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Sources Cited in
The rise of New York Port [1815-1860]

by
Robert Greenhalgh Albion, with the collaboration of Jennie Barnes Pope


© 1967 Northeastern University Press
Reproduced 2001 with permission of the publisher

Go to:   Table of Contents   |   Index   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog


BIBLIOGRAPHY


This bibliography includes only those sources which have been particu-
larly pertinent to this work; it is out of the question, in view of the many
ramifications of the subject, to list all those which have been of incidental
service.

For convenience, the bibliography has been divided into the following
thirty sections:
1. Bibliographical Aids 
2. Manuscripts 
3. Newspapers 
4. Periodicals 
5. Government Documents 
6. Annual Reports 
7. Statistics 
8. Manuals, Dictionaries, etc. 
9. Memoirs and Diaries 
10. Biography, collected
11. Biography, individual
12. Port of New York, History
13. New York City, General 
14. New York City, Soc
15. New York City, Description, etc.ial
16. Port Functions
17. Business Methods
18. Shipbuilding
19. Shipping, General, and Sea Routes
20. Shipping, Particular Groups
21. Steamboats and Steamships
22. General Commerce and Transatlantic Trade
23. Manufactures, Foreign and Domestic
24. The "Cotton Triangle" andCoasting Trade
25. Caribbean and Latin America
26. "Distant Seas"
27. Hinterland, Canals, and Railroads
28. Hudson River
29. Immigration and Passengers
30. Miscellaneous
Sources of particular pertinence or utility are marked with an asterisk (*).

I. Bibliographical Aids

American Association of Port Authorities, Bibliographic Notes on Ports and Harbors, compiled by Perry Young (1926). Most of the items deal with period later than this study. E. B. Green and R. B. Morris, A Guide to the Principal Sources for Early American History, 1600 to 1800, in the City of New York (1929). Designed for earlier period, but gives useful survey of collections. Winifred Gregory, American Newspapers, 1821-1936: A Union List of Files available in the United States and Canada (1937). G. G. Griffin, Writings on American History (annual since 1906). *A. R. Hasse, Index of Economic Material in the Documents of... New York, 1789-1904 (Carnegie Institute) (1907). Invaluable guide to scattered references in annual state documents. 425 Library of Congress, Division of Bibliography, Select Lists of References. An extensive and ever-increasing list of special bibliographies, some of which are mimeographed, including such as numbers 72, Harbors (1915); 452, Immigration (1920); and 1049, Early American Ships and Shipping (1928). R. B. Morris, "The Federal Archives of New York City" in American Historical Review, XLII, pp. 256-72 (1937). New York Public Library, Bulletin. Includes numerous special bibliographies, such as "Financial and Com- mercial History, etc., of the City of New York" V, pp. 42-59 (1905), and "Waterfront of the City of New York, its Harbors, Docks, Fer- ries, etc.," ibid., pp. 167-72. *I. N. P. Stokes, Iconography of Manhattan Island, VI (1928); "Bibliog- raphy" by V. H. Paltsits. The most comprehensive critical New York City bibliography of manu- script and published sources, compiled by the director of the Manu- scripts Division in the New York Public Library. Supersedes earlier Osgood report on public archives.

II. Manuscripts

NEW YORK CUSTOM HOUSE These records have been the most serviceable of the unpublished records for this study. They contain a wealth of detail about the vessels, their movements, and their crews, but unfortunately reveal little about their cargoes, since manifests are preserved for only ten years. *Certificates of Registry. *Certificates of Enrolment. Two separate series, for vessels in foreign and domestic trade re- spectively; about 500 certificates in each series each year until around 1850, when number increased. Steam vessels are segregated for most of the period. A new certificate was issued for every shift in owner- ship or structural change. Each certificate indicates tonnage, dimen- sions, place of building, master, and owners; the builder's name is generally given only for new vessels and proportional shares of owner- ship only from 1848 onwards. The records have been rebound in canvas and stored in steel cases, under immediate supervision of the Marine Division. Unfortunately there are serious gaps in each series. *Foreign Arrivals. *Foreign Clearances. These indicate every movement in foreign trade, giving name of vessel, master, tonnage and, in early years, general nature of cargo. Coastwise Arrivals. Coastwise Clearances. Only a minor portion of the vessels engaged in coastwise trade were 426 required to enter or clear at the custom house; consequently these do not present a complete picture, as do the foreign arrivals and clearances. Both of these series are also Marine Division records. *Crew Lists. Cover all voyages in foreign, but not in coasting, trade. Each list gives master's name, together with details of nativity, residence, age, height, complexion, etc., of the mates and other crew, with notes on desertion and the like. The personal details were often entered in too perfunctory a manner to be reliable. These papers, directly under the Records Division, are stored in the sub-cellar, in bundles with end boards; they are arranged in order of arrival by years in two series-"T. P." (this port) for vessels of New York registry, and "O. P." (other ports) for the rest. Miscellaneous. Various other customs collections were of occasional service. The passenger lists are not open to general inspection, but information concerning particular vessels, from 1819 onwards, may be had upon request to the Records Division. The state records of immigration have been destroyed by fire. The records of the custom houses at Perth Amboy and other nearby places are also preserved at New York. UNITED STATES COURT, SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK Extensive collection of records of the federal courts, both district and circuit, are preserved in the new Federal Court Building under the super- vision of the clerk of courts. The papers have recently been cleaned, sorted and stored in steel cases by the Historical Records Survey. *Dockets. Admiralty and Criminal Dockets were of particular value, giving brief summaries of each case; do not start until latter part of period. Sep- arate criminal dockets for District and Circuit Courts. *Papers. A very wide variety of material in connection with admiralty, criminal, customs and other types of cases, including many business documents of a sort difficult to find elsewhere. Some of the papers filed under heading "Embargo" contain material on slaving and customs violations. There are also papers dealing with "deceased seamen." SURROGATE COURT, NEW YORK COUNTY (Hall of Records) Wills. Copies of all wills probated in Manhattan (the old New York City) from the mid-seventeenth century; indicate nature of estates and be- quests. Excellent cumulative index series facilitates identifying ap- proximate date of death. The similar records for Kings County (Brooklyn) are useful for many shipmasters. The Connecticut probate records help to identify numerous New York mariners and merchants, 427 but search is difficult since they are preserved in separate towns rather than at the county seats. NATIONAL ARCHIVES (Washington, D. C.) *Consular Despatches. Recently removed from State Dept.; bound in volumes by ports. The despatches themselves contain only incidental material of value; but after the early 'thirties, each consul was expected to report semi- annually the movements of all vessels of American registry at his port. These indicated the master, tonnage, number of crew, the ports from which they arrived and for which they cleared, and, in the more com- plete records (Havre was better than Liverpool in this respect), the nature of the inward and outward cargoes, and, at some ports, the value of those cargoes. The despatches themselves, from 1856 onwards, were published in Commercial Relations, but the semi-annual reports were only summarized. PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE (London) The despatches of the British consuls stationed at the principal American ports contain occasional interesting, objective comments upon the rivalry of the ports. FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY OF LIVERPOOL American Chamber of Commerce Minutes. Four volumes contain the minutes of the American Chamber at Liver- pool, throwing considerable light on New York's vital relations with that port; numerous former New Yorkers were among the members of the chamber. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK Minutes. Four volumes contain the manuscript minutes of the Chamber down to 1858 when the printed reports began. The minutes contain part, but not all, of the Chamber's memorials, petitions and committee reports. Photostatic copies of these originals are in the Manuscript Division of the New York Public Library. The early portion of these minutes, 1768-1784, were published as "Colonial Records" in 1867. *Arbitration Records. A little old chest contains many of the papers of the Chamber's arbi- tration committees, particularly for the period of this study (see text). The earlier committee minutes, for 1779-1792, have been published. NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY Bayard Papers. Scattered correspondence of William Bayard and his great firm of Leroy, Bayard & McEvers during the years 1786-1826. 428 *Allan Melville Papers. Business papers of the father of Herman Melville; 9 boxes and 2 vol- umes, especially useful for Havre trade. Include letter book of French business, 1818-25; accounts of importations and sales of goods, 1821- 32; and bills of lading, 1803-26. *Thomas W. Williams Papers. Twenty-two boxes of "in letters" of New London merchant, in constant correspondence with New York about disposing of West Indian cargoes, purchase of ships for whalers, etc. Cyrus Williams Papers. Ledger, 1818-61, of merchant and cotton manufacturer of North Stonington and New Haven; useful details of country merchant's barter trade. Letters, two boxes, have scant New York connection. *Dennis L. Doyle Account Book. "Ship Book" containing ledger accounts of New York ship chandler, 1823-29; indicate nature of ship stores and amounts purchased for particular voyages. *Levi Coit Letter Books. Two volumes (1796-1804, 1808-1816) of New York commission merchant; particularly useful for operations in cotton. Brown Bros. & Co. Business Records. Of the 176 volumes of accounts of the great private bankers, the only particularly pertinent one is vol. 31, "Custom House Entries, 1827-33" with details of linen and tea cargoes. Dodge Papers. Personal and mercantile account books of William E. Dodge, 1830-70, 46 vols., and miscellaneous papers of Phelps, Dodge & Co., 1832-59; latter contain interesting statements of metal sales by consignees at cotton ports. Thomas K. Jones & Co. Papers. "In letters" of Boston auctioneers and commission merchants, 1808- 32; particularly good for letters from Jeremiah and Francis Thomp- son concerning textile consignments, 1818-19. *Frederick S. Wolcott Diary. Two volumes, 1849-54, by New York dry goods jobber and agent for New England textiles; occasional details of that trade, in addition to brother's China trade, and social notes about Howlands. Jonathan Bulkley Diary. Photostat of first of three volumes in Pequot Library at Southport, Conn.; covers 1802-26; kept at Mill River, near Fairfield, Conn. De- tails of Sound sloop movements. Hunt, Merriam & Co., Order Book. Record of a few jobbers' sales of thread; together with informal pen- cilled notes of credit standing of various customers, 1851. 429 Customs Papers. Miscellaneous documents, 1792-1865, including interesting batch of applications and testimonials for customs berths in 1852 and business details of building of new custom house. (Moses Taylor Papers.) This immense collection, filling some fifty large wooden packing cases, contains more than a thousand account books and much correspondence concerning the Cuban trade, New York banking, etc., but will not be available to scholars until sorted and arranged, a matter of several years of work. The Manuscript Division also has a large amount of material for the period 1783-I8I5, including the letter books of Stephen Jumel. NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY While rich in material for that same 1783-1815 period, particularly with the letter books of P. P. & R. C. Livingston and the account books of Howland & Grinnell, the Society has little for the period of this study except for the 28 quarto volumes of the Philip Hone diary, thoroughly ex- ploited and edited by Tuckerman and later by Nevins (see Memoirs and Diaries). BAKER LIBRARY, HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (Including the manuscripts of the Business Historical Society) John Jacob Astor Papers. Collection of 22 volumes and 15 boxes, including material of New York China trade; thoroughly utilized by Porter (see Biography). Pierson Receipt Book. Indicates diversified trade of Isaac G. Pierson & Bros., New York commission merchants, importing iron and dealing in many domestic products, 1827-33. A. P. Gibson & Co., Letter Book. Covers wide range of New York business operations, I8I6--I8; includ- ing specimens of instructions to captains. *W. W. Gordon & Co., Papers. More than 500 volumes of Savannah firm of cotton dealers (Reed & Tison at start), 1856-1916, including letter books, journals, ledgers, etc., but most of the material too late for this period. Useful in con- junction with Bostwick papers at Yale. Perkins Papers. Ledgers and day books, 18 vols., of Andrew & Joseph Perkins, mer- chants of Norwich, Conn., similar in value to Cyrus Williams ledger above, in showing dealings of country merchant, with occasional West Indian dealings. Cover period 1783-1825. 430 BIBLIOGRAPHY 431 *Mercantile Marine Insurance Co., Risk Book. Contains list of individual risks taken by this Boston company, 1830- 73, including numerous trips from New York. Useful for indicating fluctuations in rates; supplements American Mutual papers, below. Log Books. Logs of several vessels on voyages from New York during the period. YALE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY (New Haven, Conn.) *Bostwick Papers. Extensive collection of letter books, ledgers, journals, cash books, sales books, bill of lading books, and memorandum books of William Bost- wick (including firms of E. Campfield & Co., Burton & Bostwick and Bostwick & Baird), commission merchant and cotton factor at Augusta, Ga., covering years 1826-45 (see text). RUTGERS UNIVERSITY LIBRARY (New Brunswick, N. J. ) Neilson Papers. Large collection of manuscript material from the Neilson family o f New Brunswick, N. J., covering a considerable part of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, including material illustrative of trade in flour, etc., between New Brunswick and New York, with movements of the family's sloops. Eveleth & Wood Papers. Letter books of Boston commission merchants in leather, boots and shoes around 1840 (see text). STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LIBRARY (Hoboken, N. J.) John Stevens Papers. Extensive correspondence, accounts and memoranda on his pioneer experiments in steamboating, chiefly for years 1807-16; material well utilized by Turnbull. ATLANTIC MUTUAL INSURANCE CO. (49 Wall St., N. Y. C.) *"Vessel Disasters." Continuous series of more than 320 quarto volumes from 1852 to present (25 volumes to I86I) . Designed to keep office posted on latest information concerning all accidents to American vessels and some foreign vessels frequenting New York. Usual entry in old books con- sisted of clipping f rom newspaper marine news, together with notations on company's insurance involved, if any, indicating amounts insured on vessel, freight, and cargo and, occasionally, amounts insured by other companies. *Inspectors' Reports. Seven quarto volumes of confidential reports of the company's in- spectors, 1847-52, upon various classes from sloops up to ships, in- 431 cluding many hailing from other ports. In addition to conventional data on ownership, dimensions, materials and rating as given in later printed reports, contain interesting informal observations of a sort not easily obtainable elsewhere, especially for smaller craft. Financial Statements. One volume of printed annual statements, accompanied by specimens of annual dividend certificates or "scrip." Company Biography. Entries for every officer and employe of the company from the be- ginning, indicating length of service and other data. ESSEX INSTITUTE (Salem, Mass.) Large collection of early log books, some of which give details of transient voyages touching at New York. PRIVATE PAPERS *Low Manuscripts. Detailed annual reports of A. A. Low & Bros. to part owners of Houqua and other Low ships, giving a wealth of detail upon the eco- nomic side of shipowning, port expenses, etc., in possession of William G. Low, Esq., of Tuxedo Park, N. Y., grand nephew of A. A. Low. *Knox Manuscripts. Papers of Alexander Knox, Jr., New York merchant-shipowner; in- cluding "receipt book," 1838-42, indicating port expenses, etc.; passage book, 1831-35, with individual steerage and cabin accounts, indicating sureties, for immigrants, of ship Camillus on New York-Greenock run; log of ship Warsaw, 1840, on "cotton triangle" voyage; diary 1836-38, including account of a Black Ball passage; and two letters, 1842, with details of shipowning, etc. In possession of his great-grandson, Alex- ander O. Vietor, Esq., of New York City. Griswold Manuscripts. Early letter book of N. L. & G. Griswold around 1800, one of the few records escaping the fire which later destroyed their countinghouse; also memoranda and recollections by the late Frank G. Griswold, in the possession of George Griswold, Esq., of Greenwich, Conn.

