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Table of Contents of
Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups

edited by
Stephan Thernstrom


© 1980 Belknap Press of Harvard University

Reproduced 2001 with permission of the publisher

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Contents

GROUPS AND DEFINITIONS MAPS
THEMATIC ESSAYS TABLES

GROUPS AND DEFINITIONS

Acadians-Marietta M. LeBreton Afghans-David C. Champagne Africans Afro-Americans-Thomas C. Holt Albanians Aleuts-Dorothy M. Jones Alsatians-Frederick C. Luebke American Indians-Edward H. Spicer Amish-John A. Hostetler Anglo-American Anglo-Saxon Appalachians-Dwight Billings and David Walls Arabs-Alixa Naff Armenians-Robert Mirak Aryan Asian Assyrians-Arian B. Ishaya and Eden Naby Australians and New Zealanders-Andrew Parkin Austrians-Frederick C. Luebke Azerbaijanis-Alexandre Bennigsen Bangladeshi-En a yet ur Rahim Basques-William A. Douglass Belgians-Pierre-Henri Laurent Belorussians-Paul Robert Magocsi Bosnian Muslims-William G. Lockwood Bulgarians-Nikolay G. Altankov Burmese Canadians, British-Alan A. Brookes Cape Verdeans-Francis M. Rogers Carpatho-Rusyns-Paul Robert Magocsi Central and South Americans-Ann Orlov and Reed Ueda Chinese-H.M. Lai Copts-Raef Marcus Cornish-John Rowe Cossacks-Paul Robert Magocsi Creole-Richard A. Long Croats Cubans-Lisandro Perez Czechs-Karen Johnson Freeze Danes-Dorothy Burton Skardal Dominicans-Glenn L. Hendricks Dutch-Robert P. Swierenga East Indians-Joan M. Jensen Eastern Catholics-Paul Robert Magocsi Eastern Orthodox-Thomas E. Bird English-Charlotte J. Erickson Eskimos-Arthur E. Hippler Estonians-Tönu Parming Ethnic Heritage Studies Program Filipinos-H. Brett Melendy Finns-A. William Hoglund Foreign Stock French-Patrice Louis Rene Higonnet French Canadians-Elliott Robert Barkan Frisians Gentile Georgians-Nathela Chatara Germans-Kathleen Neils Conzen Germans from Russia-La Vern J. Rippley Greeks-Theodore Saloutos Gypsies-Ian F. Hancock Haitians-Michel S. Laguerre Hawaiians-Alan Howard Hispanic Hungarians-Paula Benkart Hutterites-John A. Hostetler Icelanders-Valdimar Bjornson Indochinese-Mary Bowen Wright Indonesians Iranians-John H. Lorentz and John T. Wertime Irish-Patrick J. Blessing Italians-Humbert S. Nelli Japanese-Harry H.L. Kitano Jews-Arthur A. Goren Kalmyks-Arash Bormanshinov Koreans-Hyung-chan Kim Kurds-Margaret Kahn Latvians-Edgar Anderson Lithuanians-Arünas Alisauskas Luxembourgers-Paul Robert Magocsi Macedonians Maltese Manx-Ann Orlov Mexicans-Carlos E. Cortes Mormons-Dean L. May Mother Tongue Muslims-Thomas Philipp Nordic North Caucasians-Alexandre Bennigsen Norwegians-Peter A. Munch Oriental Oriental Orthodox-Thomas E. Bird Orthodox-Thomas E. Bird Pacific Islanders-Bradd Shore Pakistanis-Arif Ghayur Pennsylvania Germans-Don Yoder Poles-Victor Greene Portuguese-Francis M. Rogers Puerto Ricans-Joseph P. Fitzpatrick Race Romanians-Gerald J. Bobango Russians-Paul Robert Magocsi Scotch-Irish-Maldwyn A. Jones Scots-Gordon Donaldson Serbs-Michael B. Petrovich and Joel Halpern Slovaks-M. Mark Stolarik Slovenes-Rudolph M. Susel South Africans-Stanley Moss Southerners-John Shelton Reed Spaniards Spanish-Frances Leon Quintana Spanish-Surname Swedes-Ulf Beijbom Swiss-Leo Schelbert Tatars-Alexandre Bennigsen Teutonic Thai Tri-Racial Isolates Turkestanis-Alexandre Bennigsen Turks-Talat Sait Halman Ukrainians-Paul Robert Magocsi Welsh-Rowland Berthoff Wends-George R. Nielsen West Indians-Reed Ueda Yankees-Oscar Handlin Zoroastrians-Eden Naby

