Go to:  Immigrant Arrivals: A Guide to Published Sources
              New Arrivals      |       Main Page

Index of
White Servitude in Pennsylvania: Indentured and Redemption Labor in Colony and Common Wealth

by
Cheesman Abiah Herrick


© Negro Universities Press 1969

Reproduced 2002 with permission of the publisher

  Sources cited   |   Table of Contents   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog


Counter Go to:     A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | P | Q | R | S | T | V | W

INDEX

A Acadians, supply of to Pennsylvania, 109; distribution of, 110-112. Annesley, James, kidnaping of, 148, 149. Assembly, control of by Quakers, 235; charges against Gov. Thomas by, 235, 239, 241-243; protection of property of inhabitants by, 237; control of by Quakers, 238; cita- tion from address of, 241; losses of masters through enlistment made good by, 242, 243; recon- ciliation with Gov. Thomas, 244; statement of to Gov. Morris, 246; passage of act by, giving com- pensation to masters, 253. B Board of Trade, 59, 61, 64-68; Pro- prieties, cited, 126, 127,n.; plans for Colonial administration, 128; urged that sovereign control the colonies, 129; Journals, cited, 130, 131. Board of War, directed enlisted ap- prentices be dismissed from army, 252. Bond, Phineas, cited, 55, 56, 165,n., 188,n.; slave trade situation shown by, 255, 256; migration from Ire- land grave concern over, 256, 257; set forth losses to Great Britain through emigration, 257; letter of, to Great Britain, 257, 258. British, attempted control of Col- onial manufacturers, 66, 67. Burke, Edmund, on Conciliation with America, 178, 181. C Capital dependent on labor, 1. Carolina, inducements for going to, 170. Child, J., New Discourse of Trade, 143,n.; 144, 145,n. Children bound to service under in- denture, 107, 108; education for, 263. Colonial Wars, servants in, 233; slow enlistment of freemen for, 233; Pennsylvania's attitude to- ward, 235; inducements for enlist- ment in, 236; bounty to freeman enlisted in, 237; necessity for en- listments ceased, 244. Council of Foreign Plantations, pre- venting of kidnaping, 144-147. Cunningham, William, cited, 2,n.; Western Civilization in Its Eco- nomic Aspects, 76,n. D Declaration of Independence, quota- tion from, 129. Delaware River, "Clyde of Amer- ica," 65; effect on Philaadelphia, 66. Diffenderffer, Redemptioners, 145,n., 162,n., 178,n., 245,n. Douglass, sorts of people, 7,n. Dutch furnished slaves, 27. E Economic interests, conflict of be- tween colonies and England, 69. Eddis, William, on kidnaping, 143, 144. England, "Undutiful Mother," 131; problem with criminal, 135; charged with encouraging crime, 139; great reduction of crime in, 139, 140. Enlistment of servants for Colonial Wars, 233-253; controversies be- tween England and colonies over, 234, 235; controversies between Assembly and proprietary over, 235; Gov. Thomas's attitude re- garding, 234-238; contentions among officers and masters over, 245. Europe, lack of employment in, 41, 47-49; supply of white servants from, 113, 114. F Fenwick, proposals, 34,n. Frame, R., poem on industrial con- ditions, 58, 59,n. Frankfort Land Company, 51, 52. Franklin, Benjamin, cited, 103, 133,n.; criticism of England's sending felons, 131-134; statement on grievance over enlistment of servants, 249. Free laborers, 2, 3, 8, 34; not avail- able for Pennsylvania's need, 76, 77. G Gee, Joshua, Trade and Navigation, 115,n., 130,n., 157, 158. German immigration, effects of on Pennsylvania, 25, 26; explanations of, 168, 169; extent of, 169, 172, 173; encouraged by England, 171; increase of, 172, 179-181; efforts to check, 172; schemes of ship companies for, 184, 185; Wash- ington's reasons for urging, 261. German immigrants, conditions of at arrival, 190, 191; aid given to, 190. German passengers, cruel treatment of, 183-189, 192-194, 275; high death rate of, 189. German redemptioners, increased importation of, 174-176, 178. German