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Index of A Pictorial History of Immigration

by
Oscar Handlin


© 1972 Crown Publishers

Reproduced 2002 with permission of the publisher

   Table of Contents   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog


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Index

Italic page numbers indicate illustrations. A Abbott, E. C. ("Teddy Blue"), 142, 142 Acadia, steamer, 100 Acadians, embarkation of, 60 Actors, Irish, 124, 125 Addams, Jane, 276, 276 Adult education citizenship program, 319 Africa, 18, 20, 33, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66 Agassiz, Louis, 321, 322 Agriculture. See also Farmers American, 162 Indian, 6 traditional early European, 14, 14 Alamo, the, Spanish mission at, 58 Albanians, 248, 250, 253 Aleppo, ship, 103 Alexander, Franz, 298, 298 Algonkian Indians, 3-4, 7 Algonquins, 5, 58, 59 Al-Hoda, 255 Alien Address Program, 310 Alien and Sedition Act, 71 Aliens, 190, 293 examination of, 289 fingerprinting of, 189 notice to, 189 registered, table of, 310 registration of, 291, 292, 293 resident, in 1970, 308 Altgeld, John P., 318, 318 Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 216 America. See also United States map of, at death of Columbus, 13 prosperity in, cartoon, 98 resources of, 18 American culture, 319, 321 American Emigrant Company, advertise- ment of, 161 American frontiers, 53 Spanish and French on, 54-60 American Hellenic Educational Progres- sive Association, 250, 253 American industry, 162 after Civil War, 174 American Protective Association, 281 American society, fluidity of, 315 American wages, lure of, 160 Americanization classes, 273, 275 Americans, 67 and English, 37, 67 nationalism of, 70 Amish, 49-50, 50, 130 Amsterdam, 97 Jewish quarter in, 201 seventeenth-century, 96 Anarchists, 283 Anderson, R. H., 192 Anti-Catholicism, 170, 193, 280, 281 Anti-Chinese Workingman's Party meet- ing, 159 Anti-Communist poster, 283 Anti-Greek sentiment, 250 Anti-immigration cartoon, 291 Anti-immigration pamphlet, 281 Anti-Japanese campaign, 269 Anti-Semitic banner in Germany, 297 Anti-Semitism, 203, 207, 216, 281 in Germany, 205, 297, 304 Antislavery movement cartoon on, 66 Germans and, 170, 171 Apothecary, German, 137 Apple pickers, 314 Armenians, 248, 253, 254, 254, 255 Armillary sphere, 18 Artisans, 86, 88 English, 87, 138 German, 86, 87 Artists, 324 Asia, 18 trade with, 153 Asia Minor, 248 Astor, John Jacob, 74, 74 Astrolabe, 20 Astronomy, 17 Atlantic, the, 4, 20 emigrants crossing, by sail, 94-109 Atlantis, 250, 253 Audubon, J. J., 321, 322 Austria, 127, 235, 304 Jews in, 203 refugees from, 297 Azteca-Tanoan Indians, 4 Aztecs, 4, 20 city of, 5 B Baekeland, Leo H., 321, 322 Bahamas, workers from, 263 Bakers, 131 Balkan Wars, 250 Greeks applying for passports to enlist in, 252 Balkans, the, 248 Baltic states, 18 Baltimore, 101 and harbor, 105 Germans in, 131 in 1730, 29 Irish in, 114 unloading oyster luggers in, 132 Baltimore, Lord, 28, 29 Barges, 107 Baruch, Simon, 321, 322 Basel, departure of emigrants from, 52 Basket making, Indian, 6, 7 Batista, Fulgencio, 304 Battery, the, 181 barge office at, 181, 182 Bautista de Anza, Juan, 54 Beer gardens, 135, 189 Beggars, Italian, 223 Bell, Alexander Graham, 321, 322 Berlin, passport office in, 297 Berthon, G. T., 324 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, typical Mora- vian home in, 50 Bilbo, Theodore G., 287, 290 Birkbeck, Morris, 85, 138 Bishop, John, 21, 26 Bishop Hill, Illinois, 82, 84 Bismarck, Prince Otto von, 127, 128 Bitter, Karl, 324, 326 Blaszkowicz, Karol, 241 Board of Foreign Scholarship members, 307 Boardinghouse, Slavic, 243 Bohemian cigarmaker, 243 Bohemian National Alliance, 242 Bok, Edward, 323, 324 Bolshevik threat, 283 Bolsheviks, 287, 296 Bondage, 61-62 Bonhomme Richard and Serapis, 72 Boston, 101, 104. See also East Boston Beacon Hill, 116 first settlement of, 32 Greeks in, 250 horsecars in, 117 Irish in, 114 Italians in, 229 Jews in, 211, 214 St. Joseph's, 257 Boston Pilot, 125, 126 Boucicault, Dion, 125, 125, 319 Bourne, Randolph, 273 Braddock's defeat, 59 Brandeis, Louis D., 312 Brazil, 20, 49 Bread baking, 130 Bread market, Poland, 204 Bremen, 97, 101 Bremen, The ship, 103 Bremerhaven, 97 in 1852, 96 Britannia, steamer, 100, 101 Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, poster of, 149 Brownell, Samuel, 307 Buck, Pearl, 300 Buffalo, Poles in, 239 Burke, Edmund, 110 Butchers, 131, 133 Butler, Minnesota, 195 C Cabet, Etienne, 82, 82 Cabot, John, 22, 23 Cabrini, Maria Francesca, 231, 232, 232 Cahan, Abraham, 216, 221, 324 Caledonian games, 147 California, 54, 57, 153 Armenians in, 254 Chinese in, 153-59, 260 Greeks in, 250 Hindus in, 265, 266 Japanese in, 264-65, 265, 266, 269 Mexicans in, 302 Portuguese in, 234 Slavs in, 242-43 wine making in, 314 Calvert, George, 29 Calvin, John, 24, 25 Canada, 3, 106, 142, 257 British in, 143 French in, 58-59, 143, 257 Canadians, 257 Caribbean, 20, 62 Carnegie, Andrew, 142, 143 Carolinas, the, 43-44. See also South Carolina colonization of, 33, 33 Caronia, ship, 177, 179 Carrel, Alexis, 321, 322 Cartier, Jacques, 58 taking possession of New France, 58 Castle Garden, 105, 106, 106, 107, 160, 181 German emigrants at, 130 Jenny Lind at, 325 Mormon immigrants at, 144 Norwegian immigrants at, 151 processing of immigrants at, 106 Castro, Fidel, 304, 307 Catholics, 18, 24, 281, 287 arrival of, in Maryland, 29 Dutch and Belgian, 146, 195 Filipino, 265 German, 128, 136 Hungarian, 247 Irish, 44-45, 110, 119-20, 195 massacre of, 79 Italian, 222, 230-32 Polish, 