THEMATIC ESSAYS

AMERICAN IDENTITY AND AMERICANIZATION--Philip Gleason AMERICAN INDIANS, FEDERAL POLICY TOWARD--Edward H. Spicer ASSIMILATION AND PLURALISM--Harold J. Abramson CONCEPTS OF ETHNICITY--William Petersen EDUCATION--Michael Olneck and Marvin Lazerson FAMILY PATTERNS--Tamara K. Hareven and John Modell FOLKLORE--Roger D. Abrahams HEALTH BELIEFS AND PRACTICES--Noel J. Chrisman and Arthur Kleinman IMMIGRATION: ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS--Richard A. Easterlin IMMIGRATION: HISTORY OF U.S. POLICY--William S. Bernard IMMIGRATION: SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION--David Ward INTERMARRIAGE--David M. Heer LABOR--David Brody LANGUAGE: ISSUES AND LEGISLATION--Abigail M. Thernstrom LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE--Joshua A. Fishman LEADERSHIP--John Higham LITERATURE AND ETHNICITY--Werner Sollors LOYALTIES: DUAL AND DIVIDED--Mona Harrington METHODS OF ESTIMATING THE SIZE OF GROUPS--Charles A. Price NATURALIZATION AND CITIZENSHIP--Reed Ueda PLURALISM: A HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE--Michael Novak PLURALISM: A POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE--Michael Walzer POLITICS--Edward R. Kantowicz PREJUDICE--Thomas F. Pettigrew PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION, HISTORY OF--George M. Fredrickson and Dale T. Knobel PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION, POLICY AGAINST--Nathan Glazer and Reed Ueda RELIGION--Harold J. Abramson RESOURCES AND RESEARCH CENTERS--Edward Kasinec SURVEY RESEARCH--James D. Wright, Peter H. Rossi, and Thomas F. Juravich

MAPS

Afghanistan 3 Africa 7 Albania 24 Alsace and Lorraine 30 American Indian Tribes, c. 1600 60 Primary Location of 173 American In- dian Groups, 1970 61 The Arab World 129 Armenia 137 Assyrian Homelands 161 East Central Europe 166 Azerbaijan 171 Bangladesh 172 Basque Provinces 173 Belgium 179 Belorussia 182 Central Yugoslavia 184 Bulgaria 186 Southern Canada 191 Cape Verde Islands 197 Carpatho-Rusyn Homelands 201 Central and South America 211 South China 218 Cornwall 243 Cossack Homelands 245 Croatia 248 Cuba 256 Czechoslovakia 262 Denmark 273 Hispaniola 282 Netherlands 284 India 297 England 321 Estonia 340 Philippines 355 Finland 363 France 380 Quebec 389 Frisian Homelands 401 Georgia 404 Germany 408 South Russia and the Ukraine 426 Greece 431 Hispaniola 446 Hungary 463 Iceland 474 Indochina 509 Iran 521 Ireland 525 Italy 546 Japan 561 Central Europe 580 South Russia 599 Korea 601 Kurdish Homelands 607 Latvia 638 Lithuania 665 Luxembourg 687 Macedonia 690 Malta 694 Isle of Man 696 Mexico 698 North Caucasus 749 Norway 751 Pacific Islands 763 Pakistan 768 Poland 788 Portugal 813 Azores and Madeira 813 Puerto Rico and the Mainland 859 Romania 880 European Russia 886 Ulster 895 Scotland 908 Yugoslavia 917 Slovakia 927 Slovenia 934 South Africa 942 Spain 948 Sweden 971 Switzerland 982 Tatar Homelands 988 Turkestani Homelands 992 Turkey 993 Ukraine 997 Wales 1011 Lusatia 1018 British West Indies 1021

