 184 Stockton & London Shipping Co, 119-20 Stoddard Brothers, 225 Stonehouse, ship, described, 229-30 Storm Cloud, ship, 167, 169, 170, 171; beam- to-length ratio, 164; big press coverage, 167; compared with Annandale, 172; with Cutty Sark, 272; with Marco Polo, 172; costs and earnings, 172; deck layout, 162, 171; design not dictated by owner, 168-69, 281; extreme clipper, 135, 170, 222; hull-form analysed, 167-70, 254, journalist's description, 154, 167, 190; listed, 134, 161; passages, 154, 172; sail plan, 162, 172; speed, 168 Stornoway, ship, 154, compared with Three Bells, 156, with Vision, 181; continually named by newspapers, 178; costs, 179, 277; half-model, 103, 154, 176; hull-form, 109, 176-77 Stowage capacity, iron and wood ships compared, 143 Stratford ex Arctic, ex-Atlantic packet, 139 Strathbogie, schooner, costs, 276 Strathearn, ship, 259-60, 260, 261 Strathmore, barque, designed by Rennie, 167 Stuart & Douglas, shipowners, 175 Stuart Hahnemann, ship, 196 Suez Canal, effect on clippers, 253 Sullivan, Sir Edward, yacht owner, 242 Summer Cloud, painting, 203 Sunderland, wooden shipbuilding beside River Wear, 138, 138 Sunderland Museum, model of Ganges, 226 Sunny South, American clipper, 168, 169 Sunshine, ship, costs, 277 Surveyors to Royal Navy, Sir John Henslowe, 52; Sir Henry Peake, 52; Sir Robert Seppings, 88; Sir William Symonds, 89 Susan Vittery, schooner, 214, 215 Susanna, schooner, ranterpike rig, 84, 85; sliding gunter masts, 65, 85 Sutherland, William, author, 15-16, 52 Swarthmore, ship, 134, 186 Swayne & Bovill, engineers, 162-63 Sweepstakes, American ship, 194; compared with Robin Hood, 182 Swift, schooner, 106; Aberdeen clipper, 101, 105; costs, 276; faster than smacks, 82, 106; listed, 107; passages, 106 Swordfish (1845), ship described, 121, 121-22, 166; speed 122 Swordfish (1851), American clipper, 177, 203 Sydney, early effects of gold rush, 177-78 Sydney Daily Telegraph, 175 Sydney Morning Hrald, 157, 197 Syed Khan, opium clipper, 94 Sylph (1821), cutter, 60, 61; compared with Leith smack, 79; with Sappho, 66-67; with Scottish Maid, 101; hull-form, 60-61; sail plan, 60 Sylph (1831), ship, 23, 92; hull-form, 25, 91-93; sail plan, 92; specially built for opium trade, 94 Sulphiden, Danish schooner, lines and sail plans, 210 Symmetos, 88 Symmetry, ship, 88 Symonds, Sir William, advocates steep dead- rise, 39, 63, 73, 97; as designed, 59, 73, 88-90; designer of HMS Columbine, 93; of HMS Dolphin, 89; of Pantaloon, 93; surveyor to Royal Navy, 88-89 Syren (1838), opium clipper, 94 Syren (1856), schooner, 173 T Taeping, ship, 234, 238; compared with Ganges, 225; with other tea clippers, 220, 234; flying kites set, 233; dimensions, 234; hull-form, 234-35; half-model, 234 Tait, Capt R, 162 Taitsing, ship, compared with Serica, 240; candidate for identification, 239; compared with other clippers, 239-40 SS Taiwan, brig, costs, 278 Talavera, ship, 134 Talpore, troopship, 135 Tank tests, early use of, 16, 105; by A Hall & Sons, 104, 104-05 Tartar (by 1779), privateer, 32 Tartar (1840), brig, costs, 276 SS Tartar (1853), 140 Tasmanian Daily News, 190 Tayleur, ship, 199; compared with other iron ships, 134-35, 199-200, 202; cost of build- ing, 199; half-model and ship as built, 198-99; wreck, 199; listed, 198 Tayleur, Charles, shipbuilder, 