III. Newspapers

The day-by-day search of the New York newspaper files for the almost half-century of this period has constituted the backbone of the research for this volume. The files of at least one New York daily, and generally more than one, together with the complete files of the semi-weekly Shipping List yielded an immense amount of information not to be secured elsewhere. The three chief items of value in the daily papers were (a) "marine intel- ligence," listing all arrivals and clearances, frequently with incidental re- marks on the trips; (b) general marine news; and (c) advertisements, which revealed much of incidental value. The same newspaper was seldom best for all three, so that it was desirable to consult several. Most of them were used in the research room of the Newspaper Division at New York Public Library. For location of particular files, consult the Gregory Union List, mentioned under Bibliographical Aids. The dates given below indicate the whole period of the paper's existence, even though much of it falls outside the period of this study. NEW YORK NEWSPAPERS Commercial Advertiser (1797-1904). Daily Advertiser (1817-1836). *Evening Post (1801 to present). Mercantile Advertiser (1792-1838). These four are all useful to 1827, after which others below are better. The Post was most useful for general news and editorials, but weak in advertising; the Daily Advertiser had much statistical material but was inferior in general news. The Mercantile Advertiser was consulted at the Library of Congress. *Journal of Commerce (1827 to present). Best for 1827-35 and useful after that for detailed statistics, analyses, and advertising. *Herald (1835-1924). Most useful general newspaper from 1835 onwards. Bennett's news schooners generally gathered the fullest and freshest marine news; his special correspondents sent intelligent reports from other cities; and his lively interest in things maritime led to frequent valuable special articles. As in some of the other papers, useful annual summaries of commerce, shipbuilding, etc., appeared around the end of each year. Advertising, however, was not as full as in some of the "Wall Street Press." Times (1851 to present). Only New York daily file available at Princeton before 1861, so con- sulted frequently for details, but treatment of marine news not as full or lively as in Herald. *Shipping and Commercial List and New York Price Current (1815-1926). Invaluable for statistics and factual details, though containing few general articles. Listed arrivals and clearances at all principal American seaports, with analyses of cargoes arriving at New York. For most of period contained monthly statistics of exports of chief commodities, and frequent statements of rates of freight, insurance, commissions, pilotage, etc., in addition to "price current" of commodities each issue. Later volumes well indexed for the year. Semi-weekly; title varies. OTHER CITIES Baltimore Price Current and Weekly Journal of Commerce (1850-1908). Boston Commercial Gazette (1795-1840), merged in Boston Semi-Weekly Advertiser to 1876. (Boston) Columbian Centinel (1784-1840). Charleston Mercury (1822-1868). Liverpool Mercury (1811-1904). (London) Times (1785 to present), with useful separate index. New Orleans Price Current (1822-1884, title varies). (Philadelphia) Grotjan's Philadelphia Public Sale Report (1812-1827). Philadelphia Price Current (1827-1931, title varies). (Portland) Eastern Argus (1803-1921).

IV. Periodicals

Albion, a Journal of News, Politics and Literature (1822-1875). A British weekly published at New York. *DeBow's Review (1846-1862, title varies). Edited by J. D. B. DeBow at New Orleans; devoted chiefly to eco- nomic matters, principally southern. Harper's Weekly (1857-1916). *Hunt's Merchant's Magazine and Commercial Review (1840-1869). One of the most valuable single sources for this study. Edited by Free- man Hunt at New York; two volumes each year. A mine of pertinent material, both in general articles on commercial and maritime subjects, and in special items, together with much statistical matter, both current and in tables for periods of years. Contains studies of most of the first- and second-rate seaports of the world. Each volume well indexed. Illustrated London News (1842 to present). Leslie's Illustrated Weekly Magazine (1855-1922). These two, with Harper's above, contain many woodcuts of varying merit, illustrating the shipping and port scenes. Several cuts from Leslie's are reproduced in this book. Nautical Gazette (1871 to present). Niles' Weekly Register (1811-1849). Edited by Hezekiah Niles at Baltimore. Not as strictly commercial as Hunt, but useful for early years of period. Sailor's Magazine and Naval Journal (1828 to present, title varies). Issued by the American Seamen's Friend Society at New York; con- tains much about seamen's welfare and shipwrecks. Complete files in libraries of Society and Chamber of Commerce. United States Commercial and Statistical Register (1839-1842). Edited by Samuel Hazard of Philadelphia; some New York informa- tion is also contained in his Register of Pennsylvania (1828-1835).

V. Government Documents

(See also Annual Reports) GREAT BRITAIN Parliament, Sessional Papers ("Blue Books"). Occasional special papers, such as general inquiries on commerce, ship- ping, and emigration, were of service. Good cumulative indices availa- ble. See lists of pertinent papers in bibliographies of N. S. Buck, Anglo-American Trade and S. C. Johnson, Emigration from the United Kingdom. NEW YORK CITY Manual of the Common Council (see Annual Reports). NEW YORK STATE Legislative Documents (Senate Documents, House Documents, Reports, etc.). Thoroughly analyzed in Hasse. Law Reports. Various series for state courts, in addition to federal courts indicated below. Many of the pertinent commercial cases, as summarized in Hunt's Merchant's Magazine, are conveniently listed in W. F. Poole, Index to Periodical Literature, I, pp. 821-23; also consult various digests under appropriate topics. Statutes. Published annually; include many regulations concerning port, and, in earlier years, incorporation of insurance and steamboat companies. Titles of all acts affecting New York City, together with text of laws current in 1855, are given in H. E. Davies, The Laws of the State of New York, relating particularly to the City of New York (1855). UNITED STATES American State Papers. Collection of early official documents in several series. The Commerce and Navigation series includes the annual reports on that subject to 1821, with other incidental material; the Finance, Military Affairs and Naval Affairs contain only occasional pertinent matter. Congressional Documents. This tremendous collection, arranged under Senate Documents, Senate Reports, House (Executive) Documents, House Reports, etc., for each session of Congress, includes most of the material published under government auspices during our period. In addition to the annual re- ports (q.v.) on various subjects, they contain special papers indicated separately. Convenient cumulative indices are available. Congressional Record (and other collections of debates). Occasional material, concerning steamship subsidies, etc. Law Reports. Series of important cases in Supreme Court and lower federal courts. See remarks under state law reports. Statutes at Large.

VI. Annual Reports, Official and Unofficial

Boston Board of Trade, Annual Reports (since 1854-55). *Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, Annual Reports (since 1858-59). Unfortunately, this invaluable series did not start until the very end of our period. Each issue, in addition to recording the business of the Chamber in continuation of the old manuscript records, contains de- tailed analyses of the trade in various commodities-dry goods, sugar, coffee, etc., with abundant statistics and accounts of the state of the market for the year; together with sections on marine insurance, lists of marine losses, etc. Each volume is well indexed; and a cumulative index, both for the early manuscript minutes and later printed reports, is being prepared by Miss L. Elsa Loeber, librarian of the Chamber. NEW YORK CITY Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York, 28 vols. (1848-1871). Popularly known as "Valentine's Manual," having been edited until 1866 by D. T. Valentine. In addition to full lists of city officials and municipal activities, Valentine included much early historical material and reproduced many maps and pictures. The "new series" edited by H. C. Brown had no official status. NEW YORK STATE *Annual reports of Canal Commissioners, Canal Fund, Auditor of Canal Fund, Comptroller, inspectors of flour, etc., in Senate or Assembly Documents or Reports. For exact references, see Hasse. UNITED STATES (The following reports are sometimes found separately bound; but they are also included in the regular series of Congressional Documents). Commercial Relations of the United States with Foreign Countries. Report by Secretary of State, starting with year 1855-56; summary of consular despatches from various foreign ports. *Commerce and Navigation. Report by Secretary of the Treasury, starting in 1821; information for earlier years in American State Papers, Commerce and Navigation. The original source for most of the statistics for the nation's foreign commerce. Includes exports, imports, tonnage entered and cleared, tonnage registered, enrolled and licensed, and shipbuilding. Imports and exports analyzed by ports or customs districts only from 1856 onwards. Much of the pertinent information in this series illustrating relative activity of various states or ports is summarized in appendix. *State of the Finances. Another report by Secretary of the Treasury, since 1821. Duplicates some of commercial statistics; also gives per capita consumption of commodities, and reports on customs service, marine hospitals, light- house service, steamboat inspection, specie movement, etc. Passengers Arrived from Foreign Countries. Report by Secretary of State, starting in 1820. Shows, for each port for each quarter year, the countries of origin, occupations, sex, etc. For tabulations, see Immigration. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Reports new surveys and also includes new charts. Census (decennial). In addition to population, indicates occupational statistics for the various states or ports. Valuable special studies in some of the later reports ( see Shipbuilding). One of the most useful single volumes is (J. D. B. DeBow) Compendium of the Seventh Census (1854). Statistical Yearbook. Compiled by Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce since 1879. Wealth of statistics on many different subjects, including commerce and shipbuilding. For the period before 1860, however, most of the figures are simply decennial averages.