TABLES

Occupational distribution of Afro-Americans, 1890-1974 21 Percentages of Canadians in U.S. regions, 1880 193 Occupational distribution of British Canadians, 10 years and older, in the United States, 1880 and 1930 193 Carpatho-Rusyn church membership 202 Occupations of Carpatho-Rusyn males in Minne- apolis, 1890-1960, by generation 203 Central and South Americans in the United States 210 Median earnings by years of schooling and sex of Spanish-origin groups, 1969 215 Number of earners per Spanish-origin family, 1970; median income of Spanish-origin fami- lies, 1969 215 Percentage of foreign-born Spanish origin 12th year of school or higher completed, 1970 216 Native-born persons of Spanish origin who have completed 12th year of school or higher, 1970 216 Spanish-origin persons 16 years of age and over, by broad occupational groups, 1970 217 Chinese population in the continental United States, 1850-1975 223 Occupational distribution of Chinese in the con- tinental United States, 1970 227 Chinese population in Hawaii, 1900-1970 231 Occupational distribution of Chinese, 15 years and older, in Hawaii, 1970 233 Czechs in the United States, 1870-1970 261 Czech immigration to the United States, 1850-1950 263 Regional distribution of Danes in the United States, 1870 and 1970 276 Occupations of Danes before and after emigration to the United States, 1868-1900 276 East Indian immigration to the United States, 1820-1976 296 Eastern Catholics in the United States 301 Regional distribution of the English-born in the United States, 1850-1890 326 English-born inhabitants of selected cities, 1890 328 Occupational distribution of English- and Welsh- born males, 10 years and older, in the U.S. labor force, 1890 329 Immigration from England to the United States, 1881-1973 335 Number of English-born as percentage of foreign- born and of total population of the United States 335 Family characteristics of major immigrant groups, 1909-1914 347 Percentages of New York City marriages outside ethnic group, by generation, for selected groups of men, 1908-1912 348 Percentages of women ever married, by age at time of marriage and by nativity or race, 1910 348 Percentage of women in 1900 married 10-19 years who had borne only one or two children, by national origin, generation, and place of resi- dence 349 Percentage of children aged 10-15 in the labor force in selected cities, by sex, nativity, or race, and selected characteristics of manufacturing, 1900 351 Filipino immigration to the United States, 1966- 1976 362 Germans in the U.S. population, 1850-1970 406 German immigration by decade 410 Geographical distribution of German-born Amer- icans 412 Numbers of German-born in selected U.S. cities, 1850-1950 413 Immigrants to the United States from Greece and Asian Turkey, 1871-1975 432 Increase in U.S. population by component of change, 1810-1970 476 Annual rate of immigration, 1820-1970 477 Immigrants admitted to the United States, 14 years and older, who could neither read nor write, 1899-1910, by race or people 478 Distribution of total reported immigration, by continent, 1821-1970 480 Major sources of immigrants from Europe and Western Hemisphere, by country, 1821-1970 480 Average annual rate of intercontinental emigra- tion from Europe per decade, by country, 1821- 1910 481 Immigrants by occupation at time of entry, 1821- 1920 482 Distribution of U.S. labor force in major occupa- tional groups, by color, place of birth, and par- entage, 1910 483 The effects of the quota acts on the volume and sources of immigration 493 Relative regional representation of non-European ethnic groups, 1970 498 Relative regional representation of European eth- nic groups, by country of origin, 1970 499 Percentages of ethnic groups in central cities and urban fringes, by country of origin and genera- tion, 1970 500 Percentages of ethnic groups in small towns and rural areas, by country of origin and generation, 1970 501 Percentage of population and relative regional representation of ethnic groups, 1790 503 Regional distribution of the U.S. population, 1790-1970 504 Relative regional representation of Afro-Ameri- cans, 1850-1970 505 Urban concentration of first-generation white population, by country of origin, 1920 506 Irish immigration to the United States, 1820- 1975 528 Irish stock in the United States, 1850-1970 528 Irish-born by number and percent of total