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Table of Contents of
Netherlanders in America: A Study of Emigration and Settlement in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries in the United States of America

Jacob Van Hinte

© 1985 Baker Book House

Reproduced 2001 with permission of the publisher

  Sources cited   |   Index   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog

Volume 1
Part One The Older Branch of the Dutch Trunk
Part Two Transplanting of the Young Dutch Branch
Part Three The Growth of the Settlements to Around 1895
Volume 2
Part Four New Shoots on the Young Dutch Branch
Part Five Plants That Did Not Take Root
Part Six The Contemporary Significance of Dutch Americans
List of Photos, Charts, and Maps


List of Photos, Charts, and Maps xxvii Editor's Preface xxxi Editor's Introduction xxxv Author's Preface xlv

Volume 1

Part One The Older Branch of the Dutch Trunk Seventeenth Century 1 The First Emigrants and Settlers: How America Became a Land of Promise 3 The oldest voyage of the Netherlands to North America. The first ship with emigrants to the New Netherlands. The oldest "ba- con letters": America the land of plenty. Patroonships and propaganda. Van der Donck as "booster." The colony of Niewer Amstel. Plockhoy uses America as a social laboratory and places poetry in the service of land advertising. America the land of liberty. William Penn as founder of utopia and land dealer. Earthly paradise moved to Pennsylvania. Labadists, to- bacco, and slaves. 2 Why the Number of America-Goers Remained Small in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries 31 The restless mentality of seventeeth-century people. The Netherlands itself offered work for many. The flourishing period of the sea provinces. The West India Company thwarts emigration. Hatred against the English. 3 What Happened to the Old Dutch Branch 39 A. Under English Rule 39 The vitality of our race. The Netherlandization of many for- eigners, also after the New Netherlands became English. The French do not speak and write in English but in Dutch. The quality of the colonists. Business tycoons and landed gentry. Aristocracy and popular party. The Reformed Church slows down Americanization. B. During and After the War of Independence 51 Our people stand in the forefront in the War of Independence. Jersey Dutch and and Mohawk Dutch as pioneers-in spite of Turner. The tenacity of language and religion. The meaning of the "Old Dutch stock" for American society. The Holland Soci- ety, an elite group that does not honor the Netherlands but honors itself. In spite of this, the Netherlands type maintains its distinctiveness among the Old Americans. Part Two Transplanting of the Young Dutch Branch Nineteenth Century 4 The Causes of Emigration in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century 77 A. Social Conditions 77 Western Europe compared to America. The Netherlands and its unemployment. Too much charity [liefdadigheid] and too little benevolence [weldadigheid]. Jan Salie rules everywhere. B. Opposition to the Spirit of the Age 85 Change in the religious area. Zwijndrecht Newlights. Maze- reeuwers predict the end of the world. The aristocratic Reveil prefers words rather than deeds. The Seceders, mostly lower class people [kleine luyden], show more character. Because of this, the ruling class of the Netherlands is embittered at De Cock and Scholte. Dutch narrow-mindedness. Desire for more political and social equality. America offers a way out for all the discontented. C. The Quandary-Go or Stay 96 Others who go to America. Eulogies and "bacon letters." America's negative side, especially emphasized in De Gids. Dangers of sea and land travel. Emigrants as an export com- modity. Ship owners and ship captains treat emigrants in such a way that the voyage to America required a farewell "that reminded one of a death-bed parting." Women and emigra- tion. "My husband knew very well that my yes was yes, and my no, no." 5 The Emigration 109 A. Forerunners of the Great Trek, 1790-1840 109 The emigration of Patriots was more or less idealistic, or at any rate, it had a political character. The Holland Land Com- pany. The "frontier life" of Van der Kemp, "the most learned man in America." The Netherlands on the map of New York State. Emigration of 1820-1840. The Groninger Klaas Janszoon Beukma goes west. Zeelanders go to Wayne County in New York State. B. The Great Trek 120 1. The Psychological Moment 120 The Saramacca woes, potato blight, and doomsday. The exo- dus originates in the Achterhoek. A Christian colony is de- sired. Why not go to Java? Emigration appears to be an eco- nomic necessity. Brummelkamp and Van Raalte provide emi- gration with religious tone: It's God's will. Van Raalte him- self goes too. Scholte, Ypma, and Bolks follow. 2. Whither? 130 Wisconsin is booming. Therefore Milwaukee is the appointed gathering place. 3. Enroute with Van Raalte 132 Contact made with believing Old Dutch Americans. They pro- vide much support and point to Michigan. Objections to other states. Van Raalte as the geographic engineer finally chooses western Michigan, which, with its rich woodlands, is most ap- propriate for poor colonists, according to him. 4. Enroute with Scholte 137 Scholte as leader of more affluent immigrants prefers the prairies. The vanguard departs. The Association follows. Wait- ing in St. Louis. God's hand makes the choice more simple. The baptism of Pella. 