198-99 Tayleur, Charles, & Co, ships they built listed and described, 198-201, 281 Tayleur, Edward, 198 Tayleur, Sanderson & Co, 198 Taylor, Josiah, artist, 241 Tea clippers, early use of, 74; fastest in 1860s, 219-20; recognisable type, 218, 221; princi- pal builders of, 218 Tea Clippers (MacGregor, revised 1983 edition), Block Coefficient explained, 20; paintings, 237; plans of clippers, 176, 177, 179, 204-05, 220, 234, 257; of Maitland, 231; Oriental's passage, 117; Challenger's lines plan, 196, 219 Teazer, brig, setting single topsails, 208 Tempest, ship, converted to auxiliary screw, 86; listed, 161, 164 Ternate, Dutch ship, 156 Teupken, D A, artist, 114, 114, 122 PS Teviot, mail steamer, 157 Tebiot, schooner, 118 Thalia, ship, 62; builder's plan, 62; calls at St Helena, 59; compared with Neilson, 68; hull-form and deck plan, 62; maiden pas- sage described, 62-63 Thames, schooner, 118 Thames Iron & Shipbuilding Co, 166 Thane of Fife, sloop, costs, 275 The Bruce, brig, costs, 274 The Caliph, ship, 258; auxiliary screw, 258; compared with other ships, 250; with Transit, 51; costs, 279; Hall's last extreme clipper, 253, 257; hull-form, 257; spar dimensions compared with other clippers, 247, 253, 257-58 The Colleen Bawn, barque, costs, 278 The Goolwa, ship, costs, 278 The Murray, ship, 278 The Oak, schooner, costs, 278 The Times, reports first news of gold discovery, 157 The Tweed, ship, ex PS Punjaub; influence on Cutty Sark, 254, 258 Theory of the Wave System of Naval Architecture, 168 Theresa Secunda, slaver, 86 Thermopylae, ship, 243, 244, 245, 246, 248; brace winch, 151, 246; compared with Annandale, 175; with Cutty Sark, 254; with Gauntlet, 165; with other ships, 246-48; barque rig, 248; dimensions, 244, 247, 254; deck layout, 245-46; designed by Way- mouth, 242-245; Double topgallants, 150, 248; hull-form, 241, 243-45; hull-form simi- larities with other ships, 243-44, 254, 257, 262; record passages and career, 247-48; plans survive, 116, 232, 244; resemblance to Christiana Thompson, 243, 246; roller- reefing sails, 149, 242; sail plan and spar dimensions, 246-48; sail plan compared with Maitland, 232; spar dimensions listed, 247, 280; speed, 234, 254-55; Waymouth's original plans, 246, 280; photograph, 216; UD tons coefficient, 231 Thessalus, ship, 258 Thetis (c1780), unidentified fine-lined ship, 34 Thetis (1801), privateer built by Brockbank, 34 Thibaut, French master, 37 Thomas, shipwright, 55 Thomas, George, shipbuilder, 191 Thomas Arbuthnot, ship, half-model, 104, 104, 108; costs, 276; hull-form, 104, 107-08; takes first Australian gold to England, 157 Thomas Hamlin, ship, 135 Thomas Stephens, ship, 254; clipper status, 253 Thompson, Benjamin, (Count Rumford), 16, 17 Thompson, Cornelius, naval architect, 245 Thompson, George, interest in Hood's ship- yard, 245; names of ships owned, 150-59, 246; orders clipper 1874, 262; owners of Phoenician, 128; owner of Thermopylae, 150, 245, 248 Thompson, Joseph, L, & Sons Ltd., ship- builders, 231 Thompson, Robert, jnr, builder of Helena Mena, 146 Thomson, J & G, builders, of Bay of Cadiz, 135 Thorald, yacht owner, 74 Three Bells, ship, 155, 156; hull-form, 155; ownership, 156; passages, 156; speed, 156; sail plan, 156 Three Sisters, ship, 46, 46-47 Ticonderoga, ship, 187 Tide, rise and