239 Portuguese, 234 prejudice against, 53. See also Anti- Catholicism Slavic, 243 Cemeteries Jewish, 53 Greek, 252 Central America, 4 Central Pacific Railroad, 157, 178 Chagall, Marc, 300, 300 Champlain, Samuel de, 58 and Indians, 59 Chaplin, Charlie, 319, 321 Charette's March, 258 Charles II, 33, 33 Chartered companies, 26 Cheapside, London, cross, 24 Chelsea, Massachusetts, pupils in, 221 Cherokee Strip, waiting for opening of, 271 Cherokees, 7-8 Chicago, 131, 150 butchershop in, 133 German singing societies in, 134 Goodrich docks in, 133 Greeks in, 250 Hull House, 276, 276 ironworks in, 238 Italians in, 229, 230 Jews in, 211, 212, 214 McCormick factory in, 199 Norwegians in, 320 Poles in, 239, 240 Syrians in, 255 Child labor, 119, 140, 141, 144, 217 Chinese, the, 153-59 prejudice against, 157, 158, 159, 264 preparing for naturalization, 159 Chinese coolies at work, 157 Chinese Exclusion Act, 1943, 291 Chinese family, 154 Chinese homes, 155, 291 Chinese Methodist chapel, 156 Chinese school, 156 Chinese theatre, 156 Christina, Fort, 41, 41 Church, the, 17-18, 23 Cigar factories, 262 Cincinnati, 131, 134 Cities. See also names of cities American. See also Metropolis immigrants in, 162, 165-66 Jews in, 211 port, conditions in, 101, 106 European growth of, 89 paupers in, 92 Citizenship swearing in ceremony for, 310 through marriage, 309 City of Paris, ship, 177 Civil War, 168-74 aftermath of, 174 enlistment poster for, 169 recruiting for, 169, 171, 173 Cleburne, General Patrick R., 170 Cleveland, Grover, 281 Coit, Stanton, 276 Colonial leaders, early, 41 Columbine, The, 307 Columbus, Christopher, 3, 9, 11, 12, 13, 18 Columbus Day, New York City, 233 Common Sense, 67 Communism, Russian, 294, 304 Communist May Day parade, 283 Community meeting, 167 Community organization, 61 Como, Italy countryside near, 224 street scene in, 223 Concert hall, Italian, 232 Confederacy, the, 168, 170 Connecticut, 30, 36, 53 Massachusetts emigrants on the way to, 313 Puritan migration to, 32 settlers entering Ohio, 313 Conquistadores, 20 Constantinople, 14 Constitution, adoption of, 69 Construction gang, 178, 251 Continental Congress, first, 71 Contract-labor law, 181 threat of, 174 Copernican solar system, 17 Cooper, Thomas, 73 Copper town, Arizona, 260 Corcoran, Colonel Michael, 168, 169 Cork, quay at, 112 Cotton, 97 plantations, 64, 66 Coughlin, Father Charles E., 287 Covered wagons, 271 Cranberry pickers, 234 Crevecoeur, J. Hector St. John de, quoted, 37 Croatia, 242 Croatian Society of the United States, 246 Croats, 242, 243, 243, 244 Serbs and, 246 Cromwell, Oliver, 25, 25, 110 Crusades, the, 14, 15 Cuba, 54, 304, 308 Cubans, 262, 262 resident alien, 308-9 Curling, 147 Cushing, Harvey, 321 Czech children, 292 Czechs, 235, 237, 246, 305 D Dakota Indians, 5 Dalmatians, 242, 243 Damrosch, Walter, 324, 325 Danes, 146, 192 De Reszke, Jean, 324, 326 De Soto, Fernando, 55, 56 Debs, Eugene V., 195, 195 Declaration of Independence, 67, 70 Deeds, early, 42 Delaware River, 41 colonists landing on, 34 Swedes landing on, 40 Delivery wagon, 161 Demagogues, 287 Denmark, 150 Depression, 287 bread line during, 288, 289 Dictatorship, fugitives from, 294-300 Dielli, 250 Displaced persons, 290, 305, 306 German camp for, 289 Displaced Persons Act, 304 Donahue, Peter, 122 Dreiser, Theodore, 312, 313 Drew, John, 319, 321 Dublin quay, 98 Duden, Gottfried, 85 Dutch, the, 20, 37, 41, 49, 94, 128 and English, 35, 36 arrival of, in 1921, 197 in Albany, 150 landing of, 150 settlers in Manhattan, 38 surrendering to the English, 40 Dutch children, 150, 197 Dutch descendants in Holland, Michigan, 320 Dutch West India Company, 37 E East Boston, shipbuilding in, 117 East Indies, 20 immigrants, 267 Eastern Europe, 235, 287 Jews from, 200-21 overpopulation in, 202 Education. See Schools Einstein, Albert, 297, 298 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 304, 306 Eisteddfods, 146 Election scene, 121 Elizabeth I, 21, 22 Ellis Island, 165, 177, 181, 183, 184, 185, 328 alien immigrants at, 282, 283, 293, 295 Czechs at, 236 ferry service from, 182, 185, 303 immigrants in old-country costumes at, 320 intelligence tests at, 282 Italians at, 225 Jews at, 201, 202-3 Poles and Slovaks at, 243 Russian soldiers at, 296 Ukrainian concert at, 325 Elman, Mischa, 324, 326 Emigrant ships, 94, 95, 100, 101 crowds on, 103 departure of, 102 quarters on, 99, 101 steerage on, 102 Emigrants, 313. See also Immigrants; Refugees Dutch, 146 English, 21-36, 62, 97, 138, 138-46, 186 leaving England, 138, 139 population distribution of, 1870, 141 religion of, 145-46 German, 127-37, 305 arriving at Castle Garden, 130 leaving home, 128 social life among, 134, 135 Irish, number of, in nineteenth century, 113 leaving for California, 154 leaving home, 92 Irish, 93, 112 sailing across the Atlantic, 94-109 Scandinavian, 138, 146, 150 population distribution of, 1870, 152 Emmet, Robert, 110 Empress Eugenie, ship, 103 Engineers, 321 England, 16, 18, 20 and Ireland, 79 Church of, 24, 30 emigrants from. See Emigrants, English unemployment in, 168 English, the, 20, 41, 71, 73, 87. See also Emigrants, English and Dutch, 35, 36, 40 in America, in eighteenth century, 37 French and, in America, 58 English colonies on eve of the Revolution, 37 English Parliament, Ireland and, 112 Enlightenment, the, 206 Entertainment world, 319, 321. See also Theaters Ericsson, John, 321, 323 Erikson, Leif, 9, 10 Estates, European, 89-90 Estonian refugees, 305, 306 Eureka, North Dakota, Russian-German settlement in, 199 Europe. See also names of countries after Napoleon, 76 agriculture in, 