VII. Statistics

(In addition to above Annual Reports) *J. S. Homans, An Historical and Statistical Account of the Foreign Com- merce of the United States (1857). A very concise and convenient arrangement of the Commerce and Navigation data on exports, imports, and tonnage, arranged by states and foreign countries for the period 1821-56, with useful brief notes on American and foreign seaports. William Page, Commerce and Industry, 1815-1914, 2 vols. (1919). The second volume consists of a compilation of commercial and other economic statistics from the British parliamentary papers. Timothy Pitkin, A Statistical View of the Commerce of the United States (1835). Adam Seybert, Statistical Annals (1818).

VIII. Manuals and Dictionaries

*Joseph Blunt, The Merchant's and Shipmaster's Assistant (1832). * The Shipmaster's Assistant and Commercial Digest (1837, etc.). Separate editions of a highly useful manual by a New York lawyer. Sums up concisely the essential points on a large number of different subjects. The scope of the work is indicated by the chapter headings in the 1837 edition: "Ships, Navigation Acts, Custom House Laws, Fisheries, Revenue Cutters, Shipowners, Shipmasters, Seamen, Con- suls, Freight, General Average, Salvage, Bottomry and Respondentia, Marine Insurance, Factors and Agents, The Navy, Pensions, Crimes, Slaves, Wrecks, Quarantine, Passengers, Pilots, Bills of Exchange, Exchange, Weights and Measures, Harbor Regulations, Commercial Regulations." F. G. Clarke, The American Ship-Master's Guide and Commercial Assistant (1838). A similar work, published in Boston. *R. H. Dana, The Seaman's Friend: Containing a Treatise on Practical Seamanship . . . a Dictionary of Sea Terms; Customs and Usages of the Merchant Service; Laws relating to the Practical Duties of Master and Mariners (9th ed. 1857). Invaluable reference work for practically everything concerning ship- board nomenclature and routine, by the author of Two Years Before the Mast. B. F. Foster, The Merchant's Manual (1838). *J. R. McCulloch, A Dictionary of Commerce and Commercial Navigation 2 vols. (1851), and numerous other editions, British and American. Comprehensive and useful compilation of a wide range of material on various ports, commodities, business practices, etc., with a large quantity of statistics usually based upon the years immediately preceding the edition. Information about a particular country is apt to be found under the heading of its leading port. J. Montefiore, A Commercial Dictionary (1804).

IX. Memoirs and Diaries

(Jacob Barker), Incidents in the Life of Jacob Barker of New Orleans, etc. (1855). "Largely autobiographical, but ostensibly written by a friend." Barker was a prominent New York shipowner until banking troubles led him South. R. J. Cleveland, Narrative of Voyages and Commerical Enterprises, 2 vols. (1842). Includes a voyage from New York to the West Coast around 1818; an abridged version was edited by his son, H. W. S. Cleveland, as Voyages of a Merchant Navigator. Henry Clews, Fifty Years in Wall Street (1908). *George Coggeshall, Voyages to Various Parts of the World, made between the Years 1800 and 1831 (2nd ed. 1853). * Second Series of Voyages... between 1802 and 1841 (1852). * Thirty-six Voyages ... made between the Years 1799 and 1841... (Selected from his Manuscript Journal of Eighty Voyages) (3rd ed. 1858). The last volume is a combination and slight expansion of the first two series. This is perhaps the most valuable single narrative source illus- trating the seagoing end of New York's commerce. (See text and ap- pendix.) Edmund Fanning, Voyages round the World: with selected Sketches of Voyages to the South Seas, North and South Pacific Oceans, China, etc. (1833). Voyages and Discoveries in the South Seas (1924). The latter is an abridged edition, published by the Marine Research Society. (See text.) R. B. Forbes, Personal Reminiscences (1878). He was a versatile Boston mariner-merchant, who not only served as head of Russell & Co., in Canton, but also dabbled in early steam navigation and agitated for safety at sea. *W. E. Dodge, "Reminiscences of a New York Merchant" in H. C. Brown, Valentine's Manual, new series. Interesting and valuable account of the early experiences of a future merchant prince as a boy in a New York jobbing house and later as a young partner in a dry goods jobbing concern. Gives a description of methods not to be found elsewhere. *Philip Hone, Diary, 1828-1851, ed. Allan Nevins, 2 vols. (1927). One of the most celebrated and useful primary sources for New York in this period, by the wealthy and fashionable ex-auctioneer and mayor; concise comments on many of the events affecting the port. Selected from the 28 MS. quartos in the New York Historical Society. The Nevins edition is more useful than the earlier one by Bayard Tucker- man. N. T. Hubbard, Autobiography . . . with Personal Reminiscences of New York City from 1798 to 1875 (1875). Hubbard was a prominent produce merchant. *C. H. Haswell, Reminiscences of an Octogenarian of the City of New York (1816 to 1860) (1896). Interesting year-by-year comments on New York events, by a one-time chief engineer of the U. S. Navy. *(C. P. Low) Some Recollections of Captain Charles P. Low, commanding the clipper Ships "Houqua," "Jacob Bell," "Samuel Russell" and "N. B. Palmer" in the China Trade, 1847-1873 (1905). Brother of A. A. Low; also gives early experience as boy in dry goods jobbing house and father's store, and cabin boy on London packet. Vincent O. Nolte, Fifty Years in Both Hemispheres (tr. 1854). International financial adventurer; occasional visitor at New York; good account of situation at New Orleans during 1825 cotton boom. *Samuel Samuels, From the Forecastle to the Cabin (new ed., with fore- word, 1924). The tallest collection of yarns by any New York sea captain; wide range of experiences from serving as boy on a Philadelphia collier to command of the New York-Liverpool clipper "packet" Dreadnaught, including some lively mutiny accounts.

X. Biography, Collected

*(William Armstrong) The Aristocracy of New York: Who they Are, and What they Were; being a Social and Business History of the City for many Years (1848). *M. Y. Beach, Wealth and Wealthy Citizens of New York City (title varies slightly in the 13 editions) (1842-55). Compiled by the editor of the Sun; basis for inclusion was an estimated fortune of at least $100,000. Many of the entries accompanied by remarks, not always complimentary, upon how the fortune was made. Editions increased in size from 8 to 80 pages. Sixth edition (1845) reproduced complete in H. W. Lanier, A Century of Banking in New York. W. H. Boyd, New York City Tax Book, being a List of Persons, Corpora- tions and Co-Partnerships, Resident and Non-Resident, who were Taxed, according to the Assessors' Books, 1856 & 1857 (1857). Similar compilation for 1850 by W. A. Darling. *Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York-Portrait Gallery of the Chamber-Catalogue and Biographical Sketches, compiled by George Wilson (1890). Catalogue of Portraits in the Chamber (1924). The earlier work contains useful biographical sketches of a large number of merchants; the latter reproduces the portraits, with much briefer sketches. Mrs. C. F. Diehm, Merchants of our Second Century (1889). F. G. Griswold, House Flags of the Merchants of New York (1926). Reproduces many of the old house flags, with brief notes on the lead- ing firms. Also included in his Clipper Ships and Yachts (1927). *Dictionary of American Biography ed. Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone, 20 vols. and index, 1928-36. The most satisfactory up-to-date source for the numerous individuals included: brief bibliographical data with each sketch. The author of this work contributed more than fifty articles on men associated with New York Port. Freeman Hunt, Lives of the American Merchants, 2 vols. (1858). Most of the biographies appeared first in his Merchant's Magazine; devotes most of the space to making plaster saints of his subjects; disappointingly little on their business careers. Income Record (The); a List giving the Taxable Income for the Year 1863 of the Residents of New York (1865). *H. C. Kittredge, Shipmasters of Cape Cod-a Chronicle of the Great Days of Sail (1935). A delightful and authoritative study, including several mariners promi- nent at New York; based in part on local private records. H. W. Lanier, A Century of Banking in New York, 1822-1922 (see Busi- ness Methods). Chap. V. gives lists of wealthy New Yorkers at various periods. *W. M. McBean, Biographical Register of the St. Andrews Society of New York, 2 vols. (1922-25). Includes prominent Scots in New York business circles; same author also wrote a history of the Society. Gustavus Myers, History of the Great American Fortunes, 3 vols. (1910). New England Society of the City of New York, Annual Celebrations (1861, etc.). Lists of members identify origin of many prominent merchants. James Parton, Sketches of Men of Progress (1870). *J. A. Scoville, The Old Merchants of New York (see Port of New York). *G. W. Sheldon, "The Old Shipping Merchants of New York" in Harper's Magazine LXXXIV, pp. 457-71 (1892). Well illustrated; one of his three valuable contributions to port history.

XI. Biography, Individual

C. S. Alden, Lawrence Kearney, Sailor Diplomat (1936). E. M. Barrows, The Great Commodore; The Exploits of Matthew Cal- braith Perry (1936). The opener of Japan was closely associated with New York; and supervised for the navy the construction of the Collins liners. D. B. Bobbe, DeWitt Clinton (1933). C. W. Bowen, Lewis and Arthur Tappan (1883). W. A. Butler, A Memorial of Charles H. Marshall (1867). Includes autobiographical sketch of his early life. E. J. DeForest, John Johnston of New York, Merchant (1909). Scottish merchant, of Boorman & Johnston, leading iron importers. A Walloon Family in America; Lockwood DeForest and his Forbears, 1500-1848, 2 vols. (1914). The DeForests were active in the South American trade. John Taylor, a Scottish merchant of Glasgow and New York, 1752- 1833 (1917). H. W. Dickinson, Robert Fulton, Engineer and Artist (1913). D. S. Dodge, Memorials of William E. Dodge (1887). W. M. Emery, The Howland Heirs (1919). W. H. Hallock, Life of Gerard Hallock (1869). Editor of the Journal of Commerce. W. E. Harding, W. E. Morrissey, His Life, Battles and Wrangles (1881). Deckhand on Hudson River steamers and runner for immigrant boarding house. G. F. Heydt, Charles L. Tiffany and the House of Tiffany & Company (1893). *W. H. Hillyer, James Talcott, Merchant, and his Times (1937). Dry goods "factor"; good description of the trade. David Hosack, Memoir of DeWitt Clinton (1829). Useful material in extensive appendix. P. M. Irving, Life and Letters of Washington Irving, 4 vols. (1862-64). The writer's brothers were merchants in New York and, briefly, in Liverpool. I. F. Judson, Cyrus W. Field, His Life and Work (1896). The promoter of the Atlantic Cable started as a boy with A. T. Stewart and was later a paper merchant at New York. *W. J. Lane (Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt, in preparation). This promises to be the first adequate, scholarly biography of the Commodore; the author generously assisted in the preparation of this study. Lewis Mumford, Herman Melville (1929). Another dozen or so studies of Melville, whose father was a New York importer, and who served for twenty years as a customs in- spector, are now in preparation. (Oelrichs & Co.), Caspar Meier and his Successors: C. & H. H. Meier, Caspar Meier & Co., L. N. von Post & Oelrichs, Oelrichs & Kriiger, Oelrichs & Co., Oct. 12, 1798-Oct. 12, 1898 (1898). E. L. Pond, Junius Smith: a Biography of the Father of the Atlantic Liner (1927). *K. W. Porter, John Jacob Astor, Business Man (see Business Methods). G. L. Prentiss, A Sermon Preached at the Death of Anson G. Phelps (1854). James Renwick, Life of DeWitt Clinton (1840). Benjamin Rodman, Memoir of Joseph Grinnell (1863). L. H. Rogers, A Sketch of the Life and Times of Eli Hart (1931). Sketch of Events in the Life of George Law, Published in Advance of his Autobiography (1855). A campaign biography; the autobiography never appeared. J. R. Spears, Captain Nathaniel Brown Palmer, an Old-Time Sailor of the Sea (1922). *Lewis Tappan, Life of Arthur Tappan (1870). Thatcher Thayer, A Sketch of the Life of D. W. C. Olyphant (1852). R. H. Thurston, Robert Fulton (1891). M. W. Tileston, Thomas Tileston, 1793-1864 (1925). J. W. Wayland, The Pathfinder of the Seas: the Life of Matthew Fontaine Maury (1930). R. M. Weaver, Herman Melville, Mariner and Mystic (1921). Bouck White, The Book of Daniel Drew (1910). An "incisive, semi-fictional study." S. T. Williams, The Life of Washington Irving, 2 vols. (1935).