5. To Van Raalte or to Scholte? 143 Both sides advertise. Hesitation of the Zeelanders. They finally choose Michigan. This proves to be no heaven. Van der Meulen learns resignation. The village of Zeeland laid out. The Frisians under Reverend Ypma found the village of Vriesland. Reverend Bolks also goes to Michigan. Others settle in Iowa. 6. The Trek to Wisconsin and Illinois 151 Netherlands to Waupun, Wisconsin. Reverend Zonne estab- lishes a colony in Sheboygan Co. Reverend Baay settles in Alto. Zuid Hollanders found Low Prairie and Noord Hol- landers, High Prairie, both in Illinois. The Groninger Corner in Chicago. 6 The Emigration (Continued) 157 A. Frisians and Roman Catholics 157 The Seceders form the minority among the immigrants. Indi- vidual emigration. 1. Worp Van Peyma and His Followers 159 Departures due to political and economic issues. Farwol! [Fare- well!} Frisians at Lancaster, New York. A "tree too old to be transplanted." Groningers at Plainfield, New Jersey. 2. O. H. Bonnema and His Followers 164 Suffer shipwreck. The first Netherlanders in Minnesota. Frisia in Wisconsin collapses. 3. Balk Mennonites 167 Desire "freedom" from weapons. Venture forth without any preparation. Walk through America and settle in New Paris, near Goshen, Indiana. Their Americanization. 4. Roman Catholic Emigration 173 Roman Catholics emigrate in greater number than surmised. They feel offended in their religious life and in other ways and found an Immigration Society. Pay attention to the Seceders. Journey of Krijnen. 5. With Van den Broek to Wisconsin 176 A missionary who promotes Wisconsin. The trip there. Arrival. Many follow. B. Postscript 183 Emigration figures and considerations. Sympathy for the im- migrants, who are not considered as "counterfeit coins" but as effective, sometimes blinded fellow citizens, who inspire our "poets." Het Nut [Public Welfare] and the government. One becomes accustomed to everything and dozes off again. 7 The New Environment: Soil, Climate, and People 193 A. Soil Composition 195 Age of geological formations, which at the same time explains coal and mineral wealth. The moraine landscape of Michigan similar to ours. Drumlins and kames chosen as dwelling places. Loess, humus, and stones. Glaciers act as fertilizers, save $50,000,000 a year. B. The Climate 200 Roughly similar to ours. has a continental and capricious character, though. Tornadoes often ravage the settlements. C. Flora and Fauna 203 Trees indicate the value of the soil. No savage animals, but "herb-eating" animals. They devour everything during prayer. D. The People 207 Congress land. How the government acquired it, sold it, or gave it away. Townships, sections, and claims. Help of Ameri- cans. Little contact with Indians and Negroes. 8 The Rooting of the Young Dutch Branch in Michigan 215 A. Forest Pioneers 215 War with the children of Anak, Branch huts that remind one of a bird's cage. Many perish at the mouth of Black Lake with the promised land in sight. Holland a city of trees. Food shortage when the money is spent and the American merchants stay away. The entire colony one big hospital. "Oh, Lord, must we now all perish?" A colony store and colony ship appear to be failures. Roads that look like wood rafts and a harbor choked with silt. A disaster year. B. Sources of Income 231 Forest products lead to industries. A brick yard crowned with success. Trade. The letter carrier is the connection with the outside world. After him the storekeeper becomes the man of importance. C. Administration of the Colony 237 Economic rulers. Popular meetings that oppose Sabbath dese- cration and liquor sales. A board of trustees forms a kind of "B. and W." [Burgemeester en Wethouders, i.e., Mayor and Commis- sioners]. The Consistory has more power and acts as vice- squad. A theocracy. The Pope and his Cardinals. The first law- ful elections were marked by commotion. The old Holland- Zeeland rivalry revives. The last popular meeting. D. Religious Life 244 Church services in the open air. The sermon as the only re- freshment and relaxation. The first sacred concert held in Hol- land in 1858 causes offense to many. Classis Holland organ- ized on April 23. E. Union with the Reformed Church 251 At first rejected. Visit of Wyckoff. Is subsequently realized. Varying judgments. The effect of this for immigrants. F. Education 255 In this respect Zeeland was initially equipped the best. An institute for higher learning. Becomes a colonial establish- ment. Broad-minded leaders. G. The Pilgrims of the West 259 Too highly idealized Neither they nor the Pilgrim fathers were holy men. Jan Rap and his mate at work. Life among our Pilgrims just as among the Puritans characterized by intermit- tent violent discord. Not everyone kindly disposed toward our fellow citizens. A lot of paupers, who at most deserve to be cheated by everybody. Final appreciation. 