88-90, 92 changing society of, 86 in fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 14 industrialization of, 176-77, 181 population expansion in. See Overpopu- lation postwar, 284 revolutionaries from, 79-80 revolutions in, 73 European war dance, 1877, 286 Europeans, early voyages of, 3-4, 9 Eviction notice, 125 Ewing, Oscar R., 274 F Factories, 195, 225, 237 cigar, 262 English, 139 New England, 139 Factory workers, 151, 317 in Chicago, 199 in Philadelphia, 316 Irish immigrants as, 114, 118, 119 Italian, 225 Slavic, 243 Famine in Central Europe, 127 in Finland, 193 in Ireland, 112 in Italy, 222 Faneuil Hall, Boston, 47 Farm life, scenes of, 162 Farm workers Filipino, 267 Hindu, 265, 266 Japanese, 265, 266 Mexican, 267, 309 migrant, 162, 302, 309 Farmers Amish, 130 Armenian, 254 at the plow, 162 Czech, 237 English, 138 European, 86, 88 foreign-born, 312, 314 German emigrants as, 130-31 Greek, in California, 251 Italian, 225, 229 Jewish, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211 Farmland, Kansas, advertisement of, 185 Federalists, 71 Fenians, the, 122, 123, 124 Ferdinand and Isabella, 13 Fermi, Enrico, 296, 297 Feuchtwanger, Lion, 298 Feudalism, 16, 21 in Canada, 59 Filipinos, 265, 267, 268 resentment against, 268 Finland, 150, 193 Russia and, 195, 195 Finns, 192, 193, 193, 195, 195 Fisheries, 243, 250 Fishing, 3, 6 Florida, 21, 54 Greeks in, 250 Indian village in, 5 Flower, George, 138 Follenius, Paul, 131 Food, 163 vendors, Syrian, 256 Foreign aid, 303 Fox, George, 33, 34 Fox, William, 319 France, 16, 18, 20, 21, 54, 58, 59, 60, 97 Protestants in 46 Frankfurt am Main, 15, 52 Frankfurter, Felix, 298, 318, 319 Franklin, Benjamin, 67, 69 French, the, 73. See also Immigrants, French and English, in New World, 58 on the frontiers, 58-60, 60 French and Indian War, 59 French-Canadians, 257, 259, 260 Friends, Society of. See Quakers Friends of New Germany meeting, 289 Fulbright, J. W., 307 Fulbright Act of 1948, 304 G Gales, Joseph, 73 Galicia, 202, 235 Galilei, Galileo, 17, 19 Gallatin, Albert, 317, 318 Gambling den, 229 Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 80, 80, 81, 317 Garment industry, 216, 218, 219 strikes in, 220 Garvey, Marcus, 262, 263 General Goethals, S.S., 263 Genoa, 15, 16 Genvesa map, 17 George I, 43 George III, 67, 67 Georgia, 35, 49, 64, 66 arrival of colonists in, 36 German-born scientists, 307 German workers, 86, 87, 133, 186, 187 Germanic, The ship, 103 Germans, 46, 49, 67, 80, 312. See also Emigrants, German anti-slavery, 170, 171 in America, 127-38, 170, 186, 189 Germany, 46, 79, 89, 92, 97, 235 anti-Semitism in, 205 emigrants from. See Emigrants, Ger- man Jews in, 203 Nazi, 287 Ghettos, 202, 206-7 Glassworks, 315 Glorious Revolution of 1688, 35-36 Godkin, E. L., 323, 324 Gold, 20, 54, 134 discovery of, 153 Goldberger, Joseph, 321 Goldsmith, Oliver, 110 Good Time Coming, The (engraving), 77 Goteborg, 97 Grace, William Russell, 121, 122 Granger movement, 165, 166, 166 Grant, General, 99 Grattan, Henry, 110 Gray, Thomas, 21 Great Plains, the, 3, 6, 164, 270 Great Republic, The, ship, 76 Greece, 248, 250, 304 Greek-American Athletic Club track team, 252 Greek American Progressive Association, 250 Greek-Americans, 320 Greek Orthodox Cemetery, 252 Greek Orthodox Church, 250 Greek physician, exiled, 299 Greek wedding party, 252 Greeks, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252 Grimm, Wendelin, 314 Gropius, Walter, 298, 299 Guadeloupe, immigrants from, 262, 262 Gunton, George, 146 Gustavus Adolphus Lutheran Church, 152 Guyot, A. H., 321, 322 Gymnastic society, Croatian, 243 Gypsies, 236 H Hairenik, 254 Haiti, 262 Hamburg, 97, 181 wharves and docks of, 97 Hamburg-American Line, 177, 181 dining service at, 182 Hancock, Michigan, workers pouring cop- per in, 238 Harlem, 273, 274 Harris, Joel Chandler, 312, 312 Hawaii, 268, 269 Hearn, Lafcadio, 264 Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS), 206-7, 295 aliens at, 293 Hebrew immigrants' home, New York, 167 Heifetz, Jascha, 324 Henry VII, 23 Henry VIII, 21, 22 Henry Street Settlement, New York, 276, 277 Herbert, Victor, 327, 327 Hessians, 68 Hiawatha, 7 Highland fling, 147 Highlander's, 44 Hindus, 265, 266, 268, 269 Hitler, Adolf, 287, 297 Hokan Siouan Indians, 4, 4 Holland, Michigan, 146, 320 Homesteaders, 271 Hoover, Herbert, 291 Horsecars, 117 Horthy, Admiral Nicholas, 298 Howe, Samuel Gridley, 248, 249 Hudson River, 37 Huguenots, 47, 54 arrival of, in America, 46 torture of, 46 Hull House, Chicago, 276, 276 Humphrey, Hubert H., 308 Hungarian family, 247 Hungarian officers, 81 Hungarian violinist, 299 Hungarians, 235, 247 Hungary, 21, 79, 247, 306 Hunting, 3, 6 I Ice-cream man, 227 Iceland, 150, 192 Ickes, Harold, 298 Il Coniere d' America, 233 Il Martello, 234 Il Progresso Italo-Americano, 233, 233 Illinois, 281 English in, 138 Germans in, 130-31 Slavs in, 242 Illinois Central Railroad advertisement, 186 Illiteracy, 166 Immigrant agent's office, 98 Immigrant almanac, 109 Immigrant Bureau, 181 Immigrant camp, 270 Immigrant inspection card, 246 Immigrant train, 180 Immigrant woman, 165 Immigrants. See also Emigrants; Refugees and Civil War, 168, 170, 173-74 and nationalism, 67 Armenian, 248, 253, 254, 255 arriving, in 1920, 177 at Ellis Island, 201, 202 in 1910, 328 at railroad office, 95 Austrian, 319 branding of, 295 buying food boxes, 109 Canadian, 257-58, 259 Chinese, 155 contributions of, 312-28 debarking in New York, 294 Dominicans, 319 Dutch, 197 East Indian, 267 embarkation of, 48 employment office advertisement for, 109 English, 21-36, 73, 82, 187, 188 Filipino, 