servants, supply of, 168- 194; regulation of importation of, 263. Germany, mother land, 168; effect of invasion of, 169; religious con- troversies in, 168, 173, 174. Gold, induced early settlers, 57. Gordon, Patrick, cited, 62, 124. Great Britain, effects of colonization on, 41, 42, 114; emigration from increased, 167; prevention of col- onial interference by, 248, 249; demanded recruits from Pennsyl- vania, 245; failure of to make return for enlisted servants, 249. H Halle Emigration Society, 170. Hamilton, James, on iron and steel industry, 67. Head land, system of, 32, 33, 33,n. Hunt, Manuscripts, cited, 281,n. I Indentured laborers, 3-7; in Vir- ginia, 19; employment after in- dentures were discharged, 22; brought less than free laborers, 37; home supply of, 100-112; sup- ply of from Great Britain, 142- 167; supply of from Germany, 169; sale and distribution of, 195- 216; emigration of from Ireland and Scotland, 259, 260; justified, 274; little better than slaves, 275- 277. Industry determined by labor, 9, 10, 241. Interrelation of colonies, 35. Ireland, emigration from, 159, 160, 165-167; large number of emi- grants from, 257-259; dangerous emigration from, 259. Iron industry in Pennsylvania, 63; machinery and transportation ef- fects on, 63, 64; demand for Negroes for use in, 93, 94. J Jails, insufficient for debtors, 101. Jefferson, Thomas, preference for German immigrants to Negroes, 97. K Kent, Daniel; 280, 281. Kidnaping, period of, 147-148, 154- 158. L Labor necessary for colonies, 1; scarcity of in colonies, 2, 9; forms of in English colonies, 2-8; servile in demand in middle and southern colonies, 11, 12. Laws protecting masters and ser- vants re-enacted, 31. Lyon, Matthew, account of, 268, 269. M Maryland, convicts in, 137-139; re- demption system in, 183. Master and servant, antiquity of, 10. Moraley, William, account of, 156, 157. Morris, Gov. R. H., address of As- sembly to, 246. Mosaic law giving freedom to ser- vant, 29,n. Myers, Immigration of the Irish Quakers into Pennsylvania, 222,n. N Navigation Acts, effort to enforce, 59. Negro slavery, opposition to in Pennsylvania, 78-99. Negroes, limited early demand for in Virginia, 19; imported into Vir- ginia, 20,n.; effects of climate on, 23, 24; as manual laborers in Pennsylvania, 64; lack of indus- trial development of, 76, 77; ef- forts of Quakers to reward, 83, 94; effects of freedom of, 87, 88; practice of hiring out, 88-90; good treatment of, 90, 91, 274, 275; problem of sex relations of with whites, 92; punishment of, 93. New York, early industries and pro- duction compared with those of Philadelphia, 24-26. P Penn, Wm., "Plan for Union," 36; first to adopt "systematic colon- ization in America," 42, 43; ef- forts of to secure settlers, 45-51; journeys of through Holland and Germany, 49, 50, 52; policies of regarding colonies, 54; encouraged industries, 58. Pennsylvania, opposed to Negro slavery, 24, 285; encouraged in- dentured servant system, 31-33; period of beginnings at end, 40; tide of immigration set in, 40; foundation for industry, 40; pros- perity of, 43-45; need for immi- grants, 43, 53, 55, 56; natural re- sources of, 57; exports of, 60, 61; attempts to check Great Britain sending felons, 113-128, 131-134, 136, 137; prosperity of, affected by German settlers, 178; mother col- ony for Germans of other parts of North America, 181; lack of interest of in French and Indian War, 248; success of redemption- ers in, 270; white servitude effect on development of, 284, 285. Pennsylvania Hospital, establish- ment of, 161. Pennypacker, S. W., account of col- onial cases tried, 38-40; papers, cited, 156,n. Pesthouse project, results of, 161. Philadelphia, importance of, 180. Political prisoners, transportation of by Great Britain, 115-118. Postlethwayt, M., on slave trade, 12-14; prediction of on indepen- dence of colonies, 128, 129. Q Quakers, attempt to avoid part in wars, 233; lack of sympathy of with war, 235; "competent