fall affects hull-form, 44 Tiller, on schooner c1869, 279 Timaru, ship, 260, 263 Time, schooner, bought for opium trade, 84, 93, 95; designed with raking midship section, 84-85, 122; ranterpike rig, 85 SS Tintern, 123 Titania, ship, 235, 236, 237, 238; deck layout similar to Ariel, 235, 237; dimensions, 234; compared with Gauntlet, 165; with Harlaw, 231; with Scawfell, 202; extreme clipper, 235-36, 240; fast passages, 239; hull-form compared with other clippers, 234-36; sail plan, 238-39; UD tons coefficient, 202, 231, 234; speed, 235; scantlings, 236-37; spar dimensions listed, 247 Titus, A, shipbuilder, 123 Todd, Capt, 79 Tonnage, Aberdeen bow reduces new measurement, 99-100, 106-07, 114-15; builder's old measurement defined (BM or BOM), 271; as measured in America, 138, 154; carpenter's measure formula, 24; evasion of New Measurement produces fine- lined hulls, 104, 100, 106, 154, 270; gross defined, 272; guide to fineness of hull, 20, 107, 155; history of measurement rules before 1836, 23-25; internal measurement proposed, 151-52; Old Measurement, 23-55, 98; Old Measurement dimensions, 271; New Measurement, 23, 25, 97-98, 98, 99; New Measurement dimensions, 272; 1854 Rule Measurements, 272-73; net register defined, 272; under deck defined, 272; rules defined, 271-73 Tonnage, 1821 Commission, 24-25, 97; 1833 Commission, 25, 97; 1849 Commission, 151; 1854 rules outlined, 151-52 Tornado, ship, 134, 161, 164, 165 Torrington, schooner, 107; as opium clipper, 106; costs, 277 Trade Wind, American ship, 139 Tractat om Skepps-Byggeriet, 16 Traite du Navire (Bouguer), 15 Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects, 229, 234 Transit (1800), as first rigged, 51; cost, 51; design, 50-51, 110, 270; hull-form, 101; sail plan, 50-51, 77 Transit (1809), compared with Post Office packet, 48; described, 50-51, 110; plan, 51 Transit (1819), described, 50-52; a clipper, 58 Treatise on Marine and Naval Architecture (Griffiths), 168 Treatise on Marine Architecture (Hedderwick), 18 Treatise on Masting Ships and Mast Making (Fincham), 17, 92 Treatise on Naval Architecture (Hutchinson), 44, 45 Treatise on Ship-Building and Navigation (Murray), 15 Tredwen, shipbuilder, 268 Treenails, with screw threads, 140, 206 Trevithick, Richard, engineer, 147 Trial trips, 223, 250 Trio, barque, 109; costs, 276 Trotman & Rodgers, anchors, 265 SS Tsz'ru 146 Tubal Caine, ship, 142-43 Tugela, ship, costs, 278 Turnbull, Gregor, & Co, shipowners, 144 Tweedie, Cmdr Francis, 173 Twins, sloop, costs, 274 Tyburnia, ship, compared with Mofussilite, 227; model for Stephen's designs, 172, 227 Tynemouth, barque, 135 Typhoon, ship, compared with Hurricane, 160-62; cost, 160; described, 159, 161, 197; dismasted, 160, 162; spar dimensions, 160, 184; sharp hull, 172 Tyzack & Dobson (Dobinson), 111, 121, 146 U Uitenhague, schooner, 57 Ullock, barque, costs, 279 Undaunted, ship, costs, 277 Underhill, Harold, 260, 262 Undine, ship, sister to Maitland, 232-33 Union (1826), smack, costs, 275 Union (1841), brigantine, costs, 276 SS Union (1854), 142 Union, barquentine, 265; hull-form, 265; sail plan, 265-67 United States National Archives, 55 United States Nautical Magazine and Naval Journal, 191 Universal Dictionary of the Marine (Falconer's), 15 Upham, J A & W, shipbuilders, 19, 211, 211 V