XII. Port of New York- History

R. G. Albion, "New York Port and its Disappointed Rivals, 1815-1860" in Journal of Business and Economic History, III, pp. 602-29 (1931). __"Yankee Domination of New York Port, 1820-1865" in New England Quarterly, V, pp. 665-98 (1932). __"Commercial Fortunes in New York around 1850" in New York His- tory, XVI, pp. 156-68 (1935). __"The Primacy of the Port of New York" in A. C. Flick, ed., History of the State of New York, VIII (Chap. V), pp. 159-97 (1937). __Square-Riggers on Schedule (1938) (see Shipping). *(G. W. Baker) Review of the Relative Commercial Progress of the Cities of New York and Philadelphia, tracing the Decline of the Latter to State Developments, and showing the Necessity of Trans-Atlantic Steamship Communication to Reestablish Foreign Trade (1859). A Philadelphia propaganda pamphlet of 72 pages, analyzing many aspects of the activity of the two ports, with ample statistics. Bank of the Manhattan Company, Ships and Shipping of Old New York (1915). Brief, readable, well-illustrated account of period to 1860. C. C. Cutler, "Introduction" in Descriptive Catalogue of the Marine Col- lection at India House (1935). F. V. Emerson, A Geographical Interpretation of New York City (1909). Evening Post, Greater Port of New York Supplement (June 20, 1917). G. Eyskens, Le Port de New York dans son Role Economique (1929). An economic study from the University of Louvain, analyzing the modern period, with only a brief historical background. E. M. Grace, Jr., The Blockade of the Port of New York during the War of 1812 (MS. 1937). An unpublished Princeton senior thesis, analyzing the effect of the British blockade upon shipping movements and prices. E. H. Hall, "The New York Commercial Tercentenary, 1614-1914," ap- pendix to New York State, New York Commercial Tercentenary Com- mission, First Annual Report (1914); also in American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society, Annual Report, 1914, pp. 441-500. *V. D. Harrington, The New York Merchant on the Eve of the Revolution (1935). The only thorough, scholarly monography devoted to the port's early activity. Though it analyses the period prior to 1815, it is decidedly useful as background. *(John McCready) A Review of the Trade and Commerce of New York from 1815 to the Present Time, by an Observer (1820). R. C. McKay, South Street, a Maritime History of New York (1935). Interesting material for period 1783-1860 and well illustrated; but unco-ordinated, uncritical, repetitious, and often contradictory and inaccurate. Book withdrawn by publisher after attention was called to wholesale plagiarism, without acknowledgement or quotation marks, from numerous other works, including some of this author's articles. R. P. Morgan, The Decline of the Commerce of the Port of New York (1901). A midwest doctorial dissertation based on the wishful premise that New Orleans, Montreal and other ports would cut down New York's lead; deals principally with later period. The port, of course, did not bear out the author's thesis. T. E. Rush, The Port of New York (1920). Disjointed study, dealing chiefly with modern port problems of varying importance, by a former surveyor of the port; sketchy historical back- ground based on secondary works. *J. A. Scoville (Walter Barrett, pseud.), The Old Merchants of New York, 5 vols. in 3 (1863-66 and later editions). The principal source of information and misinformation about the port's activity up to the Civil War, written by a "broken merchant," who later served as Calhoun's private secretary and wrote novels. Rambles along without any co-ordination or logical arrangement; mainly a series of biographical notes with occasional generalizations on methods, etc. A quotation prefaced by, "as Scoville says," indicates that this author does not underwrite its accuracy. *G. W. Sheldon, "The Old Shipbuilders of New York" in Harpers Maga- zine, LXV, pp. 223-41 (1882). __*"The Old Packet and Clipper Service," ibid., LXVIII, pp. 213-37 (1884). __*"The Old Shipping Merchants of New York," ibid., LXXXIV, pp. 457-71 (1892). These three interesting and admirably illustrated articles, written by a prominent New York art critic, represent the principal co-ordinated study of the old port activity, as contrasted with Scoville's ramblings. They have been incorporated, at times almost verbatim, errors and all, into numerous later works. J. E. Wharton, The Commercial Position of New York and a Way to Improve It (1860). Propaganda for a new railroad to the West.

XIII. New York City, General

R. M. Bayles, History of Staten Island from its Discovery (1887). W. T. Bonner, New York, the World Metropolis, 1623/4-1923/4, 2 vols. (1925). Commemorative edition of the city directory; useful, comprehensive compilation, reproducing many well-selected old pictures. Particularly useful for co-ordinating the history of particular branches of port and business activity. H. C. Brown, Valentine's Manual, New Series, 12 vols. (1916-28). Derives its name from the old Corporation manual (q.v.) but lacks its official status. Assembles a hodge-hodge of antiquarian material of strangely varying value; little pertinent to this study except Dodge recollections. Reproduces many old pictures. *A. C. Flick, ed., History of the State of New York, 9 vols. (1933-37). A co-operative work of varying but generally high merit; includes several chapters dealing with the city and its trade; each chapter has a useful bibliography. Rodman Gilder, The Battery (1936). Interesting, well-illustrated popular study. R. S. Guernsey, New York City and Vicinity during the War of 1812-15, 2 vols. (1889-95). H. R. Stiles, A History of the City of Brooklyn, 3 vols. (1867-70). Useful sections on "Ferries," "Docks and Commerce" and "Navy Yard" in vol. III. *I. N. P. Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498-1909, 6 vols. (1915-28). This monumental work, the product of years of intelligent diligence, has been called the most comprehensive history of a city ever written. Includes not only a general running account (vols. I and III), and analyses of various maps and records of buildings (vol. II), but also a highly useful chronological day-by-day collection of pertinent passages quoted from newspapers, official records, travellers' accounts, etc. (vols. IV-V), and the excellent bibliography by Paltsits already cited (vol. VI). It is exhaustive on the antiquities of New York itself, but has less to say of the port's activities beyond Sandy Hook. Spencer Trask, Bowling Green (1898). J. G. Wilson, ed., Memorial History of the City of New York, 4 vols. (1893). The most serviceable of the general histories, superseding the earlier works by M. L. Booth (1866) and M. J. Lamb (1877).

XIV. New York City, Social

(See also Memoirs) Herbert Asbury, The Gangs of New York (1928). Chap. III, "Sin along the Waterfront"; Chap. IV, "River Pirates." A. C. Dayton, The Last Days of Knickerbocker Life in New York (1882). Describes New York society in the thirties. D. R. Fox, The Decline of Aristocracy in the Politics of New York (1919). J. W. Gerard, Jr., The Impress of Nationalities upon the City of New York (1883). Discusses New Englanders in addition to foreign groups. T. B. Gunn, The Physiology of New York Boarding Houses (1857). J. R. G. Hassard, "The New York Mercantile Library" in Scribner's Monthly, I, pp. 353-67 (1871). H. W. Lanier, A Century of Banking in New York, 1822-1922 (see Busi- ness Methods). J. D. McCabe, Secrets of the Great City (1868). Includes descriptions of sailors' boarding houses, etc. M. H. Smith (Burleigh, pseud.), Sunshine and Shadow in New York (1870).

XV. New York City, Description, Guide Books, etc.

Blunt's Stranger's Guide to the City of New York (1817). The earliest, for our period, of a large series of guide books, useful because they furnish many details about the waterfront, public func- tionaries, packets, steamboat lines, etc. John Disturnell, New York as it Is (1833, etc.). D. was a prolific compiler of guide books, travel guides, etc., for many years. (John A. Dix), Sketch of the Resources of the City of New York (1827). *Doggett's New York Business Directory (1841-46). The first part lists business men and firms alphabetically; the second part is arranged by functions, with the names of those engaged in each. Succeeded by Wilson's and later by Trow's. Doggett's New York City Directory (1842-54). The conventional city directory, succeeding Longworth's and succeeded in turn by Wilson's and Trow's. Useful for identification of individuals. Doggett's New York City Street Directory (1851). Useful for identifying merchants located on a particular street. C. D. Francis & Co., New Guide to the Cities of New York and Brooklyn and Vicinity (1853). J. G. Gobright, The Union Sketch Book (1860). A. T. Goodrich, The Picture of New York, and Stranger's Guide through the Commercial Emporium of the United States (1818). James Hardie, The Description of the City of New York (1827). *T. Longworth, Longworth's American Almanac, New York Register and City Directory (1798-1841). Succeeded by Doggett's. J. V. Loomis & Co., United States Statistical Directory; or Merchant's and Traveller's Guide, with a Wholesale Business Directory of New York (1847). H. Phelps, Stranger's and Citizen's Guide to New York City, 1857-58 (1857). James Whitney, The New York Shippers' and Consignees' Guide, designed to Facilitate the Commercial, Mercantile and Shipping Interests of New York (1861). *E. Williams, New York Annual Register (1830 and later editions). (For descriptions by foreign travellers, see the chronological section in Stokes' Iconography; a few are quoted in Allan Nevins, American Social History, as Recorded by British Travellers (1923).