politi- cians," 237, 238. R Redemptioners, meaning of, 4-7. Redemption system, partly supplied demand for labor, 78; at height, 109, 110; decline of in nineteenth century, 265, 266; not confined to manual toil, 270-273; evils of, 275; results of, 284, 285. Redemptioners and the German So- ciety of Maryland, 201,n., 205,n., 211,n. Religious worship, freedom of in Pennsylvania, 44. Runaway servants, advertisements for, 74, 222-229; reasons for, 217, 226, 230, 231; nationality of, 166; rewards for return of, 217, 228, 229; penalties imposed on, 217- 219, 229; precautions taken against escape of, 219-222; schemes for escape by, 224, 225; capture of slow, 227; wars aided, 244. S Sale, and distribution of servants, advertisements for, 195; methods of, 195-201; prices, 202-205. Scotland, increased emigration from, 259, 260. Servants, indentured in New Eng- land, 10, 11; system of on the Delaware during Dutch control, 27; effect of Duke of York's Laws on, 28; acts for regulation of, 28- 30; registry necessary, 36; contro- versies over selling of, 37; pay- ment of, 37; sale and distribution of, 195-216; freedom dues for, 205- 209; conditions affecting terms of service of, 209-213; education of, 211; "soul sellers" methods, 213, 214; problems of sale of, 216; bet- ter regulation of system of, 254; large number of German, 260, 261; regulation of importation of, 263, 264; decline and redemption of,265, 266; protection of against ill treatment, 278; unfair charges against by masters, 281. Servitude, for crime in Pennsyl- vania, 100-104; voluntary for debt common, 105, 106; in payment of transportation, 113. Ship companies, schemes of, 184-188. Shipbuilding, beginning of, 65; in- crease of, 72. Ships, restriction of numbers car- ried by, 161, 162; contagious dis- eases on, 163; overcrowding of, 260. Shirley, Gen., enlistment of servants, 247, 248. Slave company, Royal African, 13- 15. Slaves, 7; relation to production, 12- 16; British opposition to duties on 15, 16; importation of limited, 18; attempts of Quakers to abolish buying of, 81-87; efforts for aboli- tion, 94-96; abolition society and, 254. Smith, Dr. Wm., political tracts, 250. "Soul sellers," 213, 214. Sugar and molasses act, 71. T Taylor, George, account of, 267, 268. Textile industry in Pennsylvania, 60, 61, 72. Thomas, Governor George, attitude toward enlistment of servants in colonial wars, 234-238; difficulties of recited to Board of Trade, 243; reconciliation of with Pennsyl- vania Assembly, 244. Thomson, Charles, 267,n. Trade, encouraged between Great Britain and colonies, 67; condi- tions of in Pennsylvania, 68-70. Transportation, of felons, 131-136; as source of labor supply, 113-141. Turner, F. J., cited, 182,n. V Virginia, compared with Pennsyl- vania, 71. Virginia Company, attempts to se- cure settlers, 143. W Washington, George, urged enlist- ment of servants, 250, 251; state- ment of regarding Dunmore, 251; favorable to German servants, 261. Weisse Sklaverei, 3. West, Richard, views to Board of Trade, 129. White servants, 3; importation of encouraged, 17-21; overseers and drivers, 18; England sends con- victs as, 21; reasons for coming to America, 142, 143; demand for due to diversified industry, 57-61; as substitutes for slave labor, 97- 99; influence of on North's op- position to slavery, 97-112; bless- ings and iniquities of, 267; reasons for better treatment of Negro slaves than, 274, 275; results of system of, 281-285; determining effect of on development of Penn- sylvania, 284, 285. Williamson, Peter, account of, 150- 156.

  Sources cited   |   Table of Contents   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog


Go to: Immigrant Arrivals: A Guide to Published Sources
             New Arrivals      |      Main Page


Go to LC Home Page
Library of Congress
(June, 2002)
Comments: Ask a Librarian

LC Home Page  |  Search the LC Online Catalog   |  Services for Researchers   |  Research Tools |  Local History and Genealogy Home Page