Vanda, barque, costs, 278 Vanguard (1852), ship, 165 Vanguard (1857), ship, 233 SS Vanguard (1872), costs, 279 PS Vectis, 140 Velocidade, ship, 181; costs, 277 Venilia, brig, costs, 275 Ventilation, in wood ship, 195 Vernon, Hon George, 52, 73, 89 Vernon, H J, artist, 90 Vernon, T, & Son, builder of James Livesey, Philosopher, and Slive Donard, 134; takes over yard of Rennie, Johnson & Rankine, 166 Venus (1807), ship, 47; hull-form, 47 Victoria (1837), brig, costs, 275 Victoria (1847), schooner, 107; costs, 277 Victoria (c1855), 141 SS Victoria and Albert, Royal yacht, 23 Victory, ship, 148 Vimeira, ship, 157 Vindex, schooner, described, 207; costs, 207, 277 Vining, Robert, shipowner, 114 Violet, brig, costs, 275 HMS Viper, cutter, 28 Virginia, plans of vessels built in, 16 Virginia, ship, 123 Vision (1854), Aberdeen ship, 180; Aberdeen house, 180, 246; costs, 277; deck layout, 181; cost of diagonal build, 140; diagonal construction, 140, 180-81, 194; dimensions, 176, 202; half-models, 103, 154, 176, 180; hull-form, 107, 179-81; moderate rake to stem, 115; passages, 181-82; sail plan, 181 Vision (1854), iron ship, 166 Visitor, brig, costs, 275 Volant, American brig, lines plan, 211 Vulcan, ship, 132 Vulcan Foundry, 198 W W. S. Lindsay, ship, 134 Wade, partner in Robertson & Co, 221 Waddell, Lieut, captain of Shenandoah, 224 Waitangi, ship, capstan, 147 Walker, William, builder of Ambassador, 145; of Shamrock, 241; of Shun Lee, 242 Wallace, Frederick W, author, 138, 150, 186 Walter Hamilton, brig, costs, 275 Walter Hood, ship, 159 Walters, John, 141 Walters, Samuel, artist, 165, 175, 180-81 Wanderer, brig, costs, 276 Ward, T W, artist, 46, 69, 70, 80, 103, 162, 254 Ward, William, owner and master, 44-45 Wardley, J R, shipowner, 225 Warren, Charles William, photographer, 2 (frontispiece) Warren Packet, smack, costs, 275 HMS Warrior, armoured ship, design of, 243-44 Warrington, schooner, 198 Warrington, shipbuilding at, 198-201 Water Witch (Waterwitch), (1843), schooner, 101, 107; costs, 276 Waterman, Capt R, 124-25, 184 Waterwitch (1831), barque, 98; hull-form, 91; opium clipper, 91, 94 Waterwitch (1834), brig, yacht, 89-90; compared with Anonyma, 92, 94; design, 87; half-model, 19 Waterford Line, 84, 99 Watkins, barque, 120; compared with Electric Telegraph, 121, 197; described, 120-21; hull-form similar to Acasta, 109, 116, 120-21; lines plan, 119, 120 Watson, G C, naval architect, 238, 238-39 Watson, William, 141 Watts, Isaac, naval architect, 243 Wave, brigantine, costs, 276 Wave Form theory, (Wave Line theory), 168-69 Wawn, T W, surveyor, 175 Waymouth, Bernard, naval architect, career, 242; designed Thermopylae, 242-47, 262; of clippers, 242-44; names of ships designed, 242, 262; Thermopylae's sail plan, 245, 247; surveyor to Lloyds Register, 242-43 Webb, Isaac, builder, 123 Webb, William H, builder of Challenge, 185; China packets, 123, 124; of Comet, 184; of Helena, 123, 123; of Malek-Adhel, 88; of Swordfish, 177; of Volant, 211 Webster, J, shipbuilder, 209 Weedon, E, artist, 163 Welch, J K, 251 Wesleyan Missionary Society, 251 West Indiamen, hull proportions, 13, 32 Westacott, John, shipbuilder, 198, 263 Westacott, William, shipbuilder, 263-64 Western Isles, schooner, costs, 276 Weymouth, ship, 204 Whalsey, smack, costs, 279 Whirlwind, ship, 