265, 267 Finnish, 193 French, 73, 80, 82 French-Canadians, 257, 259 German, 78, 80, 82, 186, 276 German Lutheran homes for, 137 Greek, 248, 249, 319 Hindu, 265, 266, 269, 269 Hungarian, 81 in the 1920s, 295 involuntary, 62 Irish, 74, 91, 93, 97, 98, 102, 106, 114, 121, 191, 276 Israeli, 319 Italian, 222-34 Japanese, 264-65, 265, 266, 268-69, 269 Jewish, 200-21 Mexican, 257, 260, 261, 262, 267, 302 Norwegian, 150, 151 on way to California, 153 Polish, 80, 105, 284, 295, 319 processing of, 101, 105, 106 Russian, 105, 246, 246, 247, 247, 295, 319 Scottish, 188 Slaves, 235-47 Swedish, 151 Syrian, 254, 255, 256 transportation in America for, 106, 107 variation in, 76, 78 West Indian, 257, 262, 262 Immigration after 1815, 76-85 table of statistics on, 77 English, reasons for, 26 fluctuations in, from Germany, Nether- lands, and Switzerland, 137 from Italy, 223 from 1774 to 1815, 73 from 1880 to 1930, 176-99 German, 127-37 Irish, 110-26 nineteenth-century, 160 poverty and, 92-93 restriction of, 279-84 United States and, 70 unrestricted, effects of, 279 white versus black, 64 Immigration Act of 1924, 268 Immigration law, 287 of 1965, 304, 308 signing of, 1946, 268 Immigration quotas, 268. See also Quota law Immigration report, 95 Immigration Restriction League, 281 Imperator, ship, 177, 179 Impressment of seamen, 71, 71, 72 Incas, 20 Indian basketwork, 7 Indian chief, 7 Indian hogan, 5 Indian lodge, 4, 7 Indian longhouse, 8 Indian mounds, 6, 8 Indian pueblos, 6 Indian tent, 4, 5 Indian villages, fortified, 5, 6 Indian warfare, 5, 7, 8 Indian weapons, 7, Indians, 3-8, 28, 33, 54 and social order, 7 captured, 62, 63 distinctive cultures of, 3 distribution of linguistic stocks in United States, 4 federations among, 4 French and, 58-59 languages spoken by, 3 number of, in fifteenth century, 4 pre-Columbian, 3-4 trade with, 37 tribes of, 3-4, 7 Intelligence tests at Ellis Island, 282 Internal Security Act of 1950, 293 International Ladies Garment Workers Union, 216 Inventors, 321 Iowa, 85 Ireland, 43, 44, 45, 79, 89, 92, 97, 190 armed peasants in, 191 cottage in, 45 exodus from, 110-26 overpopulation in, 190 persecution in, 111 portrait of famous sons of, 110 potato crop failure in, 112 rent war in, 91, 191 Irish, the, 44-45, 62, 74, 79, 110-26, 170. See also Immigrants, Irish in United States in 1970, 113 Iroquois, 7, 8, 58, 59 Isolationism, 281, 291, 303 Italian-Americans, 301 Italian Men's Civic Club, Rochester, 230 Italian Swiss town, 224 Italian women, 224, 227 Italian workers, 225, 226, 227, 228 Italians, 222-34, 281, 306 in Tennessee, 229, 314 social life among, 226 societies founded by, 232 Italy, 16, 23, 79, 287, 304, 308 nineteenth-century, 222 I.W.W. meeting, 196 J Jamaica, 262 workers from, 263 James II, 36 Jamestown in 1622, 29 landing of slaves in, 62 settlement of, 26, 27 Janson, Eric, 82 Japan, United States relations with, 268 Japanese, the, 264-65, 265, 266 prejudice against, 267, 268-69, 269 Japanese-Americans, evacuation of, 291, 292 Japanese students, 266, 269 Jefferson, Thomas, 67, 279, 317 Jewish agent soliciting immigrants, 206 Jewish cemeteries, 53 Jewish Daily Forward, 216 Jewish family, 214, 217 Jewish farmers, 208, 209 Jewish holidays, 210 Jewish immigrant home, 212 Jewish market in Cracow, 203 Jewish schools, 204, 208, 221 Jews, 49, 53, 200-21, 281, 287, 291, 303 arriving in America, 206, 207 East European, 200-21 German, 128, 131, 134, 136, 200, 216 Orthodox, 216 Polish, 205, 306 poor, 207 Portuguese, 49 prejudice against, 203 Russian, 200, 201, 202, 207 Johnson, Lyndon B., 304, 308 Jones, John Paul, 72 Joss house, 156 K Kallen, Horace, 273, 274 Kansas, 138, 142, 314 advertisement for farmland in, 185 Mennonites in, 198 Slavs in, 235 Karpovich, Michael, 296 Kearney, Denis, 157, 158 Keil, William, 82 Kennedy, Edward, 308 Kennedy, Robert, 308 Kerensky, Alexander, 296, 296 Kinkel, Gottfried, 80 Klemperer, Otto, 298 Know-Nothings, 173, 173, 279 Kombi, 253 Konitza, Faik Bey, 250 Kosciusko, Thaddeus A., 70, 70 Koussevitzky, Serge, 324 Krzyzanowski, Vladimir, 241 Ku Klux Klan, 281 effects of, 284 Kum, Bela, 283, 298 L La Guardia, Fiorello, 239, 312, 312 La Salle, Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de, 58 in Texas, 58, 59 Labor, foreign, resentment against, 280 Labor officials, American and Mexican, 261 Labor unions, 120, 148, 149, 216 Laborers agitating by, 148 Armenian, 254 Chinese, 157 German, 131, 132, 133 Greek, 251 immigration and, 160 Italian, 225, 227, 228 Japanese, 269 Jewish, 211, 216, 217 Mexican, 302 wives of, 303 Slavic, 237 unskilled, 114, 120-21, 138, 162, 225 Lafayette, Marquis de, 67, 69, 69 Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, barn- raising in, 50 Land grants, 42 Landlords, absentee, 110, 112 Landowners European, 89-90, 93 German emigrants as, 130-31 immigrant, 162 Lane, Franklin K., 318, 318 Latin America, refugees from, 304 Latvian refugees, 305, 306 Lawrence, Massachusetts, cotton mill in, 118 Le Havre, 97, 101 Immigrants at, 98 Lenin, 287, 288 Leutze, Emanuel, 324, 326 Lincoln Civic Club, New York, 231 Lind, Jenny, 324 first American concert of, 325 Lindenthal, Gustav, 321 Literacy test, 281 Literature, immigrants' contribution to, 312 Lithuanian refugees, 306 "Little Canada," 259 Liverpool, 97, 99, 101, 181 Liverpool, ship, 100 Livingston, Robert R., 57 Loeb, Jacques, 321 Logging, 316 London, 24, 24, 25 poor of, 62, 98 Long, Huey P., 287 Long, John L., 264, 265 Long Island, 37 Longfellow, H. W., 60 Los Angeles, founding of, 57 Louis XIV, 49, 50, 54 Louis Philippe, 78, 79 Louisiana, 54, 60 French church in, 60 Italians in, 