popula- tion for selected years in ten cities of largest Irish population in 1890 531 Occupational distribution of first- and second- generation Irish males, 1950, and males of Irish descent compared with the general male popu- lation, 1969 541 Italian immigration to the United States, 1820- 1975 547 Population of Chicago's Near West Side Italian district in 1898, by precinct 548 Italian immigrants in selected cities, 1870-1910 548 Italian population in the boroughs of New York City, 1900-1920 549 Regional distribution of Italian Americans, 1970 558 Japanese in Hawaii, 1900-1970 562 Japanese in the continental United States and Ha- waii, 1870-1970 562 Japanese immigration to the continental United States, 1861-1940 563 Sex distribution of Japanese Americans, 1900- 1970 564 Jewish population of selected cities, 1948 and 1977 592 U.S. population claiming non-English mother tongue, 1960 and 1970 632 Occupations prohibited to aliens, 1941 742 Aliens in the United States, 1890-1970 744 Aliens deported, 1892-1970 746 Percentage of foreign-born persons naturalized, by country of origin, 1910-1970 747 Alien naturalization, 1907-1976 747 Major Polish-American fraternal associations, 1873-1920 795 Membership in selected Polish fraternal associa- tions, 1924-1975 796 Portuguese immigration to the United States, 1820-1977 814 Portuguese nonterritorial parishes in the United States, by community and date of founding 816 People of Puerto Rican origin in continental United States and New York City, 1910-1970 860 Region of origin of 5,737 Scottish settlers in the United States from colonial times through 1854 910 Occupations of 2,664 Scottish emigrants to the United States from colonial times through 1854 912 Immigration from Spain to the United States, 1820-1976 949 Religious affiliations of the population of the United States 960 National origins of the American population 965 Swiss stock in the United States, 1900 to 1970 981 Swiss immigration to the United States, 1821 to 1920 985 Ukrainian church membership 998 Ukrainians in selected states, 1930 and 1970 999 Selected Ukrainian fraternal societies, 1978 1002 Occupational distribution of U.S. white popula- tion, British West Indian immigrants, U. S. black, and other nonwhite population, 1973 1026 Population by ethnic origin 1035 Immigration by race or people, 1899-1952 1036 Language retention of four major American eth- nic-origin groups, 1969 1040 Population, by sex and race: 1790 to 1970 1045 Foreign-born population, by sex and race: 1850 to 1970 1046 Immigration by country, for decades 1820 to 1975 Nativities of the population, by state of residence, 1850 1047 Geographical distribution of the foreign born, 1890 1050 Foreign-born population distributed according to principal countries of birth: 1850 to 1890 1051 Foreign white stock, and foreign-bom separately, by countries of origin distributed according to mother tongues in detail, 1910 1052 Foreign white stock, and foreign-born white sepa- rately, by mother tongues distributed according to countries of origin in detail: 1910 1053 Country of origin of the foreign white stock, by nativity and parentage, 1890-1920 1053 Country of origin of the foreign white stock, by nativity and parentage, 1930 1055 Foreign-born white population by country of birth, by states, 1950 1059 Country of origin of the foreign stock, by nativity, color, and sex, 1960 1060 Country of origin of the foreign stock, by nativity and race, 1970 1066 Mother tongue of the population, by nativity and parentage, 1970 1067 Negro population by sex and urban and rural resi- dence, 1970 1068 Japanese population by sex and urban and rural residence, 1970 1069 Chinese population by sex and urban and rural residence, 1970 1070 Filipino population by sex and urban and rural residence, 1970 1071 Indian population of tribes by sex, age, and whether living on identified reservations, 1970 1072 Persons naturalized, by country or region of for- mer allegiance, 1966-1975 1074 Immigrants admitted, by country or region of birth and major occupation, year ended June 30, 1975 1075 Population of Spanish origin by sex and type of Spanish origin, for the United States and the five southwestern states: March 1976 1076 Total and Spanish-origin population by age groups, sex and type of Spanish origin, for the United States: March 1976 1076

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