161 Whitcombe, Thomas, artist, 42, 64 White, Joseph, builder of Waterwitch, 19, 89-91 White, J & R, 221; diagonal wood con- struction, and list of ships built, 23, 140, 281; diagrams, 140 White, Thomas, jnr, shipbuilder, 89 White, W H, naval architect, 247 White Eagle, ship, 170, career and passages, 172; compared with Storm Cloud, 169-72; extreme clipper, 172, 222; hull-form, 169-70, 196; listed, 134; weight of materials, 170 White Mouse, schooner, 107, 116; costs, 277 White Star, Canadian ship, 139 White Star Line (Liverpool), 190-91, 194 Whiteadder, ship, 254 Wigram's dry dock, 224 Wigram & Green, builders of St. Helena, 55 Wild Dayrell, schooner, 214 Wild Deer, ship, 239 Wild Duck, ship, 149 Wild Flower, ship, 154 William and Mary, Royal yacht, 52 William Davie, ship, 227, 262 William Fairbairn, ship, 134 William le Lacheur, ship, described, 227-28; photographed, 227-28, 229 William Punton, brig, 112; costs, 277; hull details, 110, 113; listed, 107; sail plan, 110, 113 Williams, Capt, 251 Willis, John, interest in composite ships, 143; names of ships owned, 254, 258; buys PS Punjaub, 254; cousin orders clipper, 257 Wilson, John, shipbuilder, 96 Wilson, M R, buys Shenandoah, 225 Windhover, ship, 239 Windlass, Armstrong Patent, 146; improve- ments after 1850, 146-47; in Hurricane, 162; indicates merchant ship, 59, 64; makers, 111, 146-47, 237; operation of, 128, 146-47, 147, 260 Windsor Castle, mail packet, 48 Winefred, ship, 134 Witch of the Wave, American ship, 180 Wizard, schooner, costs, 277 Wm. Renton, incorrent spelling, 117 Wolley, Capt Thomas, 37 HMS Wolverine, 225 Wood, Charles, shipbilder, 165 Wood shipbuilding, American and British ships compared, 136-37; American clippers of over 1500 tons listed, 139-40; conserving timber in construction, 135-36; diagonal and experimental construction, 22; few ships of over 1000 tons built in UK, 137-38; many ships of over 1000 tons pro- duced in Canada, 138-39; quantities of timber used, 20; sectional drawings, 136; shortage of grown timber affects hull design, 21-22; structural timbers, 18, 21; UK ships of over 1000 tons listed, 138; use of iron for structural members, 22; see also, Construction, Diagonal Woodland, brig, costs, 278 Woodlark, brig, 181; correct spelling for Wood- land, 278 Woodpecker, schooner, 142 Worcester, John R, merchant, 288 Workington, shipbuilding at, 136, 201 Workington & Harrington Shipbuilding Co, builders of Dunmail and Jubilee, 201-02 Wright, Thomas, shipbuilder, 141 Wright, W & R, shipbuilders, 192, 192 Wylo, ship, 234; hull-form, 234 X  Y  Z Xarifa, ex Theresa Secunda, schooner, 86 Yachting (American), 212 Yachts, analysed by Fincham, 73; Anonyma, 92; bought for opium trade, 92, 95, 209; built of iron, 122; influence on naval design, 88; plan by Hedderwick, 18; Salamander, 207-09; see also Royal Yachts, Falcon Yang-tze, ship, 221; costs, 279; compared with Eliza Shaw, 218 Yarborough, Lord, 71-74 Ythan, schooner, costs, 275 Young, Charles, author, 132 Young Sea-Officer's Sheet Anchor, 47 Young Lochinvar, ship, 218, 234 Zanzibar, Sultan of, 221, 225 Zephyr, barquentine, 265 Zariza, Norwegian schooner, lines and sail plans, 210 Ziba, jackass barque, costs, 278; described, 205; in tea trade, 221 Zinc sheathing, 132

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