XVI. Waterfront and Officialdom/ Port Functions

(See also Business Methods). W. H. D. Adams, Lighthouses and Lightships; a Descriptive and His- torical Account of their Mode of Construction and Organization (1870). *R. S. S. Andros, The United States Custom House Guide (1859). Full details concerning all branches of customs routine. Herbert Asbury, Gangs of New York (see New York, Social). Atlantic Dock Co., Prospectus (1840). J. G. Barnard, The Dangers and Defenses of New York (1859). J. B. Bishop, A Chronicle of 150 Years: The Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, 1768-1918 (1918). W. N. Black, Storage and Transportation in the Port of New York; an Investigation into Methods of handling Merchandise, etc. (1884). Deals chiefly with later period. G. W. Blunt, Pilot Laws, Harbor and Quarantine Regulations of New York (1869). Hamilton Bruce, The Warehouse Manual and General Custom House Guide (1862). Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, Annual Reports (q.v.). Also see collection of memorials and petitions, in pamphlet form, on various aspects of port activity, for period prior to first published re- ports. F. A. Collins, Our Harbors and Inland Waterways (1924). Custom House Guide, 7 vols. in I (1932). "Port Section" describes different ports and lists principal customs officers at New York and elsewhere from the beginning. C. P. Daly, Historical Sketch of the Judicial Tribunals of New York from 1623 to 1846 (1855). C. H. Farnham, "A Day on the Docks," in Scribner's Monthly, XVIII, pp. 32-47 (1879). Like the other magazine articles listed below, is well illustrated. J. D. Goss, Tariff Administration in the United States from Colonial Times to the McKinley Administration (1891). Includes account of New York customs service. Carleton Green, Wharves and Piers, their Design, Construction and Equip- ment (1917). C. H. Haswell, Report of the Result of Observations upon the Deposit of Silt in the Harbor of New York (1857); also in Journal of the Frank- lin Institute, LXV (3rd series XXXV), pp. 161-68 (1858). C. M. Hough, Reports of Cases in the Vice-Admiralty of the Province of New York, and in the Court of Admiralty of the State of New York, 1715-1788 (1925). Edited by a federal judge; deals with earlier period but indicates nature of business of federal courts in admiralty jurisdiction. Theodore Hunter, Port Charges and Requirements on Vessels in the Various Ports of the World (1878 and later editions). R. S. MacElwee, Port and Terminal Facilities (1918). __*Port Development (1925). __Wharf Management, Stevedoring and Storage (1921). *Henry Mitchell, "Circulation of the Sea through New York Harbor" in Science, XIX, pp. 204-05 (1887). Brief, clear explanation of importance of East River current in keep- ing main channel clear of sand and ice. New Jersey, Legislature, Report of the Joint Committee ... on the En croachments upon the Bay and Harbor of New York (1855). *New York City, City Surveyor, Maps of the Wharves and Piers from the Battery to 61st Street in the Hudson River and from the Battery to 41st Street on the East River, New York (1860). This set of 23 maps is available at New York Public Library; for titles of earlier maps, from 1849 onwards, at the Dept. of Docks, see Stokes, Iconography, bibliography. __Commissioners of Sinking Fund, The Wharves, Piers and Slips be- longing to the Corporation of the City of New York, 1868 (1868). __Dept. of Docks, Annual Reports (from 1870). The separate Dept. of Docks was not established until 1870; until then, the wharves were under the Comptroller's supervision. *__Finance Dept., "Communication from the Comptroller, relative to leasing the Docks and Slips belonging to the City" in Board of Council- men, Documents, 1855, No. 26. *New York State, Commissioners of the Land Office, Report ... relative to New York Harbor Encroachments (1862). Contains an excellent large-scale map of the waterfront, indicating the original shore line of 1686 and the "made land." __Committee on Commerce and Navigation, Report ... in relation to the Official Conduct of the Harbor Masters of the City of New York (1857). *__ Report of the Select Committee ... to examine into the Affairs, and investigate the Charges of Malfeasance in Office of the Harbor Masters of New York (1862). *__ Reports of the New York Harbor Commission of 1856 and 1857 (1864). Published as a single volume by the Chamber of Commerce. Contain a wealth of detail about harbor currents, channel depths, etc., with official reports and testimony; also the best available account of the construction, leasing, operation and income of New York wharves, with testimony by several wharfingers; together with two excellent large-scale maps of the harbor and a list of maps and charts consulted. J. S. Newberry, The Geological History of New York Island and Harbor (1878). G. R. Putnam, Lighthouses and Lightships of the United States (new ed. 1933). T. A. Richards, "New York Circumnavigated," in Harper's Magazine, XXIII, pp. 165-83 (1861). W. H. Rideing, "The Harbor and Commerce of New York," in Appleton's Journal, XVII (n.s. II), pp. 481-90; XVIII (n.s. III), pp. 97-108 (1877). *C. E. Russell, From Sandy Hook to 62, being some Account of the Ad- ventures, Exploits and Services of the Old New York Pilot Boat (1929). Based partly on records of pilot association, partly on legend. L. F. Schmeckebier, The Customs Service, its History, Activities and Organization (1924). __ The Public Health Service (1923). D. H. Smith and F. W. Powell, The Coast Guard, its History, Activities and Organization (1929). The above three are Service Monographs of the Institute for Govern- ment Research. A history of the revenue marine service is being pre- pared by Stephen Decatur. E. B. Smith, Governor's Island: its Military History under Three Flags, 1637-1913 (1913). *W. O. Stoddard, "New York Harbor Police," in Harper's Magazine, XLV, pp. 672-83 (1872). C. B. Stuart, Naval Dry Docks of the United States (1852). Includes an account of the great dock at Brooklyn Navy Yard and the sectional dock built at New York for the Pacific coast. *T. B. Thorpe, "New York Custom House," in Harper's Magazine, XLIII, pp. 11-26 (1871). (United New York and New Jersey Sandy Hook Pilots Benevolent Asso- ciations) Pilot Lore; from Sail to Steam, and Historical Sketches of the Various Interests identified with the Development of the World's Greatest Port (1922). United States, American State Papers. Information concerning New York defenses, etc., summarized in Military Affairs, III, pp. 248-56, VI, pp. 400-03; Naval Affairs, IV, pp. 953-56. __ Army, Corps of Engineers, and U. S. Shipping Board, Bureau of Operations, The Port of New York, Port Series, No. 20 (rev. ed., 1932). Useful data on physical aspects of port, preliminary to lengthy analysis of modern problems. Series includes similar studies of many other ports.\ *__ Coast & Geodetic Survey, Annual Reports. Include charts of New York. Particularly useful are Chart No. 120 of New York Harbor and Environs in six parts (1844) and No. 143, a single sheet chart of the whole (1845). Excellent electroplate copies of these original charts are obtainable at reasonable rates. *__ Tides and Currents in New York Harbor (1933). __ Congressional Documents. In addition to the various annual reports (q.v.), see for defenses 26th Congress, 1st Sess., Senate Doc. 451 and 27th Congress, 2nd Sess., Senate Doc. 2; for investigations of custom house frauds, including much incidental information about customs details, 37th Cong. 3rd Sess., Senate Doc. 44; 42nd Congress, 2nd Sess., Senate Report 227. *__ Lighthouse Bureau, Fog Tables (1929). Mimeographed tables showing average hours of fog per year at all lighthouses and lightships. L F. Vernon-Harcourt, Harbours and Docks; their Physical Features, History, Construction, Equipment and Maintenance, 2 vols. (1885). Good brief summary of New York problems, I, pp. 426-28, 622-27. J. W. Watson, "The Wharves of New York," in Harper's Magazine, XXV, pp. 307-25 (1862). D. W. Wheeler, New York Harbor, and the Improvements necessary for the Accommodation of its Commerce, and the Removal of the Dangers at Hell Gate (1856). Paper read before the American Geographical and Statistical Society. H. Worden, Round Manhattan's Rim (1934). Modern rambles around the whole waterfront, with an account of the traditions.

XVII. Business Methods

Joseph Blunt, Shipmaster's Assistant and Commercial Digest (see Man- uals). W. T. Bonner, New York, the World Metropolis (see New York, General). Brief sections dealing with the various exchanges and with many spe- cial branches of business. J. C. Brown, A Hundred Years of Merchant Banking, a History of Brown Bros. & Co., etc. (I909). Written by one of the second generation of the banking family; re- produces considerable original correspondence; more useful than the Experiences of a Century, 1818-1918 (1919), also dealing with the same subject; see also Kent below. *N. S. Buck, The Development of the Organisation of Anglo-American Trade, 1800-1850 (1925). The most generally useful study for this field; based in part upon British parliamentary papers. Scope indicated by chapters: "The Agencies of Trade," "The British Cotton Market," "The Organisa- tion of the American Cotton Trade," "The Trade in British Manu- factures, 1800-1815" and the same for 1815-1830 and 1830-1850. Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, Earliest Arbitration Records of the Chamber.... Committee Minutes, 1779-1792 (1913). Though dealing with the period before 1815, give an indication of the valuable amount of the illustrative material to be found in the manuscript records of the arbitration committee for the later period. R. M. Devens (F. Kirkland, pseud.), Cyclopaedia of Commercial and Busi- ness Anecdotes, 2 vols. (1865). F. B. Dixon, Hand-Book of Marine Insurance and Average (2nd ed. 1866). *John Duer, The Law and Practice of Marine Insurance, 2 vols. (1845-46). A New York work, analyzing particular cases adjudged at the port. 452 J. V. Eaton, "An Old Street of New York," in American History Maga- zine, II, pp. 546-7 (1906). A history of Pearl Street. D. M. Evans, History of the Commercial Crisis of 1857-58 and of the Stock Exchange Panic of 1859 (1859). *W. Frothingham, "Stewart, and the Dry Goods Trade of New York," in Continental Monthly, II, pp. 528-34 (1862). *R. W. Hidy, The House of Baring and American Trade, 1830-42 (MS. 1935). Unpublished Harvard dissertation, based primarily upon voluminous Baring MSS. Gives for the first time an adequate description and analysis of the workings of the British commercial credit system in connection with American commerce. W. H. Hillyer, James Talcott, Merchant, and his Times (see Biography). *F. M. Jones, Middlemen in the Domestic Trade of the United States, 1800-1860 (1937). Valuable study of distribution methods with particular attention to New York. F. R. Kent, The Story of Alexander Brown & Sons (1925). H. W. Lanier, A Century of Banking in New York, 1822-1922 (1922). More of a descriptive picture of Wall Street and the business district than an analysis like Myers; reproduces many interesting old pictures. M. G. Myers, The New York Money Market, Origins and Development (1931). The first volume of a comprehensive study of the money market. Allan Nevins, History of the Bank of New York and Trust Co. (1934). *K. W. Porter, The Jacksons and the Lees, 2 vols. (1937). __ John Jacob Astor, Business Man (see Biography). Two valuable contributions to business history, analyzing early business methods and reproducing a large amount of early commercial corre- spondence illustrative of various aspects. The Jacksons and the Lees were Boston merchants, but the study contains much that is pertinent to New York. Horace Secrist, "The Anti-Auction Movement of 1828," in Annals of the Wisconsin Academy, XVII, No. 2. (W. H. Schieffelin & Co.) One Hundred Years of Business Life, 1794- 1894 (1894). The account of a prominent New York house of drug importers. *W. B. Smith and A. H. Cole, Fluctuations in, American Business, 1790 1860 (1935). Significant statistical analysis, based in part on New York commercial and financial records for the period. W. L. Thorp, Business Annals (1926). J. Vaucher, A Guide to Marine Insurances; containing the Policies of the Principal Commercial Towns in the World (1834). *E. N. Vose, Seventy-five Years of the Mercantile Agency, R. G. Dun & Co., 1841-1916 (1916). R. B. Westerfield, "Early History of American Auctions," in Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, XXIII, pp. 159- 210 (1920). W. D. Winter, A Short Sketch of the History and Principles of Marine Insurance (1925).