230 Louisiana Purchase, signing of, 57 Lumberjacks, Finnish, 193 Lutherans, 46, 49, 151, 195 German, 128, 136, 189 Lynching, 170, 72 M McCarran-Walter Act, 293 McCormick factory, Chicago, workers in, 199 McGlashen, Brigadier General Peter A. S., 170 Mackay, John W., 122, 124 Maeterlinck, Maurice, 300, 300 Magdeburg, 47 Magellan, Strait of, 3, 153 Magyars, 235, 236, 320 Maine, 66 Mainzer Adelsverein, 131 Mandan Indians, 7 Manhattan Island, 37 Dutch settlers on, 38 Mann, Thomas, 297, 298 Manning, The Right Reverend William T., 239 Maps mercator, of 1538, 19 of America at death of Columbus, 13 of America from Boston to Georgia, 38 of British Colonies on eve of Revolu- tion, 37 of British-American population distri- bution, 1870, 141 of French and Spanish territories after the Revolution, 55 of French explorations in North Amer- ica, 59 of German population distribution, U.S., 1870, 127 of Irish population distribution, U.S., 1870, 113 of Massachusetts Bay, 1614, 30 of New England, 21 of New England and New Scotland, 43 of North America, 1520, 17 of Norwegian and Swedish population distribution, U.S., 1870, 152 of Pennsylvania, 48 of population in U.S., 176 of railway mileage in U.S., 1888, 178 of Roman Catholic School education in U.S., 282 of trade routes, 16, 19 of world in fifteenth century, 10, 17 Marchisio, Juvenal, 306 Marriageable girls arriving in U.S., 245 Greek, 251 Marshall Plan, 303 Martinique, 262 Maryland, 28, 45, 64 arrival of Catholics in, 29 farm in, 163 Mass execution under Peter the Great, 245 Massachusetts, 30, 37, 44, 46 Albanians in, 250 Canadians in, 258 Portuguese in, 234 Syrians in, 255 Massachusetts Bay, map, 30 Massachusetts Bay Company, 30 Mauretania, ship 177, 179 Mayans, 4 Mayflower, 30, 30, 31 Mayflower Compact, 31 Mazzini, Giuseppe, 286, 317 Meagher, Thomas F., 79, 79, 80, 168 Meat-packing plant, 133 Medical examination, German port, 185 Mediterranean, the, 14, 20 Melting Pot, The, Zangwill, 273 Mennonites, 49, 198 Dutch, typical home of, 50 German, 314 Meraat-ul Gharb, 255 Metalwork, Indian, 6, 7 Methodists, 195 Metropolis, 270, 272, 273, 273, 274. See also Cities Metz, Christian, 85 Mexican-Americans, 260 Mexican War, 153, 258 Mexicans, 257, 258, 261, 262, 301, 302, 303, 309 Chinese and, 260 Mexico, 4, 5, 20, 28, 54, 58, 153, 301 Mexico City, 54 Michigan Dutch in, 146, 320 homestead in, 162 Slavs in, 242, 243 Middle classes, 16 Migratory labor, 225, 262, 302, 309. See also Farm workers, migrant Mexican, 309 Milhaud, Darius, 300 Mill towns, 242, 259 Mill workers, 250 Milwaukee, 131 turnverein festival in, 136 Miners, 117, 120, 143, 225 boys as, 144 copper, 243, 316 homes of, 143 iron, in Minnesota, 194 Welsh, 142 Minneapolis, 150 Minnesota, 190 Croatian saloon in, 244 Dutch family on way to, 197 forest workers in, 193 iron miners in, 194 land advertisement in, 161 logging in, 194 Scandinavians in lumber camp in, 192 Minnesota River, Indian life on, 3 Missionaries, French, 58 Mississippi River De Soto arriving at, 55 De Soto's party descending, 56 Mississippi Valley, 4, 6 early French in, 60 Missouri, 131 Mitchel, John, 79, 79 Mitrovich, Steve, 242 Mlle. Modiste, 327, 327 Mohawk village, 6 Molly Maguires, 120, 121 Money, 165 Money exchange, Ellis Island, 184 Monroe, James, 57 Montana, 142 Montenegro, peasants from, 236 Monterey, 54 Chinese in, 156 Montreal, 58, 101 Moors, 16 expulsion of, 17 Moravians, 49 home of, 50 Mormons, 143, 144, 145, 146 Morrissey, John, 321, 321 Morterud, store of, in Brooklyn, 192 Mounds, 6, 8 Miihlenberg, Henry M., 49, 53 Muir, Raymond D., 307 Munch, Friedrich, 131 Musicians, 324 Mussolini, Benito, 233, 234, 287, 296 N Nabokov, Vladimir, 299, 300 Naples, beggars of, 222 Napoleon, 59-60 Napoleon III, 76, 78, 79-80 Napoleonic battle, 74 Narod Polski, 239 Nast, Thomas, cartoon by, 316 Nationalism, 286-87 American, 70 Near Eastern, 248 Naturalization, 71 certificate, 129 Chinese class preparing for, 159 Nauvoo, Illinois, 143 Mormon temple at, 145 Navaho Indians, hut, 5 Navigational aids, 17, 18, 20 Nazis, 287, 304 Near East, 14, 18, 248 Nebraska, 235 home in, 236, 237 prairie in, 271 Negro sailor and soldier with Japanese wives, 303, 305 Negroes, 62, 64, 65, 66, 281. See also Slavery; Slaves and West Indians, 262 freed, 174 hatred of, 170 Neighborhood Guild, 276 Nelson, Knute, 190, 192 Neos Kosmos, 250 Netherlands, the, 304 immigration from, 137, 138, 146. See also Dutch, the Nevada natives, 261 Nevis, 262 New Amsterdam, 37, 38, 49 in seventeenth century, 39 New Bedford, Massachusetts, 234 New Braunfels, Texas, 131, 132 New Deal, 287, 319 New England, 138, 258, 281 autumn in, 314 factory in, 139 farm in, 32 homes of Polish immigrants in, 241 map of, 43 settlement of, 28 yeoman, 62 New France, 58 New Hampshire, 30, 44 New Harmony, 82, 83 New Mexico, 54 New Netherland, 37, 41 New Orleans, 58, 60, 97, 101 French quarter, 60 New Scotland (Nova Scotia), map of, 43 New World Columbus taking possession of, 13 French and English in, 58 immigrants welcomed to, 273 New York Bay, first sight of, 182 New York City, 101, 270, 272, 273 Barge Office, Battery, 181, 182 Battery Park, 78 Brighton Beach House, 117 Broadway, 1880, 104 Castle Garden, 105, 106, 106, 107, 130, 144, 151, 160, 181 City Hall, 123 City Hall Park, 135, 169 Civil War recruiting in, 169, 170 East Side, 161, 272, 274 Ellis Island. See Ellis Island first street railway in, 115 German apothecary in, 137 Germans in, 131 Greeks in, 250 Harlem, 274 health officers in, 105 Hebrew immigrants' home in, 167 Henry Street Settlement, 276, 277 Hester Street, 213, 220, 227 immigrant home, Germans, 