9 The Rooting of the Young Dutch Branch In Iowa 265 A. Prairie Pioneers 265 The Van Raalte and Scholte colonies compared. Social stand- ing determined the choice of many. The first settlement on the prairie: dugouts and sod houses. The town of Pella. Agricul- ture, cattle-raising, and gardening. Rapid development in busi- ness. Reverses. Money shortage and floods. New colonists and gold seekers restore prosperity. B. Transportation Problems 275 Good and inexpensive transportation becomes the great prob- lem. Great expectations concerning the Des Moines River. A town, Amsterdam, accordingly laid out. The river disappoints, the town disappears. Railroad plans. Dreams and land specu- lation that result only in neighborhoods: no villages emerge. C. Political and Spiritual Life 280 No union with the Reformed Church. An apostolic congrega- tion in which the pastor's office is not acknowledged. Grietje Noordzij causes a revival. Intense quarrels over money mat- ters. Scholte suspended. Church disunity the result. Elemen- tary education. Striving for a university. Evening gatherings. Selection. 10 The Rooting of the Young Dutch Branch in Wisconsin and Illinois 293 A. The Protestant Colonies in Wisconsin 293 Reverend Zonne also advertises his settlement. It holds the middle between those in Michigan and Iowa. Van Raalte found much bitterness and division there. B. The Settlements in Illinois 296 Rural life. Chicago's nearness. High Prairie already a railway station in 1852. Religious life. C. The Roman Catholic Settlements in Wisconsin 299 A colony in the woods. Similar difficulties as in Michigan. No difficulty too much for the godly. D. Forgotten (Partially Run-down) Settlements 302 The Ravenna, Michigan, colony fails, partially due to the insta- bility of Reverend Budding. A woodcutters' colony on Grand Island, New York, fails because of too much prosperity. E. Netherlands in the Cities 307 Sifting. Many believers also leave settlements, for example, B. Broere. Americanization develops more slowly in the cities than among the pioneers. In 1849 a church organized in Grand Rapids. The presence of one single family can initiate a col- ony. Clymer. Sayville. F. Cooperation 312 In religious matters. The worship of God a stronger tie than race. The case of Broere. Part Three The Growth of the Settlements to Around 1895 11 The Material Growth of the Settlements 319 A. A Comparison 319 Hungarians and Netherlanders in Iowa. The history of the colonies has American history as a background. B. The Development of Transportation 322 The problem of transportation is urgent. Harbors in Michigan and Wisconsin. Lack of proper waterways. Pella's first railroad in 1865. Holland in 1870. Railroads in Wisconsin and Illinois. C. Agriculture and Cattle Raising 329 Wheat and overcropping. After that, corn. In Wisconsin corn and barley; in Michigan, onions and celery. Garden marketing declines in Pella, but increases around the large cities. Pella a small Cincinnati. Farm machinery and productivity. Farmers' homes no longer simple farmhouses. Pella more affluent than Holland. D. Trade and Industry 338 Industry in Pella an intermediate business. Processes the prod- ucts of the surrounding area. Lumber mills, brick ovens, milling business. Holland progresses more slowly. Its time has not yet come. Holland's tannery a truly big business. "The town and the villages here do not amount to much." Rose- land. How Pullman acquired his land. Land bought for $1 and $2 sold for $1,000 per acre. E. The Industrial Colonies 349 Growth of Paterson, Great Falls, Rochester. F. Setbacks 352 Cholera in Pella. Fire in Holland. "With our Dutch determina- tion and American experience, Holland with be rebuilt." 12 Cultural Change: Religious Life 357 A. Local Quarrels 357 The religious character of the settlements. Local and provin- cial differences are maintained in America. Personal disagree- ments cause church quarrels. Also in Graafschap, Drenthe, Chicago, etc. Strong-willed leaders. Quarrels in Holland and Pella. Scholte more of a merchant than a shepherd. B. The First Split 366 The less-educated insist on separation from the Reformed Church. "We have been sold out without our knowledge." Haan and his followers no genuine pioneers. Haan stirs up dissatisfaction. April 8, 1857, birthday of the Christian Re- formed Church. A reaction to Americanization. Van Raalte re- signs himself to it. Revivals. Clapper. Saloons stood empty, streets lay deserted, but God's house was filled. Growth of both denominations. The Reformed Church grows more rapidly. Statistics. C. The Second Split 381 After 1880 rapid growth of True [Ware] brothers. Anti-Free- Masonry movement. Secession under leadership of Reverend L. J. Hulst. Only a few pioneers among them. No room for a third Dutch church denomination. Change of views in the Netherlands. 13 Cultural Change: Education and Missions 389 A. Education 389 Broader interest. Sacrificial spirit. Neither in Holland nor in Pella are parochial schools wanted. However in Grand Rapids they are wanted. The East supports higher education. Van Vleck Hall. Dr. Phelps. Hope College in 1866. Desire for a university. A theological faculty. Suspended temporarily. Stu- dent life. The majority not interested in education. "In order to get through without working." In Pella also a desire for more education initiated by the leaders. A Baptist university. Later purchased by the Calvinists. A theological school in Grand Rapids. The first students accepted with "fear and trembling." A teacher who teaches twenty subjects. Preacher culture. Leads to clashes with old religious convictions. Some also study to become doctors and engineers. The seminary in Du- buque first Dutch, then Ost Frisian, the German. The Catho- lics have their parochial schools and use English because of their mixed character. Much later a college: They