XVIII. Shipbuilding

See also Steamboats and Steamships) R. G. Albion, Forests and Sea Power (1926). A detailed study of ship timber. (William Annesley) Description of William Annesley's New System of Naval Architecture (1818). (Noah Brown) "The Remarkable Statement of Noah Brown," in Journal of American History, VIII, pp. 103-8 (1914). Autobiographical data included in long affidavit. *"The Building of the Ship," in Harper's Magazine, XXIV, pp. 608-20 (1862). For the layman, this is one of the best available concise accounts of the various processes involved, well illustrated by diagrams and pic- tures. *H. I. Chapelle, History of American Sailing Ships (1935). Written by a naval architect, this is an able study of ship design; tends to concentrate upon a few types, to the exclusion of others. His studies of the Baltimore Clipper and American boats are also useful and sug- gestive. Joseph Francis, History of Life-Saving Appliances (1885). This New Yorker was an outstanding pioneer in the construction of lifeboats and in promoting lifesaving. J. W. Griffiths, A Treatise on Marine and Naval Architecture (1850). __The Shipbuilder's Manual and Nautical Referee, 2 vols. (1855). See text for Griffiths' importance in American shipbuilding. Henry Hall, "Report on the Shipbuilding Industry of the United States," in Report of the Tenth Census, VIII (1884). Historical sketch, with discussion of various types, ship timber, etc.; special section on New York, pp. 115-21, including list of vessels built by Webb. *J. G. B. Hutchins, The Rise and Fall of the Building of Wooden Ships in America, 1607-1914, 2 vols. (MS. 1936). Able and thorough Harvard doctoral dissertation, now being prepared for publication. The first volume covers the period to 1860. Special at- tention devoted to reasons for building at particular localities, with considerations of comparative costs. *Lauchlan McKay, The Practical Ship-Builder (1839). Written by a brother of the celebrated Donald; designed as guide for builders in smaller ports and consequently gives one of the best descrip- tions available of the various stages, step by step. Only four copies are said to have been located at present. R. C. McKay, Some Famous Sailing Ships and their Builder, Donald McKay (1928). E. I. P. Morris, The Fore-and-Aft Rig in America, a Sketch (1927). *J. E. Morrison, History of the New York Shipyards (1908). Uncritical but very useful. *G. W. Sheldon, "The Old Shipbuilders of New York," in Harper's Maga- zine (see Port of New York). Fewer minute details than Morrison, above, but much better accounts of the principal builders, with portraits, etc. *(W. H. Webb) Plans of Wooden Vessels, selected as Types from One Hundred and Fifty of various Kinds and Descriptions, from a Fishing Smack to the largest Clipper Ships and Vessels of War, both Sail and Steam, built by William H. Webb in the City of New York from the Year 1840 to the Year 1869, 2 vols. (1895). Some of the dimensions do not tally with the customs registers, and it has been suggested that some of the plans are not thoroughly ac- curate. (This list does not include studies of shipbuilding at various New Eng- land ports and elsewhere, even though some of those vessels were used at New York).

XIX. Shipping, General, and Sea Routes

*E. M. Blunt, The American Coast Pilot (many editions). (See text). F. C. Bowen, The Golden Age of Sail: Indiamen, Packets, and Clipper Ships (1925). Like several of his other works, useful particularly for the excellent collection of pictures from the Macpherson Collection. E. K. Chatterton, Sailing Ships, the Story of their Development (1909). C. G. Davis, The Ways of the Sea (1930). R. A. Fletcher, In the Days of Tall Ships (1928). The above four works are popular presentations but contain considera- ble useful information and compose a pleasant introduction to the subject. *(India House, Inc., New York) Descriptive Catalogue of the Marine Col- lection at India House (1935). Valuable notes on many individual vessels of New York, with repro- ductions of many of the valuable collection of ship pictures. Excellent introduction, on the port's history, by C. C. Cutler. E. R. Johnson, G. G. Huebner and A. K. Henry, Transportation by Water (1935). A. W. Kirkaldy, British Shipping: Its History, Organisation and Impor- tance (1919). *W. S. Lindsay, History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce, 4 vols. (1874-76). Written by a prominent British shipowner. American sailing ships are discussed at length in vol. III and transatlantic steam development in vol. IV. W. L. Marvin, The American Merchant Marine ... 1602-1902 (1902). More useful than the similar works by Abbott, Bates and Spears. *M. F. Maury, Explanations and Sailing Directions to accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 8th ed., 2 vols. (1858 and other editions). Valuable not only for their immediate purpose of analyzing the winds and currents on the main sea routes, particularly from New York to Liverpool, New Orleans and San Francisco, but also for incidental information about New York shipping. The 8th edition reproduces photographically a New York-Liverpool packet log, one of the thou- sands of logs analyzed in Maury's researches and still preserved at Washington. Published by U. S. Naval Hydrographic Office. Physical Geography of the Sea (1858). United States, Naval Hydrographic Office (see Maury, Explanations, above). *__ Table of Distances between the Principal Seaports of the World (1931 and other editions). Similar tables also prepared by British Admiralty; some of New York distances tabulated in appendix of this work.

XX. Shipping, Particular Groups

(PACKETS, CLIPPERS, ETC.) *R. G. Albion, Square-Riggers on Schedule: The New York Sailing Packets to England, France, and the Cotton Ports (1938). Systematic account of the major lines, 1818-1858, with a more cursory survey of the later years. Designed as complementary to this study, with details concerning captains and crews, packet passengers, sailing conditions, speed performance, etc. F. B. C. Bradlee, The Dreadnought of Newburyport, Mass., and some Account of the old Transatlantic Packet Ships (1927). *A. H. Clark, The Clipper Ship Era (1910). The first of the sound clipper studies, by a one-time clipper captain. *C. C. Cutler, Greyhounds of the Sea, the Story of the American Clipper Ship (1930). A readable and exhaustive account, with detailed statistical information concerning dimensions and performance. *O. T. Howe and F. C. Matthews, American Clipper Ships, 1833-1858, 2 vols. (1926-27). Whereas Clark's treatment is topical and Cutler's chronological, this is a study of individual ships, arranged alphabetically. W. G. Low, Something about A. A. Low and Brothers' Fleet of Clipper Ships (1919). A. Basil Lubbock, The Western Ocean Packets (1925). A collection of separate articles, not up to some of his other interesting works in quality and accuracy. John Robinson and G. F. Dow, Sailing Ships of New England, 3 vols. (1922-28). Excellent collection of pictures, with brief accounts; the third "series" edited by Dow alone; published by Marine Research Society. *G. W. Sheldon, "The Old Packet and Clipper Service," in Harper's Maga- zine (see Port of New York). The principal source for the packets until recently; utilized by other writers for many years; responsible for erroneous date of 1816 as start of packet service. *C. P. Wright, The Origins and Early Years of the Transatlantic Packet Ships of New York, 1817-1835 (MS. 1932). Unpublished Harvard dissertation; able and valuable "biography of ships and men," analyzing minutely the manner in which the early lines were formed.

XXI. Steamboats and Steamships

Account of the Delamater-Ericsson Celebration in New York City (1920). F. M. Bennett, The Steam Navy of the United States (1896). V. M. Berthold, The Pioneer Steamer California, 1848-49 (1932). F. C. Bowen, A Century of Atlantic Travel, 1830-1930 (1930). Interesting comprehensive survey, but often inaccurate in early period. *D. L. Buckman, Old Steamboat Days on the Hudson River (1907). J. O. Choules, The Cruise of the Steam Yacht North Star, a Narrative of the Excursion of Mr. Vanderbilt's Party to England, Russia, etc. (1854). W. C. Church, Life of John Ericsson, 2 vols. (1890). W. H. Cooper, Incidents of Shipwrecks; or the Loss of the "San Francisco" (1855). W. K. Covell, "Steamboats on Narragansett Bay," in Newport Historical Society, Bulletin, No. 90, pp. 2-57 (1934). *F. E. Dayton, Steamboat Days (1925). Readable general survey, well illustrated; less detailed than Morrison. C. H. Dow, History of Steam Navigation between New York and Provi- dence (1877). Henry Fry, History of North Atlantic Steam Navigation (1896). C. H. Haswell, "Reminiscences of Early Marine Steam Engine Construc- tion and Steam Navigation in the U. S. A. from 1807 to 1850," in Transactions of the Institute of Naval Architects (1898-99). Historical Sketch of the Fulton Ferry and its Associated Ferries, by a Director (1879). *S. A. Howland, Steamboat Disasters and Railroad Wrecks in the United States (2nd ed., 1840). Full accounts of several New York disasters, including the Home and Lexington, in addition to several wrecks of New York sailing vessels. G. C. Jackson, The Ship under Steam (1928). *J. H. Kemble, "The Genesis of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company," in California Historical Society Quarterly, XIII (1934). __ "The Panama Route to the Pacific Coast, 1848-1869," in Pacific His- torical Review (1938). __ "Coal from the Northwest Coast, 1848-1850," in British Columbia Historical Quarterly, II, pp. 123-30 (1938) Studies preparatory to a general history of the Pacific Mail. The author generously assisted in the preparation of this study. *W. J. Lane, History of Transportation in New Jersey to 1860 (in press). Good details of steamboats on Raritan route; Gibbons vs. Ogden, etc. His study of Cornelius Vanderbilt, in preparation, also contains much on steamboats and steamships. W. S. Lindsay, History of Merchant Shipping (see Shipping, General). R. W. McAdam, The Old Fall River Line (1937). *A. J. Maginnis, The Atlantic Ferry, its Ships, Men and Workings (1892). One of the soundest studies on the subject; good tables. *J. H. Morrison, History of American Steam Navigation (1903). Comprehensive and extremely detailed. New York State, Superior Court, William Heilman vs. Marshall O. Roberts (1861). Valuable details of the cost of operating the U. S. Mail steamships. H. Parker and F. C. Bowen, Mail and Passenger Steamships of the Nine- teenth Century (1928). Good pictures from the Macpherson Collection. H. F. J. Porter, "The Delamater Iron Works, the Cradle of the Modern Navy," in Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, XXVI (1919). G. H. Preble, A Chronological History of the Origin and Development of Steam Navigation (1883). Thomas Ranney, Ocean Steam Navigation and the Ocean Post (1858). Discussion of situation created by cancellation of federal mail subsidies. W. D. Renninger, Government Policy in Aid of American Shipbuilding (1911). Richard Sennett and H. J. Oram, The Marine Steam Engine (6th ed., (1902). H. J. Smith, The Romance of the Hoboken Ferry (1931). Steam Fleet of Liverpool (The), (1865). Detailed survey, by lines. C. B. Stuart, Naval and Mail Steamers (1853). Diagrams, pictures, statistics, and rhetoric concerning subsidy liners and warships, by chief engineer of the Navy. *J. E. Tuel, The Steam Marine of the Port of New York, examined in its Connection with the Southern Ports of the United States and the West Indies, and in Connection with the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (1853). Published originally in the Journal of Commerce. U. S. Congressional Documents: 29th Cong., 1st Sess., Senate Doc. 237; 34th Cong., 3rd Sess., Senate Report 440; 35th Cong., 1st Sess., Senate Report 326; 36th Cong., 1st Sess., House Report 648; 36th Cong., 2nd Sess., Senate Report 292; 37th Cong., 3rd Sess., House Report 49. Contain much information concerning Collins Line, Pacific Mail, U. S. Mail and other subsidy lines. A. J. Wall, "The Sylvan Steamboats on the East River, New York to Harlem," in N. Y. Historical Society, Quarterly Bulletin, VIII, pp. 59-72 (1924).

XXII. General Commerce and Trans-atlantic Trade

(See also Manufactures) *I. D. Andrews, Report ... on the Trade and Commerce of the British American Colonies and upon the Trade of the Great Lakes and Rivers, etc. (U. S. 32nd Cong., 1st Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 112) (1853). Commonly known as the "Andrews Report"; more comprehensive than the title indicates; surveys many aspects of the nation's commercial activity, with detailed statistics on many subjects, and studies of the individual seaports. E. Baasch, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Handelsbeziehungen swischen Ham- burg und Amerika (1892). S. J. Chapman, The History of Trade between the United Kingdom and the United States, with Special Reference to the Effect of Tariffs (1899). *C. M. Depew, ed., One Hundred Years of American Commerce (1795- 1895) 2 vols. (1895). Useful co-operative work, with individual studies of many branches of commerce and industry. *R. W. Hidy, The House of Baring and American Trade (see Business Methods). B. H. Holland, The Fall of Protection, 1840-1850 (1913). A study of the transitional period in British commercial policy. E. R. Johnson, et als., History of the Domestic and Foreign Commerce of the United States (Carnegie Institute) 2 vols. (1915). T. P. Martin, "Cotton and Wheat in Anglo-American Trade and Politics, 1846-1852," in Journal of Southern History (1935). W. P. Sterns, "Foreign Trade of the United States, 1820-1840," in Journal of Political Economy, VIII, pp. 34-57, 452-90. Herman Watjen, Aus der Fruhseit des Nordatlantikverkehrs: Studien Sur Geschichte der deutschen Schiffart und deutschen Auswanderung nach den Vereinigten Staaten bis sum Ende des amerikanischen Burger- kriegs (1932).