137 Irish immigrants landing in, 114, 115 Italians in, 226, 227, 228, 229, 229, 230, 231 Jewish cemetery in, 53 Jewish peddlers in, 211, 218 Mulberry Street, 226, 228 neighborhoods of, 273 Norwegians in, 150 office of German daily paper in, 132 Poles in, 239, 240 reading class for immigrants in, 319 riots in, 170, 171, 172 St. Patrick's Cathedral, 120 schools in, 275 settlement houses in, 276 singing societies in, 135 slums in, 272 Staten Island, 101, 106 attack on hospital in, 105 street scene in, 118 Syrian, Turkish, Armenian section of, 255 Tammany Hall, 122, 123 theaters, 135 Union Square, 227 I.W.W. meeting in, 196 Whitehall, 106 Yorkville beer hall in, 188 New York State, 6, 36, 45, 49, 65 advertisement of land in, 161 land grants from, 42 pamphlet in praise of, 28 pioneer settlers in, 163 Newport, Rhode Island, Quaker meeting- house, 151 Newsboys, 221 Newspapers, 146, 151 Albanian, 250, 253 American, and their editors, 324 Armenian, 254 German, 132 Greek, 250, 253 Hungarian, 166 Irish, 125, 126 Italian, 233, 233, 234 Jewish, 216 Polish, 239 Slavic, 242, 246 Syrian, 255 Nixon, Richard M., 310 Noli, Fan Sylian, 250, 253 Norse sagas, 9, 9 Norse ship, 11 North, the and Civil War, 170 slavery in, 66 North America, 3-9 French explorations of, 59 on globe, in 1520, 17 North Carolina, 8 North Dakota Russian-German settlement in, 199 settler's home in, 270 Slavs in, 235 Northampton, Polish churchgoers in, 240 Northeastern Indians, 7 Northwest Indians, lodge, 4 Norway, 150, 190 Norwegian dancing club, 320 Nova Scotia, 60 Novelists, 324 O Oakland, California, 234 O'Brien, Mayor, 233 Ocean Monarch, ship, 94 Oceanic, ship, 177 O'Connell, Daniel, 110, 112 Ohio farm, 163 Ohio Valley, 6 O'Neill, Eugene, 312 Oppenheimer, Robert, 298 Oregon trail, 142 O'Reilly, John Boyle, 124, 125 Orient, the, 14 Orientals, 264-69 prejudice against, 268 O'Sullivan, Humphrey, 321 Oswego, New York, refugees at, 291, 292, 293 Overpopulation European, 86, 88-89, 110, 112, 127, 150, 181, 222, 304 in Eastern Europe, 202 in Ireland, 190 Owen, Robert, 82, 82, 83 Oxen, 164 P Pacific, the, 3 Pacific Coast, 6 Packet ships, 99, 100 Paderewski, Ignace, 239, 240 Padrones, 225, 226 Paine, Thomas, 67, 68, 317 quoted, 70 Palatines, 49 Palermo, Italy, street scene, 226 Panama, Isthmus of, 153 Pan-Hellenic Union council, 252 Parades Communist May Day, 283 Italian-American, 232 Labor Day, 148 political, 123 Pastorius, Francis Daniel, 49 Paterson, New Jersey, 138 Patriotic display by immigrant children, 273 Patterson, Robert P., 298 Peasants, 23, 49, 85, 88, 89, 270 Chinese, 153 destruction of life style of, 86-93 English, 138 French, 59 German, 52, 127, 130 Greek, 248, 249 in the New World, 75, 76-174 Irish, 90, 91, 110, 111, 113, 191 Italian, 222, 225, 232 Magyar, 320 Norwegian, 150 Russian, 246, 294 Ruthenian, 235 Slavic, 236, 237, 243 Syrian, 254 Peddlers Croat, 242 Italian, 226, 228 Jewish, 134, 200, 211, 218 on East Side of New York, 161, 218 Syrian, 255 Pella, Iowa, 146 Penn, William, 33, 33, 34, 45, 48 Pennsylvania, 33, 34, 43-45, 49, 53, 64, 138 baking bread in, 130 Italian kindergarten in, 231 map of, 48 miners in, 117, 120, 142, 143 Pensacola, Spanish assault on fort at, 56 Perry, Commodore Matthew C., landing in Japan, 264, 264 Peru, 20, 28, 54 Pfister, Oskar, 298 Philadelphia, 33, 34, 44, 67, 104 eighteenth-century, 35 Germans in, 131 harbor of, 36 Irish in, 114 Italians in, 228, 229 Jews in, 211, 214, 215 plan for layout of, 48 riot in, 173 Philip V, 54 Philippines, 268. See also Filipinos meeting to resist limiting immigration from, 267 Pilgrims, 26, 30 landing of, 31 Pirates, 20 Plains Indians, tents, 5 Plantations, 64-66 slavery on, 64, 66 Plymouth, 30 Poland, 202, 294 bread market in, 204 immigration office in, 288 school in, 221 Poles, 235, 238, 239, 240, 246, 284, 289, 295, 299, 306 homes of, 241, 242 resident alien, 309 Polish applicants for visas, 284 Polish children playing, 242 Polish societies, 239 Political life, immigrants' contribution to, 312, 317-18 Political parades, 123 Politics, 134 corrupt, 122 Irish and, 121-22 Ponce de Leon, Juan, 54, 54 Pope, Generoso, 232, 233, 233 Population distribution in the U.S., in 1870 British-American, 141 German, 127 Irish, 113 Norwegian and Swedish, 152 Portola, Don Gaspar de, 54 Ports, 181 Portugal, 16 Portuguese, the, 20, 23, 49, 234 Portuguese whale-men, 234 Potatoes, 89 crop failure of, in Ireland, 112 Poverty immigration and, 92-93 rural European, 89, 90, 98 Prairie, 164, 165, 270 Mennonite life on, 198 Presbyterians, Scottish, 44 Price, Richard, 321, 322 Priestley, Joseph, 73, 74, 321 Prince Frederick Wilhelm, S.S., immi- grants on, 180 Printing, invention of, 17 Prominenti, 232-33 Protective tariff, 174 Protestants, 18, 24, 35, 110, 119 and Italian Catholics, 231 French, 46 German, 49 Irish, 45 Prussia, 127 Pueblos, 6 Puerto Ricans, 262, 301, 302 Pulaski, Casimir, and George Washing- ton, 73 Pulitzer, Joseph, 323, 324, 324 Pupin, Michael I., 101, 101, 321 Puritans, 24, 24, 25, 25, 26, 30, 32, 41 Pushcart, 161 Q Quakers, 33, 35, 45-46, 49, 66, 146 family of, 45 meetinghouse of, 151 Quebec, 58-60, 257 Quota law, 291, 304 effect of, 284 R Rabasa, Mark, 242 Radicals, 283 Railroad construction workers, 157, 161, 178, 225, 227 Railroads, 94 advertisement, 108, 181, 186 Baltimore and Ohio, immigrant train, 180 Central Pacific, completion of, 178 coolies working on, 157 in operation in U.S., in 1840, 108 labor recruiting by, 181 Punxsutawney, Titusville, and Erie, 116 Southern Pacfic, bridge on, 116 spread of, 177, 181 Union Pacific, completion of, 178 laying track on, 115 