lack the ac- tivity of the Calvinists. B. Missions 407 Mission work and mission spirit everywhere present. Strength- ened by the Reformed Church and brought to the masses. A mission ship. E. J. Heeren the pioneer missionary. Otte, Olt- mans, and Zwemer follow. Influences of missions. Little among the Christian Reformed: among the Roman Catholics, none. 14 Cultural Change: Political Life 415 A. Local Politics 415 Office seeking and mutual jealousy. Incorporation of Pella, Holland, Zeeland, and South Holland. B. National Politics: The Choice of a Party 417 Party choice influenced by surrounding Americans. Neighbor- hoods and friendships do not explain everything. Personal judgment is difficult. Emotional element. Yankee pride. Know- Nothings, Whigs, and Republicans often go together. Because of that, many are Democrats. C. The Slavery Question 423 Cotton culture weakened the chance for freedom. Free and slave states. Missouri Compromise. Negroes also mistreated in the North. Among Democrats and Republicans are propo- nents and opponents. Freesoilers. Netherlanders oppose slav- ery, had a part in the Underground Railway. Van Raalte be- comes a Republican. To everyone's surprise Scholte also. Ten- sion during Lincoln's election campaign. Many Democrats op- pose secession. D. The Civil War 430 Netherlanders serving the Union. L. Semeyn, the first one. Others follow. Scholte presents each volunteer with a parcel of free farmland. Women supply bandages, etc. Warm sympathy. Solidarity of short duration. People want no preachers who are active in politics. Scholte wants to become an American am- bassador. Is disappointed. Returns to the normal pattern of life. Christian Reformed members who attend anti-war meet- ings denied the Lord's Supper. Bitterness in Pella. Many leave the city. The Civil War, "an unnecessary waste of blood and goods." "Even though I didn't have American blood in my veins, I gave my blood to this country; this makes for just as strong a bond." E. After the Civil War 438 Now for the first time people feel they are really Americans. Worldly believers. Increased participation in government. Pella remains overwhelmingly Democratic. The majority of Nether- landers elsewhere Republican. The aristocratic tinge of Calvin- ism explains this best. 15 Cultural Change: The Dutch Press 445 The first publications. De Hollander, De Grondwet, church papers. The press in Pella. English newspapers not successful. Pella's Weekblad. Grand Rapids a newspaper center and newspaper grave. De Nederlander in Chicago of historical significance. De Telegraaf in Paterson. The quality of the papers and the signifi- cance of the press. What else people read.

Volume 2

Part Four New Shoots on the Young Dutch Branch 1 Sioux County, A Daughter Colony in the "Farther West" 463 A. The Pioneers of the West 463 They populate the "Farther West." Similarity in mentality. Be your own boss. The contribution of Pella to the new coloniza- tion. Forest colonists more attached to the soil than prairie colonists. The Michigan Netherlanders less materialistic than their countrymen in Iowa. B. Preparations in Pella for a New Settlement 470 Military veterans take the lead. How the private holdings came to be. The new colony is the topic of conversation. C. The New Colony 474 The departure of the first Pella people. Difficulties. Dugouts. A shortage of wood. Orange City. Growth. D. Religious and Political Life in Sioux County's First Years 481 A Sunday morning in Orange City. The Netherlanders demand their share in the county government. Courthouse war. De Volksvriend. E. Setbacks 490 Locusts, dust storms, drought, and floods. The young Hospers. Seine Bolks. Cooperation. The Granger movement. 2 The Growth of the Sioux County Colony to About 1895 501 A. Economic Life 501 Sioux County is booming! Hospers advertises. The population increases in spite of locusts, thanks to the railroads. Wheat and corn the main sources of income. Homes are like man- sions. Industry of little importance. B. Elevator Towns and Church Villages 509 Farming dominates the economy. Influences the manner of settling. Hospers, Alton, Pattersonville, Rock Valley. Church villages. Newkirk, Middleburg, Sioux Center. Contrasts. Orange City. C. Cultural Life 517 Education. An academy and the plan for a university. News- papers. Prairie life here more cheerful than elsewhere. 3 A Colonization in Virginia that Failed 523 A. Why did Van Raalte Choose the East? 523 His great error. Propaganda of the South also drew Van Raalte's attention. Any relationships with Jansen's plans? More likely with those of Schieffelin. B. Amelia County 527 Soil condition. Visit of Cohen Stuart. Mattoax. A luxurious but exhausted land. A dismal impression. C. The Failure 531 Van Rašlte abandons the plan to settle in Virginia. J. Huizinga the leader. Christian Reformed members were helped to move away. Others follow. Also in North Carolina little success. 