XXIII. Manufactures, Foreign and Domestic

(See also Commerce, "Cotton Triangle") W. R. Bagnall, The Textile Industries of the United States (1893). *Lucy Barton, Historic Costume for the Stage (1935). The best account of just what sorts of materials were worn at different periods, and how much of them; the author also made special estimates for this study. *V. S. Clark, History of Manufactures in the United States (Carnegie Institute), new ed. 3 vols. (1929). A. H. Cole, The American Wool Manufacture, 2 vols. (1926). *Thomas Ellison, The Cotton Trade of Great Britain (1858). M. B. Hammond, The Cotton Industry: an Essay in American Economic History (1897). Herbert Heaton, The Yorkshire Woollen and Worsted Industries (1920). Arthur Redford, Manchester Merchants and Foreign Trade, 1794-1858 (1934). F. W. Taussig, The Tariff History of the United States, new ed. (1923). U. S., Bureau of Statistics, Exports of Manufactures from the United States and their Distribution, by Articles and Countries; also, Impor- tation of Manufacturers' Materials and Finished Manufactures, 1790- 1902 (1902). Andrew Ure, Cotton Manufacture of Great Britain (1861). Perry Walton, The Story of Textiles (1912).

XXIV. The "Cotton Triangle" and Coasting Trade

(See also Manufactures) *R. G. Albion, Square-Riggers on Schedule (see Port of New York). Chap. III, "Enslaving the Cotton Ports," analyzes major coastal packets and nature of cargoes; specimen cargoes from cotton ports to New York in 1835, together with freight rates, are analyzed in ap- pendix. J. S. Bassett, The Southern Plantation Overseer (1925). J. E. Boyle, Cotton and the New Orleans Cotton Exchange: a Century of Commercial Evolution (1934). *N. S. Buck, The Organisation and Development of Anglo-American Trade, 1800-1850 (see Business Methods). J. D. B. DeBow, Industrial Resources, Statistics, etc., of the United States, and Particularly of the Southern and Western States, 3 vols. in I (1854). Includes full accounts of the later southern commercial conventions and their propaganda; later article by Maury on "Direct Trade" at beginning of vol. III. W. E. Dodd, The Cotton Kingdom (1921). G. S. Graham, "The Gypsum Trade of the Maritime Province," in Agricul- tural History, XII, pp. 209-23 (1938). Meyer Jacobstein, The Tobacco Industry in the United States (1907). (Daniel Lord), The Effect of Secession upon the Commercial Relations between the North and South, and upon each Section (1861). Originally appeared in New York Times. *(M. F. Maury) "Direct Trade with the South," in Southern Literary Magazine, V, pp. 2-12 (1839). Analyzes "cotton triangle"; stresses importance of New York packets; and urges similar service from southern ports. A later amplification of same article appeared in DeBow above. F. L. Olmstead, Journeys and Explorations in the Cotton Kingdom, 2 vols. (1861). Abridges previous separate studies on Seaboard Slave States, etc. U. B. Phillips, A History of Transportation in the Eastern Cotton Belt to 1860 (1908). __ Life and Labor in the Old South (1929). *R. R. Russell, Economic Aspects of Southern Sectionalism, 1840-1860 (1924). *The "Southern Trade." An Epitome of Commerce North and South, movements of Exports, etc., with a Directory of New York Houses interested in Southern Trade (2nd ed. 1860). Consists of an article, "The Strength of the Union" by T. P. Kettell, with advertisements of New York "southern houses" on alternate pages. *A. H. Stone, "The Cotton Factorage System of the United States," in American Historical Review, XX, pp. 557-65 (1915). J. G. Van Deusen, Economic Bases of Disunion in South Carolina (1928). G. S. Wasson, "The Old Rockland, Maine, Lime Trade," in Old-Time New England, XXI, 156-67 (1931). Includes excellent photographs of coasting schooners. __ and Lincoln Colcord, Sailing Days on the Penobscot (1932). J. L. Watkins, King Cotton: an Historical and Statistical Review, 1790 to 1908 (1908). Amplification of his Bulletin for the Statistical Division of the Dept. of Agriculture in 1895; it has been remarked that his figures are "wrong in themselves and have been a cause of error to others." William Way, History of the New England Society of Charleston, 1819- 1919 (1920). T. J. Wertenbaker, Norfolk, Historic Southern Port (1931). A history and apology, written under contract with the Norfolk city government. *H. Winder, Southern Commercial Conventions, 1837-1859 (1930). R. G. Wood, A History of Lumbering in Maine, 1820-1861 (1935). Includes an account of the lumber coasters.

XXV. Caribbean and Latin America

G. W. Allen, Our Navy and the West Indian Pirates (1929). J. M. Baker, A view of the Commerce between the United States and Rio de Janeiro (1838). Detailed statistics, by former consul there. H. C. Bell, Studies in the Trade Relations of the British West Indies and North America, 1763-73; 1783-93 (19I7). F. L. Benns, The American Struggle for the British West India Carrying Trade, 1815-1830 (1923). H. M. Brackenridge, Voyage to Buenos Ayres ... 1817 & 1818, 2 vols. (1819). B. was secretary of the American mission which visited Latin America to investigate trade possibilities, etc. Accounts by Joel Poinsett and William Baldwin also describe same mission, giving a picture of the region. A large number of other contemporary accounts by travellers or residents were consulted for descriptions and incidental remarks on trade; but few were of sufficient value to warrant inclusion here. F. B. C. Bradlee, Piracy in the West Indies and its Suppression (1923). C. L. Chandler, Inter-American Acquaintances (1917). R. J. Cleveland, Voyages (see Memoirs). Detailed account of a lengthy and adventurous voyage from New York to the West Coast. *George Coggeshall, Voyages (see Memoirs). The most valuable single account of New York trade with the West Indies and Latin America (see text). W. E. Curtis, Trade and Transportation between the United States and Spanish America (1889). A government survey, dealing principally with conditions after 1860. R. H. Dana, To Cuba and Back (1859). Edmund Fanning, Voyages (see Memoirs). Account of a voyage from New York to the West Coast, with experi- ences similar to Cleveland's. H. E. Jacob, Coffee: The Epic of a Commodity tr. Eden and Cedar Paul (1935). A. K. Manchester, British Preeminence in Brazil, its Rise and Decline: a Study in European Expansion (1933). *W. R. Manning, ed., Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States: Inter-American Affairs (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace), 8 vols. (1925-34). Reproduces many documents which throw light on trade conditions, though much of the detailed statistical analysis in the consular des- patches is excluded. E. T. Parks, Colombia and the United States, 1765-1934 (1935). L. J. Ragatz, The Decline of the Planter Class in the British Caribbean, 1763-1833 (1928). A Guide for the Study of British Caribbean History, 1763-1834 (American Historical Association, Annual Report) (1937). J. F. Rippy, Rivalry of the United States and Great Britain in Latin America, 1808-1830 (1929). Emphasis diplomatic rather than commercial; several of the other works of this authority on Inter-American affairs also have a bearing on the subject. W. S. Robertson, Hispanic-American Relations with the United States (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) (1923). Chap. VI is one of the most useful summaries of the trade with South America W. O. Scroggs, Filibusters and Financiers (1916). Able analysis of the relation of Vanderbilt and the other New York steamship operators to the activities of William Walker in Nicaragua. Later popular study, The Filibuster by Laurence Greene (1937), adds little to the story. Anthony Trollope, The West Indies and the Spanish Main (1860). Good description of the various regions at the close of our period. P. L. Vogt, The Sugar Refining Industry in the United States; Its Devel- opment and Present Condition (1908). A. C. Wilgus, "Spanish American Patriot Activity along the Atlantic Sea- board," in North Carolina Historical Review, IV, pp. 174-75. __ "Spanish American Patriot Activity on the Gulf Coast, 1811-1822," in Louisiana Historical Quarterly, VIII, pp. 212-13.

XXVI. "Distant Seas"

E. J. G. Bridgman, Life and Labors of Elijah Coleman Bridgeman (1864). Missionary in China; briefly a New York merchant; supported by D. W. C. Olyphant at Canton. M. E. Cosenza, ed., Complete Journal of Townshend Harris (1930). New York chinaware importer, who played very prominent role in early American contact with Japan. Tyler Dennett, Americans in Eastern Asia (1922). F. R. Dulles, America in the Pacific, a Century of Expansion (1932). * The Old China Trade (1930). An interesting, valuable and comprehensive account. *(W. C. Hunter), The "Fan Kwae" at Canton before Treaty Days, 1825- 1844, by an old Resident (1882). Concise, clear and interesting account of the business methods, etc., of the "foreign devils" and their relationship to the Hong merchants; written by one of the New Yorkers who made a fortune as a partner in Russell & Co. *Edmund Fanning, Voyages (see Memoirs). Full account of the Stonington-New York sealing and exploring ac- tivities in the South Atlantic and Pacific, promoted by Fanning. R. B. Forbes, Reminiscences (see Memoirs). Excellent account of Canton around 1840 by a Russell partner. Sidney & Marjorie Greenbie, Gold of Ophir (1925). Account of the old China trade, written in a more verbose and flowery manner than Dulles. T. J. Jacobs, Scenes, Incidents and Adventures in the Pacific Ocean . . . under Capt. Benjamin Morrell (1844). See works by Morrell and his wife below. *S. E. Morison, Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860 (1921). Delightful and valuable chapters on the China and East India trade, with good bibliography. This classic of American maritime history is also useful for other aspects of the period. Abby Jane Morrell, Narrative of a Voyage to the Ethiopic and South Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, etc., 1829-31 (1833). Benjamin Morrell, Narratives of Four Voyages (1832). Stonington-New York adventures in the South Seas; one of the live- liest single episodes in this period of the port's history (see text). H. B. Morse, The Chronicles of the East India Company trading to China, 1635-1834, 5 vols. (1926-29). The Gilds of China, with an Account of the Gild Merchant or Cohong of Canton (1909). James Riley, An Authentic Narrative of the Loss of the American Brig "Commerce" wrecked on the Western Coast of Africa in 1815 (1817). A New York captain temporarily enslaved by the Moors. K. W. Porter, The Jacksons and the Lees (see Business Methods). __ John Jacob Astor, Business Man (see Biography). Analysis of methods, illustrated by original documents, in trade with India and China. Edmund Roberts, Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam and Muscat, in the U. S. Sloop of War "Peacock" (1837). W. S. W. Ruschenberger, A Voyage around the World: Including an Em- bassy to Muscat and Siam (1838). The latter was an officer on the Peacock; the Roberts mission led to temporary trade between New York and Muscat. (Samuel Shaw), Journals of Major Samuel Shaw, with life of author by Josiah Quincy (1847). Shaw was supercargo of the Empress of China on the first trip to Canton from New York in 1784 and the first U. S. consul at Canton. T. Thayer, Life of D. W. C. Olyphant (see Biography). One of the leading New York China merchants.