Ranch, Japanese owned, 266 Rapp, George, 82 Recruiting poster, American Revolution, 68 Redemptioners, 44, 49, 94 Reformation, the 18, 23 Refugee Relief Act of 1953, 304 signing of, 306 Refugees, 92, 292, 307. See also Emi- grants; Immigrants arriving in New York, 305 Chinese, 304, 307 Cuban, 304, 307 Czech, 304, 305 Estonian and Latvian, 305, 306 from dictatorship, 294-300 German, 297-98, 298, 299, 305, 307 Hungarian, 298, 299, 304, 307 Italian, 296-97, 296-97, 306 Latin American, 304 Lithuanian, 306 1930 to the present, 286-310 Polish, 289, 295, 299, 306 Russian, 294, 295, 296, 296, 308 Religion among German-Americans, 133, 136 Greek, 250 immigration and, 44-46 in fourteenth and fifteenth-century Eu- rope, 14, 17-18 in the United States, 317 Religious ceremonies, Indian, 8 Religious persecution, 24, 49 in sixteenth century, 49 Religious prejudice, 53. See also Anti- Catholicism; Anti-Semitism Remington Typewriter factory workers, 316 Repatriation, 303-4 Republican party, 174 Restaurants Greek, 252 Italian, advertisement for, 233 Syrian, 256 Revolution, the, 67-74 Europeans and, 67, 69-70 recruiting poster for, 68 Rhode Island, 30, 257 Roger Williams in, 32 Rhys, Morgan John, 73 Rights of Man, The, 67 Riis, Jacob A., 323, 324 Riley, James W., 312 Riots anti-Chinese, 158 anti-Greek, 250 Civil War, 170, 171, 172, 173 Rise of David Levinsky, The, 324 Roanoke Island, 27 Roebling, John, 321, 322 Rolvaag, Ole, 190, 323, 324 Roman Catholic School Education in U.S., map of, 282 Roosevelt, Franklin, D., 291, 297 Roosevelt, Mrs. James Delano, 278 Roosevelt, Theodore, 268 Rotterdam, 97 in 1892, 96 Rowan, Archibald Hamilton, 74, 74 Ruef, Abraham, 268 Rumania, 203, 235 Rumanians, 235, 238, 247, 247 nationalistic, 288 Rural regions, social life in, 166 Russell, Charles, 142 Russia, 18, 235. See also Soviet Union Finland and, 195, 195 Jews in, 202-3 mass execution in, 245 Russian Red Guard, 288 Russian Revolution, 294 Ruthenians, 235, 235 S Sacco, Nicola, 233, 234 Sadowski, Jakub, 241 Sailing ships, 94, 96, 97, 101 Saint Augustine, Florida, 54, 56 first settlement of, 56 Saint-Gaudens, Augustus, 324, 327 St. Brendan, 9 St. Joseph's Church, Boston, 257 St. Lawrence River, 58 St. Louis, 131 St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, 120 St. Patrick's Day, 120 Salomon, Haym, 70, 70 Saloon types, German, 133 Saloons, Croatian, 244 Salvemini, Gaetano, 297 Salzburgers, 49, 51, 52 San Diego, 54 San Dolores mission, 153 San Francisco, 131, 153, 154, 155, 155, 156, 157, 159, 268 San Remo, Italy, courtyard in, 224 Sandburg, Carl, 312, 313 Santa Fe, 54 Sansfield, Marshall Patrick, 110 Satellite countries, 304 Savannah, The, ship, 95 Saybrook, Connecticut, 36 Scandinavia. See also Denmark; Norway; Sweden changes in rate of immigration from, 192 emigrants from, 138, 146, 150, 190, 192 shipping advertisement in, 152 Scandinavians, 312. See also Danes; Swedes Schliemann, Heinrich, 134, 134 Schmitz, Eugene E., 268 Schoenberg, Arnold, 298 Scholte, Henrik P., 146 Schoner, Johann, globe, 17 Schools evening, 275, 319 Japanese, 266, 269 Jewish, 204, 208, 221 parochial, 232, 281 public, 281 Roman Catholic, 282 Schumacher, Ferdinand, 131, 134 Schurz, Carl, 79, 80, 134, 168, 318 monument, 326 Schwenkenfelders, 49 Science, 17 Scientists, 307, 321, 323 Scotch-Irish, 44-45, 49, 67, 312 Scotland, 43-44, 97, 186 Scots, 44, 62 Highland, 44 in America, 142, 146, 147 Scottish family, 188 Scottish Rite Temple, 147 Scripps, James E., 324 Scythna, ship, 102 Sculptors, Italian, 226 Seamen, 71 impressment of, 71, 72 Seemans, Joseph, 314 Seligman, Joseph, 134, 134 Serbia, 235, 242 Serbs, Croats and, 246 Serra, Fra Junipero, 54 monument to, 57 Servants, 61, 64 German, employment office for, 189 indentured, 64 Irish, 114 Servicemen, Negro, with Japanese wives, 303, 305 Settlement houses, 276, 277 Settlers, pioneer, 163, 271 Sewall, Samuel, 66, 66 Shakers, 317, 318 Shipping international, 177 United States, 76 Shipping advertisements, 109, 152 Ships. See also Sailing ships; Steamships Columbus's, 12, 13 medieval, 20 square-rigged, 20 Viking, 11 Shoe factory workers, 316 Shoukletovich, the Very Reverend D. J., 239 Shtetls, 202, 206-216 Shubert brothers, 319, 320 Side-wheelers, 179 Sikorsky, Igor, 296, 296 Silk weavers, Armenian, 254 Silver, 20, 54 Simchas Torah, celebration, 210 Singing societies, German, 134, 134, 135 Siouian Iroquois federation, 7 Skouras, Charles, 250 Slaughterhouse workers, Greek, 251 Slave labor, 64, 66 Slave market, 61, 63 Slave ships, 64, 65 Slave trade, eighteenth-century, 64-66, 65, 73 Slavenska Sloga, 246 Slavery after the Revolution, 73 criticism of, cartoon, 66 Slaves, 62, 62, 63, 68 black and white, cartoon, 168 first landing of, 62 in chains, 65 number of, in U.S., at time of Revolu- tion, 66 Slavic peoples, 235-47, 281 religion of, 243, 246 Slovenes, 235, 236, 238, 246 Slovenia, 242 Slums, 272, 273 Irish, 112, 114 Jewish, 211, 272. See also Ghettos Smith, Alfred E., 276, 278, 312 Smith, Gerald L. K., 287 Smith, John, 21, 21, 26 map, 30 Socialism, 195, 233 Sokol, 244 South, the and Civil War, 170 slavery in, 66 South America, 3, 20, 62. See also Latin America Italians in, 222 South Carolina, 46, 64 South Dakota, pioneer home in, 271 South End House, 276 Southern Pacific, bridge on, 116 Southwest, the, 4, 6, 54 Mexicans in, 258, 301 Soviet Union, power in, 287. See also Russia Spain, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23, 54, 60 and Western Hemisphere, 20 Spaniards, 20, 23 on the frontiers, 54-58, 60 Spanish Armada, 23 Spreckles, Claus, 131, 134 Staats-Zeitung, newspaper office, 132 