4 Daughter Colonies in Michigan, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Illinois 535 A. In Michigan 535 Along the Pere Marquette lines. Missaukee County. Vogel Center and Moddersville. Lucas and Eppink advertise the colony. B. In Nebraska and Kansas 541 Journey after the Civil War. Lancaster County, Nebraska-Holland. Pella, and Firth. Jan W. Te Winkel, the pioneer preacher. Settlements in Kansas-Rotterdam, Prairie View, and Luctor. Reverses, especially drought. Settlements in Texas and Colorado failed. C. In Minnesota and Wisconsin 547 Greenleafton, a settlement of Netherlanders from Alto, Wisconsin. Visited by Bloemendaal. Netherlanders from Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, to Baldwin, Tillema founds the village of Friesland. D. In Illinois and Indiana 550 The Calumet district and the Tons. Schoons and others there. Danforth, Wichert, and Koster. Whiteside County. The Tons as locators. E. A Postscript 555 Where are the Roman Catholic daughter colonies? 5 Granddaughters in the Dakotas and Minnesota 559 A. In South and North Dakota 559 To the Black Hills. People search for gold and discover a wheatland. Railroads make it accessible. Journey through Hospers. Netherlanders in Lincoln, and Turner, Charles Mix, and Douglas counties. Reverses. Influence of the prairie on religious life. Congregational rivalry. People left already on Saturday to attend the church service on Sunday. B. In Minnesota 568 Land dealers take the initiative. No more homesteads here. Prinsburg in Kandiyohi Co. Kerkhoven. Leota. An excursion to the Red River Valley unsuccessful. Settlements elsewhere. Part Five Plants That Did Not Take Root Emigration and Colonization Since the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century 6 Emigration Since the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century 579 A. 1855-1880 579 1. Social Conditions in the Netherlands 579 Many grievances resolved. But not all. "Champagne years" for the farmer class. Apart from that, the Jan Salie spirit still rules, notably in Amsterdam. Industry and child labor exploitation. Routine. Obreen encourages moving. 2. Emigration 585 Emigration statistics. Ein Kampf um Raum [A Struggle for Space]. Facilitated by steamboat and railroad traffic and by relatives already living there. Letters and visits. Recruiting. Hospers. Religious influences. 3. The Mormons 590 Associates of the Zwijndrecht Newlights to the Mormons. A. W. Van der Woude, first Dutch Mormon missionary. The first branching in Amsterdam (1862). The first conference at Gorin- chem (1865). The missionary recruiter. B. 1880-1895 594 1. The Agricultural Crisis in the Netherlands 594 Large emigration in spite of increased prosperity. Grain crisis. Untold sorrow and heavy financial blows. A picture of Frisian culture. The crisis spreads. "Work almost impossible to find." Unusual emigration factors. 2. Trafficking in Human Beings 601 Price wars. From Hamburg to New York for $7. For $1 (just one!) from New York to St. Louis. The emigration business of the N.A.S.M. and K.N.S.M. Exportation of paupers. An un- broken stream of people begs the consul-general in New York for help. Tsjibbe Gearts as shipping agent. The True church as recruiting agent. C. Since About 1895 610 Condition of farmers improved. Thousands leave our country in spite of the golden age. Increasing demand for laborers. The natural emigration increases, also due to the pleasant travel conditions. Emigrants traveling under the tariff law. South Af- rican Boers. Shanghaiers and migration politics. 7 New Attempts at Colonization in Minnesota, Directly from the Netherlands 621 A Survey. A "boom." Kloos and his plans. Hardly in Benton County. The St. Paul and Pacific Railroad. Van Schevichaven writes brochures. Knuppe praises the Red River Valley. Prins, Zwanenburg, and Koch. Panegyric from Geerling. All plans fail. Embellished tales and fraud. Much appears to be deceit. 8 Colonization Attempts in California 629 A. Netherlanders to the Gold State 629 Navigation to San Francisco. $15 per day. Very many Nether- landers in California (1864). B. The First Colonization Plans 632 Panegyric of Dozy. A settlement of intellectuals. Songs of praise from Hartogh Heys Van Zouteveen and Obreen. Be careful! C. Vorden 635 Van Loben Sels builds dykes in the Sacramento Valley. The Californian Netherlands attracts the attention of many. Visit of Muller. Our settlers too rigid. D. The "Great Valley" 638 Spanish monks and subtropical fruit. Railroads and irrigation works. Real estate and possibilities. Four companies canvass our country. E. The Merced Drama 641 The Holland California Land Co. Land worth $10 sold for $160-$300, 60 percent down payment. The elite fall for it. To California, the slogan of the aristocratic Netherlanders. Rotter- dam founded. The first suspicion. Colony life. Amsterdam pro- jected. The disaster: hardpan. A too unusual soil. Disillusion- ment. F. The Fresno Drama 650 The Fresno Land Co. Canvassing of the aristocrats of the Netherlands. With similar results. G. Still More Deception 653 Netherlanders in Humboldt County and San Bernardino County. Reverses everywhere. One exception. Berg en Dal [Hill and Dale] near Aptos. The Queen Wilhelmina colony. H. Postscript 656 Few Netherlanders able to establish themselves in California. A protest which is in fact a corroboration. Gerritsen looks in vain for fellow countrymen. Why none of the settlements took root. Individuals who were successful. 