XXVII. Hinterland, Canals, and Railroads

C. H. Ambler, A History of Transportation in the Ohio Valley (1932). I. D. Andrews, "Andrews Report" (see Commerce). George Armroyd, A Connected View of the Whole Internal Navigation of the United States (1826). *P. W. Bidwell and J. I. Falconer, History of Agriculture in the Northern United States, 1620-1860 (Carnegie Institute) (1925). A great deal of valuable description and analysis not only for agricul- ture proper but also for the details of hinterland economic connections with the coast. E. S. Clowes, Shipways to the Sea: Our Inland and Coastal Waterways (1929). D. G. Creighton, The Commercial Empire of the St. Lawrence, 1760-1850 (1937). (Delaware & Hudson) A Century of Progress: History of the Delaware & Hudson Co. (1925). John Disturnell, The Western Traveller; Embracing the Canal and Rail- road Routes from Albany, etc. (1844). Also numerous other railroad and travel guides by same compiler. Seymour Dunbar, A History of Travel in America, 4 vols. (1915). Reproduces many interesting old prints, timetables, etc. A. T. Hadley, Railroad Transportation; Its History and Its Laws (1885). James Hall, The West; its Commerce and Navigation (1848). A. F. Harlow, Old Towpaths, the Story of the American Canal Era (1926). H. W. Hill, An Historical Review of Waterways and Canal Construction in New York State (1908). In publications of Buffalo Historical Society. A. B. Hulburt, The Great American Canals, 2 vols. (1904). Edward Hungerford, Men and Iron: A History of the New York Central (1938). __ Pathway of Empire (1935). __ The Story of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 1827-1927 (1928). C. L. Jones, Economic History of the Anthracite-Tidewater Canals (1908). *C. B. Kuhlmann, The Development of the Flour-Milling Industry in the United States (1929). Very useful for flour trade in general. W. J. Lane, History of Transportation in New Jersey to 1860 (see Steam- boats). A. C. Laut, The Romance of the Rails, 2 vols. (1929). Includes a chapter on New York's delay in railroad construction. J. W. Livingood, The Rivalry of Philadelphia and Baltimore for the Trade of the Susquehanna Region (MS. 1936). Unpublished Princeton doctoral dissertation; able analysis of rivalry with canals and railroads. *B. H. Meyer and C. E. MacGill, History of Transportation in the United States before 1860 (Carnegie Institute) (1917). E. H. Mott, Between the Ocean and the Lakes; The Story of Erie (1899). New York State, Canal Commissioners, etc. (see Annual Reports). H. V. Poor, History of the Railroads and Canals of the United States (1860). Detailed account of cost and progress for each road and canal; con- tinued by annual Poor's Manual. J. L. Ringwalt, Development of Transportation Systems in the United States (1888). Topical arrangement, with chapters on rolling stock, rails, etc., inter- esting topographical profiles of main routes to west, opp. p. 72. H. W. Schotter, The Growth and Development of the Pennsylvania Rail- road Co. (1927). J. W. Starr, One Hundred Years of American Railroading (1928). F. W. Stevens, Beginnings of the New York Central Railroad (1926). G. N. Tucker, The Canadian Commercial Revolution, 1845-1851 (1936). R. J. Vandewater, The Tourist, or Pocket Manual for Travellers (1839). Similar to Disturnell; gives useful details on Hudson steamer lines, canal travel, railroads, etc. *N. E. Whitford, History of the Canal System of the State of New York, together with Brief Histories of the Canals of the United States and Canada, 2 vols. (1906). Published as supplement to the Annual Report of the State Engineer and Surveyor of the State of New York for the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1905. The most exhaustive study of the Erie Canal, etc. Con- tains an extensive bibliography, II (continuous paging), pp. 1173-1366. C. R. Woodward, The Development of Agriculture in New Jersey, 1640- 1880 (1927). (No attempt has been made here to list the very numerous works dealing with the economic history of particular inland cities and regions.)

XXVIII. Hudson River

H. C. Brown, The Lordly Hudson (1937). Elaborate reproductions of many old pictures. *D. L. Buckman, Old Steamboat Days on the Hudson River (see Steam- boats). *J. S. Curtiss, "The Sloops of the Hudson, 1800-1850," in New York His- tory, XIV, pp. 61-73 (1933). Joel Munsell, Annals of Albany, 10 vols. (1850-59). *W. E. Verplanck and M. W. Collyer, The Sloops of the Hudson. An His- torical Sketch of the Packet and Market Sloops of the Last Century, etc. (1908). William Wade, Panorama of the Hudson River from New York to Albany (1845). Panorama view and descriptive text. Paul Wilstach, Hudson River Landings (1933).

XXIX. Immigration and Passengers

*Edith Abbott, Historical Aspects of the Immigration Problem: Select Documents (1926). One of the most valuable works on immigration; reproduces a large amount of contemporary source material on reasons for migrating, adjustments in America, reaction of "native" Americans, etc. W. F. Adams, Ireland and Irish Immigration to the New World from 1815 to the Famine (1932). Like Hansen and Johnson below, covers one of the three main sources of New York's immigrants in a thorough, scholarly manner. R. G. Albion, Square Riggers on Schedule (see Shipping). Chap. IX, "Thirty Guineas, Wines Included," analyzes the cabin pas- sage during the period in detail and includes a first-hand account of two immigrant passages; the bibliography lists many of the best travel accounts by cabin passengers, so that those are not duplicated here. R. B. Anderson, The First Chapter of Norwegian Immigration, 1821-1840 (1896). T. C. Blegen, Norwegian Migration to America, 1825-1860 (1931). The first group arrived at New York in 1825. F. C. Bowen, A Century of Atlantic Travel (see Steamboats and Steam- ships). W. J. Bromwell, History of Immigration into the United States, etc. (1856). Statistical tables of port totals, occupation totals and national origins totals, 1820-55, based on annual official reports; not as useful as the Treasury Dept. table, below (compiled chiefly by Bromwell), since it does not distinguish aliens from total passengers, including Americans. Calvin Colton, Manual for Emigrants to America (1832). Like Knight below, typical of the British volumes of advice to those contemplating emigration. "Departure of Emigrant Vessels," in Littell's Living Age, XXVI, pp. 492- 97 (1854). Describes conditions on New York packets leaving Liverpool. J. Duval, Histoire de l'Emigration au XIX' Siecle (1862). *"Emigrant Ship Washington," in Chambers' Edinburgh Journal, XVI, pp. 27-30 (1852). Reproduces from parliamentary papers full text of Vere Foster's de- scription of trip in New York ship (see text). H. P. Fairchild, Immigration (1913). A. B. Faust, The German Element in the United States, 2 vols. (1909; new ed. 2 vols. in I, 1927). A. C. Flick, ed., History of the State of New York, VII (1936). Chapter on New York immigration. R. L. Garis, Immigration Restriction, a Study of the Opposition to and Regulation of Immigration in the United States (1927). J. W. Girard, Jr., The Impress of Nationalities upon the City of New York (see New York, Social). *M. L Hansen, Emigration from Continental Europe, 1815-1860, with Special Reference to the United States (MS. 1932). Unpublished Harvard dissertation; able analysis of causes and meth- ods. Good bibliography. W. E. Harding, John Morrissey, His Life, Battles, and Wrangles (see Biography). Harry Jerome, Migration and Business Cycles (1926). *S. C. Johnson, A History of Emigration from the United Kingdom to North America, 1763-1912 (1913). Includes good bibliography of official British sources. *Theodore Kapp, Immigration and the Commissioners of Emigration of the State of New York (1864). Written by one of the commissioners, this is perhaps the most useful single source on New York immigration; detailed description of the various phases and problems affecting the port, including passage conditions, reception of immigrants, etc. Charles Knight & Co., The British Mechanic's and Labourer's Hand Book and True Guide to the United States (1840). Like Colton, a good example of the British emigrant manual. T. F. Meehan, "New York's first Irish Emigrant Society," in U. S. Catholic Hist. Record, VI, pt. 2, pp. 202-11 (1913). S. F. B. Morse, Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions of the United States through Foreign Immigration (1835). A strong and oft-quoted statement of the "nativist" opposition to immigration, by the inventor of the telegraph. *New York State, Annual Reports of the Commissioners of Emigration of the State of New York, 1847-1860 (1861). A collection of the annual reports into a single volume, with useful statistics for the period; concentrates in particular upon the work of the commissioners at the Quarantine, the Ward's Island refuge, and Castle Garden. The bulk of the material is well utilized in Kapp's study. * __ Report of the Select Committee Appointed by the Legislature of New York to Examine into Frauds upon Emigrants (1847). The investigation which led to the creation of the commissioners of emigration; findings also analyzed in Kapp. T. W. Page, "The Distribution of Immigrants in the United States before 1870," in Journal of Political Economy, XX, pp. 676-94 (1912). L. D. Scisco, Political Nativism in New York State (1901). *U. S. Treasury Dept., Bureau of Statistics, Tables showing Arrivals of Alien Passengers and Immigrants in the United States from 1820 to 1888 (1889). The most compact tabulation of immigration statistics for the earlier period; arrivals by ports (pp. 108-9) reproduced in appendix in simpli- fied form. *U. S. Secretary of State, Annual Reports of Passengers arriving from Foreign Countries in Congressional Documents, 1820 ff. The basis for the statistics in the above Tables and in Bromwell; indicates the number of each nationality and each occupation arriving at each port for each quarter-year. *U. S. Congressional Documents "Report of the Select Committee... on the Sickness and Mortality on board Emigrant Ships," 33rd Con- gress, 1st Session, Senate Doc. 386 (1854). Other pertinent government documents listed in Library of Congress bibliography on Immigration. "Voyage in an Emigrant Ship," in Chambers' Edinburgh Journal, I, pp. 228-32 (1844). The same immigrant's experiences ashore, from New York to Buf- falo, are continued, ibid., pp. 262-65, 302-04. Herman Watjen, Aus der Fruhseit, etc. (see Commerce).

XXX. Miscellaneous

(Sarah Allen) A Narrative of the Shipwreck and Unparalleled Sufferings of Mrs. Sarah Allen (late of Boston) on her Passage in May last from New York to New Orleans (1816). E. S. Bolton, Clement Topliff and his Descendants in Boston (1906). Pioneer gatherer of marine news. Confession of Charles Gibbs, a Native of Rhode Island, who, with T. J Wansley, was doomed to be Hung in New York ... for the Murder of the Captain and Mate of the Brig "Vineyard" (1831). Notorious West Indian pirate (see text), culminating career with murder of officers of brig from New Orleans to New York and bury- ing stolen specie in sand near Coney Island. W. D. Edmonds, Erie Water (1933). Rome Haul (1929). Sound and very interesting historical novels portraying the Erie Canal under construction and in operation; the author has recently written several good stories on New York Port episodes. John Foster, Account of the Conflagration of the Principal Portion of the 1st Ward of the City of New York ... the 16th of December, 1835 (1836). R. H. Gabriel, The Evolution of Long Island, a Story of Land and Sea (1921). A. F. Harlow, Old Waybills: The Romance of the Express Companies (1934). "The Great Fire of 1835" in New York Historical Society, Quarterly Bulletin XX, I (1936). Excellent pictures of the fire which wiped out a considerable portion of the business district. List of sufferers given in Foster above. A. K. Laing, The Sea Witch (1933). Lively historical novel based on the famous clipper and Captain R. H. Waterman; good "atmosphere," but takes a few liberties with history. T. Lord, A Concise Account of a Voyage made ... in the Ship "Minerva" in the Winter of 1818 (1871). Wreck of a New York-Liverpool regular trader. Herman Melville, Redburn (various editions). Novel, presumably partly autobiographical, describing voyage from New York to Liverpool and back in a regular trader around 1837. Victor Rosewater, History of Cooperative Newsgathering in the United States (1930). Good account of Sandy Hook newsboats, etc. (The Sun, N. Y.) Full Particulars of the Two Late Awful Shipwrecks near Sandy Hook. Narrative of the Wrecks of the Barque "Mexico" and of the Ship "Bristol (1837). These wrecks, occasioned partly by pilot neglect, resulted in heavy loss of life and led to an overhauling of the pilot service (see text). W. A. Weaver, Lithographs of N. Currier and Currier & Ives (1925). Pictures of business district, waterfront, ships, wrecks, etc.

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