Stage, the, 125. See also Theatres Stalin, 287, 296 Stamping mill, 141 Staten Island, 101, 106 hospital on, 105 Statue of Liberty, 328 Stavitsky, Michael A., 274 Steamship companies, 101, 177 Steamships, 94, 100, 101, 103, 177, 179 cost of crossing on, 101 deck scene on, 102 first, 95 grand salon of, 100 immigrants on, 180 transatlantic, 179 Steel mills, 140 Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 192, 192 Steinmetz, Charles P., 321, 322 Strauss, Johann, 300, 327 Stravinsky, Igor, 300 Street merchants, Jewish, 217, 218. See also Peddlers Strikes effects of, 149, 262 of garment workers, 220 of miners, 240 Stuyvesant, Peter, 37, 39, 41, 41 Sugar, 20, 54, 131 Sugar beets, 314 Sugar plantation, 64 Sweatshops, 140, 207, 217 Sweden, 92, 150 Swedes, 37, 41, 190 folk festival among, 152 landing of, on Delaware River, 40 Swedish Church, Wilmington, Delaware, 40 Swiss, the, 128, 314 Synagogues, 216, 220 New York, worshipers leaving, 215 Syrians, 248, 254-55, 255, 256 T Taft, William Howard, 281 Talleyrand, Charles Maurice, 57 Tammany Hall, cartoon, 122 ball at, 123 Fourth of July at, 318 Tandy, Napper, 74 Telescope, 17, 18 Tenements, 114, 140, 260. See also Slums in mill towns, 259 Italian, 228, 229, 230 Jewish shops in, 219 Slavic, 243 Syrian, 255 Tennent, William, 45 Tennessee, 229, 314 Teperow family, 296 Texas, 131 and the Confederacy, 170 La Salle landing in, 58 Mexicans in, 261 Polish church in, 240 Slavs in, 235 Textile mills, 114, 138, 141, 257 Theatres Chinese, 156 German-American, 135 nickelodeon, 250 Yiddish, 216, 216, 221 Thomas, Theodore, 324, 325 Thomson, Charles, 45 Tone, Wolfe, 74, 110 Tools, 163, 164 Indian, 6 Tories, 67 Toscanini, Arturo, 296, 297, 324 Totalitarianism, 286, 291, 294 Toynbee Hall, London, 273, 275 Trade early American, 37 in sixteenth-century Europe, 18 with Asia, 153 Trade routes, early, 16, 19 Trade unions, 146 Trains, 108. See also Railroads immigrant, 1910, 180 interior of, 107 Transcendentalists, 80 Travel, at time of Crusades, 14-15 Tresca, Carlo, 233, 233 Tribes, Indian, 3-4, 7 Trinidad, 262 Truman, Harry S., 253, 268, 293, 304, 305 Truman Doctrine, 303 Tudors, the, 21 Turkey, 203, 248, 250 immigrants from Persian region of, 248 refugees in, 249 Turks, 21, 249, 250 Turnvereine, 134, 136 U Ukrainian concert, 325 Undset, Sigrid, 300, 300 Union Army, 168 Union Pacific, 115, 178 advertisement for tickets on, 181 Unions. See Labor unions; Trade unions United Christian Front, application form, 290 members of, 290 United Hebrew Trades, 216 United States. See also America and Japan, 268 economy of, immigration and, 160 foreign-born population of, 1900 and 1910, 177 politics in, 317-18 population density in, in 1870, 176 railway mileage in, in 1888, 178 religious sects in, cartoon, 316 U.S. Immigrant Bureau, 181 Utah, 143 Utopian communities, 80, 82-85 at Bishop Hill, 84 at New Harmony, 83 plan for, 82 V Valley Forge, 69 winter in, 70 Van der Rohe, Mies, 298 Vanzetti, Bartolomeo, 233, 234 Vaterland, ship, 177 Venezuela, 3 Venice, 16, 16 Vienna, street in, 204 Vietnamese girl, 305 Viking ships, 11 Villages European, 88, 89, 90 Indian, 5, 6 Irish, 111 Italian, 223 Jewish, 202 Vinland, 9 Virginia, 5, 21, 28, 37, 43-44, 62, 64 English arriving in, 26, 27 instructions for immigrants to, 28 Polish pioneers in, 241 Virginia Company, 26, 28, 41 Vlasto, Solon J. 250, 253 Von Neumann, John, 298, 298 Von Steuben, Baron Friedrich Wilhelm, 69, 69, 70 Von Tilly, 47 Voting, 121 by foreign-born women, 319 W Wagner, Robert F., 276, 278, 312 Wald, Lillian, 276, 277, 278 Waldensians, 317 Wales, 43, 44-46 emigrants from, 142, 186 Walpi, Arizona, 6 Walsh, David I., 276, 277 Walsh, Mike, 122 Walter, Bruno, 298, 324, 325 Walther, C. F. W., 136, 136 War brides, 303, 303, 305 War dance, lithograph, 286 War of 1812, 71 War prisoners, 62 Warner brothers, 319, 321 Washington, D. C., slaves in, 73 Washington, George, 68, 73, 317 quoted, 73 Washington Crossing the Delaware, 326 Washington State, logging in, 194 Weapons, Indian, 7 Wegener, Brigadier General John A., 170 Weill, Kurt, 298, 299 Weiser, Conrad, 49 Welcome, the, 34 Welsh, the, in America, 142, 143, 145, 186 Wends, the, 235 Werfel, Franz, 298, 299 West, the, 164 immigrant camp in, 270 migration to, 142 postwar, 301 progress in, 314 West Indians, 257 West Indies, 20, 33, 37 immigrants from, 257, 262, 262 Western Hemisphere, in sixteenth cen- tury, 20 Wetbacks, 258 Wheat, 314 Wheeling, West Virginia, 315 Wigner, Eugene Paul, 298, 298 Wigwams, 7 William of Orange, 40, 41 Williams, Barney, 124, 125, 319 Williams, Roger, 32 Willkie, Philip, 307 Wilson, James, 317, 318 Wilson, Woodrow, 281 Wine making, 314 Winthrop, John, 21, 22, 26, 30 quoted, 61 Wisconsin, 80, 131, 146, 281 Finnish lumberjacks in, 193 Finnish woman in, 195 Wise, Rabbi Isaac M., 76, 78, 79, 136 Women, 118 foreign-born, voting, 319 in sweatshops, 140 Irish, 119 as factory workers, 114, 118 Mexican, 303 Polish, 238 studying English, 239 Woodbine, New Jersey, Jews in, 208, 209, 210 Woods, Robert A., 276 Wollman, John, 66 Working-Women's Protective Union of- ficial, 148 World War I, 176, 189, 286, 294 World War II, 287 migration after, 301-10 Wright, Frances, 80, 81, 82 Y Yeomen, 61, 62 Yeshiva, 220 Yorkshire collier, 187 Young Greeks Educational Association, 251 Young Ireland, 79, 122 Young Italy, 79 Yugoslav immigrant, marriage of, 309 Z Zaborowski, Olbracht, 241 Zadruga, the, 243, 244 Zangwill, Israel, 273 Zanzibar, 63 Zgoda, 239 Zinsser, Hans, 321 Zionists, 291 Zouaves, recruiting of, 170 Zuni, New Mexico, 6

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