9 Settlements in Colorado and New Mexico 663 The Parks. Railway interests and colonization. Oewel. The Colo- rado Land and Emigration Company. No success. Van Motz advertises Manitou and surroundings. Maxwell Land Grant Co. The Christian Reformed Church in Maxwell City. The Nether- lands American Land and Emigration Company presents itself as a philanthropic institution based on Christianity. Believing Netherlanders are exploited and deceived. With initial Many embark. Disappointments. Underhand dealings at Ellis Island as in the Netherlands and elsewhere. Alamosa. The San Luis Valley tums out not to be volcanic but of sandstone; infer- tile. Land purchased for $26 per acre, not worth even $5. The brochure of the Christian Utrecht Company a string of lies. It did not even own land, only an option on 15,000 acres. A "Farmer-Committee" formed; buys other land. Crook and Ril- land. Both fail. Reasons for the disaster. The Heersinks remain. 10 Settlements in the Northwest 679 A. In Washington and Oregon 679 Interest rates. The Dutch mortgage business in America. In- fluence on emigration and colonization. A fjord-rich coast and a basalt-rich interior. De Smet. Spokane. Van Wijk gives pointers. The Spokane flour mills. Phoenix Lumber Co. Hol- land Bank and Holland Land Company. Insinger. A colony at Springdale. The Yakima Valley. The Puget Sound draws more Netherlanders. Whidbey Island. Fugitives from Canada. As in the days of Van Raalte. Countryside and towns. A coming and going. Church life. B. In Montana and Idaho 693 Interior states. Immigration encouraged by the Carey Act and Desert Act. Dry farming. Mortgage business. Manhattan. Con- rad and Choteau. Wormser City. Big Timber and Billings. Ro- man Catholics in Montana. "Little more than a living for his labor." Americans are uneasy about settling on irrigated land. A changeable climate. Montana for a great past uninhabitable. Acknowledgement of this by the government. Settlements that were total failures. 11 Colonization Attempts in the South 703 A. In Virginia and Maryland 703 Shortage of laborers. The homesteader driven from the North- west to the South by drought. Panegyrics of Charles Boisse- vain. The Boissevains and Norfolk. No success in Maryland. B. In Texas 706 Haagsma defends the South. Capital from the Netherlands and the Kansas City Southern Railroad. Port Arthur Land Com- pany. Nederland, a rice and market gardening colony. Colo- nists of every stripe. A coronation feast as advertising. A cul- tural image. A failure. Port Arthur and its Dutch institutions. "Citizenship in Port Arthur means something." The settlement of Winnie. Bloemendaal takes a look and meets an enthusias- tic elder. Market gardening and rice culture. Failure. Idenburg and Harlingen, Dallas and San Antonio. C. In Arkansas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida 716 Netherlanders few in number there. A colony called Moore in Oklahoma. Roman Catholic priests in Louisiana. Former cot- ton land divided into forties. Father Wijnhoven. Opposition. Netherlanders in Alabama. Florida, the Riviera of the United States, advertised as market garden and tobacco land. A Fri- sian dairy colony near Tampa. Jacksonville and Miami. D. In Virginia and North Carolina 721 A colony of intellectuals in Basic City. The name of the A.N.V. [Algemeen Nederlandsch Verbond] misused. Castle Haynes, the Boskoop of the United States. Van Eeden's colony. Van Eeden's social ideas in the service of land speculation. Disap- pointments. Terra Ceia. Services rendered by henchmen. Cli- mate causes many failures. 12 Roman Catholic and Miscellaneous Settlements 729 Catholic Colonization Society. Its settlements each a paradise in itself. The Priesterbond [Priests' Association]. A colony at Butler, Minnesota. Reckless recruitment. Wilhemina in Mis- souri. "Havens of security." A tenant farmer colony in North Dakota. Orchard Valley a mistake. An ideal colony and an ideal way of emigrating. Part Six The Contemporary Significance of Dutch Americans 13 The Economic Development of the Settlements Since About 1895 and Their Present-Day Significance 743 A. General Economic Trends 743 1. The Spreading Out of the Settlements 743 The earlier influence of great men and the closing of a great historic movement. The shortage of land results in buying out the weak and in local expansion. A quiet war. In Michigan. In Illinois and Iowa. The Germans offer the strongest resistance. The Ost Frisians threatened in their stronghold of Little Rock. Frictions. Jealousy of Americans. Brings them to barn burnings and school burnings. Primitive and corrupt judges. 2. Other Consequences of the Disappearance of Free Land 763 Endless subdividing of land and fabulous prices. $1,000 per acre. The crash. Many ruined. Tenant farmers. Rather prefer to sacrifice country life. Falling prices. An exodus. Statistics. B. The Settlements Around 1925 770 1. In Michigan 770 An agricultural colony. Fruit, celery, potatoes, sugar beets, and a cooperative movement. Industrialization. Commerce and summer homes. "Captains of industry." Many-sided spiritual life. Missaukee County. 2. In Wisconsin 788 Agriculture and cattle raising predominant. Great prosperity. Also among the Roman Catholics. Waterfalls, commerce, and industry. 3. In Illinois 792 Onions and onion kings. 4. In Iowa 794 Pella an agricultural and retirement town. Cooperation. Sioux County is even more prosperous. "The best farmers among the Dutch." 5. Smaller Settlements Elsewhere 803 The settlements in Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota. An orchard colony in Wayne County. New York. Hollandale, Min- nesota. Little Netherlands in California. 14 Dutch Colonies in the Cities 811 A. In Paterson, Rochester, Grand Rapids, and Chicago Statistics. The majority of townspeople also settled in the West. Employed in the furiture and silk industries. Dutch characteristics. Prosperity. Church membership gives a head start. A "homey city." Houses on installments. Netherlanders as "scabs." Pathetic conditions in a glorious country. Con- struction workers, painters, and contractors. Frisians as do- mestics. Storekeepers and intellectuals. Around the cities cattle and truck farmers. A reverse development. B. In New York 831 Diamond Workers. A floating colony. "I find more real patriot- ism on Fifth Street than I find on Fifth Avenue." Dispersion. A harbor colony at Hoboken; a commercial colony in New York. The first diamond workers. P. De Bruyn. Influence of tariffs. Representatives of Dutch firms. C. In San Francisco 839 Very diverse population. Laborer colonies and commercial colonies. The oil element. People from the East Indies. 15 Cultural Life in the Settlements 843 A. The Church Denominations 843 Every society dominated by the dead and the living. Influence of the former is greater. The characteristics of the Reformed Church and of the Christian Reformed Church. Significance of the Western branch of the Reformed Church. Why both churches did not unite. Playing leapfrog. Cooperation in many areas. Reciprocal appreciation. The power of the dead. Also without unification, secession takes place. Rule or ruin. The real pioneers are the most Americanized. Dissident churches. Netherland's Reformed Churches. Berean Reformed Church. Protesting IProtestantl Reformed Churches. Safety valves. Mod- ernism does not flourish. The Roman Catholics. B. Education 857 1. Higher and Secondary Education 857 Jealousy and self-criticism. Reformed education. Hope Col- lege. Western Theological Seminary. Central College. Acade- mies. Christian Reformed education. The Theological School in Grand Rapids. Calvin College. Academies. 2. The Elementary Education Problem 870 Revival of the Christian school. A total of about eighty. "Es- sentially the same under a new name." The Reformed people will not hear of it. Neither will the educated Christian Re- formed. The Roman Catholics do. Consequences of the school struggle. 3. Results of This Education 876 Hope and Calvin highly regarded. Statistics. Theologians, mis- sionaries, and teachers. C. Missions and Scholarship 878 1. Mission Work 878 The interest of the Christian Reformed centers on education, that of the Reformed on missions. Statistics. The share of the West: one-third pays 45 percent of the cost and provides 52 percent of the missionaries. Amoy and Arcot missions. Mis- sions in Japan and Arabia. Among Italians, Hungarians, and Negroes. Increasing mission interest among the Christian Re- formed. Navahos and Zunis. City missions. The work in Hobo- ken. In China. Results. 2. At the Universities 884 Calvin and Hope alumni as scholars and leaders. D. Politcal Life 886 1. Participation of the Dutch in Government 886 Docility. Increasing participation in local government. Espe- cially in Paterson and Grand Rapids. National politics and eloquence. Declamatory contests. An education increases by four-hundred times the chance of becoming a leader. Repre- sentatives and senators. High officials. Election figures and the factors, that explain them. Women also vote. Patronage sometimes determines the choice. Noisy election days. 2. "Third" Parties and Social Issues 903 Disgruntled people in the West. The Non-Partisan League. Fas et Jus in Grand Rapids. Little success, jut as among similar groups. Socialism languishes. Orthodoxy does not tolerate it. Things are too good for the Hollanders and spirituality has "turned moldy." Judgments become milder and more broad- minded, even as "a protest against social evils." J. Groen a pioneer. Labor unions. The judgment of the Christian Re- formed church postponed. Prohibition. Ku Klux Klan and im- perialism. E. The Press 914 Financially supported during the elections. The strict orthodox papers are politically independent. The best papers in factory centers. The losers. Newcomers. Survey of existing papers. Contents. The Mormons read the secular articles with the rich- est content. The more orthodox the paper, the better the Dutch. "English" papers. A newspaper war. The American Daily Standard. F. Colonial Literature 942 Its development. Mulder and his work Reflections of colonial life. Translations. "Zwaantle No Longer Speaks Dutch." G. Comparisons 956 Results of individual emigration. Kuipers, Bok, De Kruif, Van Loon, and many others. Not all succeeded. By preference one does not associate with compatriots. H. The Significance of the Dutch Americans for the Netherlands 963 They made room and reduced unemployment Influence on our agriculture was minor. Coopersburg Remigration. 16 From Netherlander to American 969 A. To What Extent the Colonists Became Americans 969 Apparently few Dutch characteristics remained. Neither in city layout, home design, nor in daily life. Desire for ostentation and prestigious churches. "Rank and Dignity reign supreme." Naive character of social life. Family days. Halloween. The elderly act boyish: the young act maturely. A coachman who studies to become a minister. "Self-made people." B. To What Extent the Colonists Remained Netherlanders 985 Sunday rest. Neatness. Homelife. Tenacity of the Dutch lan- guage. Dialects. "Mien Moudertoal" ["My Mother tongue"]. Young people little inclined to study Dutch. Squeezed out. Language maintains itself longest in the churches. English six days a week. Dutch on Sunday in church. What is still read in Dutch. The A.N.V. not popular among the Dutch Americans. Does not belong there. Our language doomed to die out. El- lerbroek taught all his children Dutch. Dries Bosch tells much evil about the Netherlands but taught his ten children to read and write in Dutch. Dutch spirit strongest in the Midwest. The women's share in the language deterioration. With the lan- guage other values are lost. Psychological and physical changes. No Indian types. Even Bok is still viewed as a for- eigner. Homesickness and race-consciousness. Group spirit. A devastating judgment. Concluding remarks. Notes 1023 Bibliography 1099 Index 1115

List of Photos, Charts, and Maps

Dr. Albertus C. Van Raalte ii Volume One Map of the New Netherlands 22 Old Dutch memories in New York and New Jersey 63 Map of the state of Iowa at the arrival of the Netherlanders 144 The receipt of ownership (deed) of Jannes Van de Luyster 147 Map of Protestant Settlements in Wisconsin 151 Spiritual leaders of the immigrants 178 Map of Roman Catholic settlements in Wisconsin 181 A document that denies supposed indifference of our government 189 Another document which proves the concern of the government for the immigration 190 A section and its further divisions 209 Map of Ottawa County, Michigan 216 Map of Allegan County, Michigan 217 How an American chops down a tree 219 How an American builds a fence 219 In pioneer days: a log cabin, the first school, and the first church 247 An old plat map of Pella Map Pocket Plat map of Amsterdam, Marion County, Iowa 277 A celery field and old farmsteads near New Groningen and Holland, Michi- gan 335 The development of Pella 342 Volume Two Leaders of the new colony in Sioux County: Bolks and Hospers 460 Map of Sioux County, Iowa 486 A farm near Orange City, Iowa 507 Map of Sioux Center, Iowa Map Pocket Map of Maurice, Iowa Map Pocket Map of the Van Raalte colony and environs in Michigan 536 Map of the forest colony in Missaukee County, Michigan 538 Map of Lancaster County, Nebraska 542 Map of settlements in the northern districts of Kansas 544 Map of settlements near Chicago, Illinois 552 Map of Whiteside County, Illinois 554 Map of the southeastern area of South Dakota 563 Map of Emmons County, North Dakota 565 Map of Lamoure County, North Dakota 566 Map of Kandiyohi County, Minnesota 570 Map of southwestern Minnesota 572 Map of settlements in the mideastern district of Minnesota and Pine County 574 Map of California 643 Map of Colorado and northern New Mexico 665 Map of Washington 683 Map of Montana 696 Map of the Kansas Southern Railroad 708 Map of the field of activity of the Holland-Dakota Agricultural Company in North Dakota 736 Chart of the numerical significance of the Dutch in America 744 The expansion drive of Dutch-American farmers in Hudsonville, Michigan, and Doon, Iowa 750 Map of the expansion drive of the Netherlanders around Pella,Iowa 754 Map of the conquest of districts around Sioux, County, Iowa 757 Map of where most Dutch Americans live in the United States 771 Plat Map of the city of Holland, Michigan Map Pocket Holland, Michigan: Commerce and industry 776 Holland, Michigan: Its traffic 781 Zeeland, Michigan, and its environs 784 Map of the settlements in Wisconsin 789 The farm of Otto Van Roekel near Orange City, Sioux County, Iowa 797 Orange City. Sioux County, Iowa 798 Sioux Center, Sioux County, Iowa 799 The late Piet Mouw and his business 802 Map of Zeeland settlements in Wayne County. New York 805 Map of the geographical distribution of the Dutch settlements in the United States 813 Why the Dutch at Grand Rapids have little interest in socialism 815 Dutch blue-collar districts in Grand Rapids, Michigan 819 Dutch neighborhoods in Grand Rapids, Michigan 821 Dutch shopping streets in Grand Rapids, Michigan 826 Dutch store magnates in Grand Rapids, Michigan 827 Cultural life in Holland, Michigan 846 Distinguished pioneer children of Holland, Michigan 861 Dutch-American institutions of secondary and higher education 864 Religious and political leaders of Reformed and Christian Reformed Dutch American 874 Guy Madderom's election campaign advertisement in Onze Toekomst 888 English translation of Guy Madderom's campaign advertisement in Onze Toekomst 889 Advertisement for Calvin Intercollegiate Debates 892 An election advertisement in De Telegraaf 898 English translation of an election advertisement in De Telegraaf 899 Map of the geographic distribution of Dutch papers in the United States 923 A fragment of De Volksvriend 925 How land speculators advertise among "our people" 930 Advertisements in De Volksvriend and other papers 931 The "Netherlandic" press in the United States (1) 936 The "Netherlandic press in the United States (2) 937 Advertisement, "Why the American Daily Failed," in De Hope 940 English translation of advertisement, "Why the American Daily Failed," in De Hope 941 Expressions of attachment to the Old Country 966 A bulletin of the Hope Reformed Church, Holland, Michigan 974 The renowned Ton family 978 Advertisements for the Ottawa County Fair, Holland, Michigan 980 Pella's 75th birthday notice 982 English translation of Pella birthday notice 983 A prolific immigrant family 1012 Young intellectuals enroute to and in America 1021

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