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Index of
Black Workers: A Documentary History from Colonial Times to the Present

edited by
Philip S. Foner and Ronald L. Lewis


© 1989 Temple University Press

Reproduced 2002 with permission of the publisher

   Table of Contents   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog


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Index

A A. Philip Randolph Educational Fund/Workers Defense League, Recruitment and Training Program, 622 A. Philip Randolph Institute, 668 Freedom Budget for All Amer- icans, 571-580 AAA. See Agricultural Adjustment Administration Abel, I. W., 630, 706 Aberdeen (Md.) Army Proving Ground, black women em- ployed in, during World War II, 515 Abernathy, Ralph D., 57, 605, 610, 616, 706 Abolitionism, The Liberator's piece on, 123-125 rebuttal to, 126-129 A.C.W., 458 Adams, Enoch, 232 Affirmative action, 668, 688, 691 Supreme Court decisions on, 671- 679 AFL. See American Federation of Labor AFL-CIO, 538, 706 A. Philip Randolph's charges against, 567-570 Civil Rights Committee, 558, 569 report (1955), 544-553 Civil Rights Department, 558, 569, 570, 623 Executive Board, blacks on, 566- 567 Executive Council, Report on Civil Rights, 1975, 619-624 Jewish Labor Committee, 538 merger, and civil rights issue, 52-53 neutrality in 1972 election, 666-667 race relations in, 55, 56, 662-663, 668, 670-671 report on civil rights, 1961, 554-566 AFSCME. See American Federation of State, County, and Munici- pal Employees Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933), 43 Agricultural Adjustment Administra- tion, 379-380, 489, 501, 703 Agriculture, 15, 436. See also Planta- tion strike; Sharecroppers blacks in, 281, 307, 656 in early 20th century, 309-310 poverty in, 578, 579 wages in, in early 20th century, 314-315, 323 women employed in, 466 Ahlgren, Frank R., 589 Aircraft industry, black women em- ployed in, during World War II, 515 Airline Clerks Union, 704 Alabama Negro Labor Union, 13 Aldridge, John W., 599 Allen, Virgina, 428 Aluminum Ore Co., 325-332 Alvord, J. W., 175 Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers, 292, 462 Amalgamated Association of Meat Cutters and Butcher Workers, 476 Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 36 race relations in, 460 Amalgamated Meat-Cutters and Butchers' Workmen, 293 American Communications Associa- tion, 48 American Federationist, 413, 415 American Federation of Labor, 26- 27, 37, 58, 288-290, 293, 363- 364, 383, 405-406, 417-418, 422, 427, 430, 454-456, 458, American Federation of Labor (cont.) 464, 470, 700, 701, 704. See also AFL-CIO 1900 convention Committee on President's Report and Amendment to Constitu- tion, Article 12, Section 6, 239-240 Gompers' report to, 237-254 and color bar, 37-39, 407-408 Committee of Five, 38-39 race relations in, 20-22, 31, 48, 525-526, 538 in early 20th century, 241-244 Elmer Anderson Carter on, 408- 410 in thirties and forties, 46-47 American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Em- ployees, 604, 667 in Memphis garbage strike of 1968, 586-587, 597-598 American Independent party, 706 American League of Colored Labor ers, 5 American Negro Labor Congress, 40 American Negro Labor Council, 704 American Railway Union, 704 American Seamen's Protective Union Association, 695 American Telephone and Telegraph Company, 665 Anderson, Abraham, 200 Anderson, Paul Y., 333 ANLU. See Alabama Negro Labor Union Antebellum Era, 1-5 black women's employment, 466 black workers during, 112-115 Assemblies, of colored men, 209-210 Associated Press, 495 Atlantic Monthly, Booker T. Wash- ington's article on unions in, 27, 285-301 Auld, Hugh, 68-69, 73-76 Automobile industry black militants in, 632-651 black workers in, during Depres- sion, 385-387 race relations in, 463 Automobile Workers Union, 463 Award of Emblem for Exceptional Civilian Service, 522 B Baker, Robert, 59 Bakke case, 673 Bannister, Edward M., 698 Barbadoes, Fred G., 159 Barnett, Ferdinand L., 700 Barr, John U., 552 Bean, J. H., 299 Beattie, Taylor, 227, 232 Bellevue (Md.) Naval Magazine, black women employed in, during World War II, 514 Bennett, Isiah, 606-609 Benson, Dave, 461 Bernstein, Hilliard, 461 Binder, Carroll, 430 Black, D. H., letter to Terence Pow- derly, 216 Blackburn, Malcolm, 595, 599-601 Black codes, 7 Black Diamond Steel Works strike, 1887, 220-221 Black liberation, 654 Black Power, 53,647 and labor, 581-585 Black Laws of Ohio, 3 Blacksmithing, black workers en- gaged in, 62 Black Star Line, 704 Black Student Voice, 638 Black urban underclass, 680-681 Black Vanguard, 635 Black workers economic situation of, 657-658 organization of, 654-655 position of, in United States, 655- 657 Black Workers Congress, 624-632 National Conference of, John Wat- son's speech to, 624-632 BLFE. See Brotherhood of Locomo- tive Firemen and Enginemen Bogalusa, Louisiana, labor movement in, 357-362 Boll weevil, 309 Bond, Julian, 611 Boston Daily Evening Voice, 8-9, 58 Boxborough, Chas., 387 Boyce, W., 428 Brais, E. J., 294 Brandt, Ralph V., 290 Brennan, Peter, 663, 668 Brennan, William, 672-674, 678, 707 Brewster, W. Herbert, 600 Bricklayers, 287 Bricklayers' and Masons' Interna- tional Union, 22 Brookins, Willis, 642 Brooklyn Navy Yard, black women employed in, during World War II, 514 Brophy, John, 38-39 Brotherhood of Locomotive Engi- neers, 20 Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, 704 race relations in, 249-261 Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, 27 Brotherhood of Railroad Brakemen, 20 Brotherhood of Railroad Freight Handlers, 293-294 Brotherhood of Railway Clerks, 53, 407, 414 Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen, 20 Brotherhood of Redcaps, 705 Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 36-37, 392-403, 416, 554- 555, 557, 561-562, 566, 569, 704 Brotherhood of Timber Workers, 33- 34 appeal to Negro workers, 367-368 Browder, Earl, 705 Brown, Charlotte, 541 Brown, Claire G., 611-613 Brown, Fanny, 474 Brown, H. Rap, 659 Brown, Homer, 470 Brown, James, 197 Brown, Jean Collier, The Negro Woman Worker, 465-469 Brown, Jim ("griffe"), 226 Brown, John, 201, 699 Brown v. Board of Education, 50 Bruce, Carrie Roscoe C., 356 Bryant, Baxton, 590 BSCP. See Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters BTW. See Brotherhood of Timber Workers Buffalo, steel industry in, 479 Building and metal trades councils, 46 Building trades, 295 black workers in, 690-691 race relations in, 581, 625, 669 Burger, Warren E., 673, 676, 707 Burke, Rufus, 661 Burroughs, Nannie H., 356 Butler, J. R., 43-44, 492 C Caffery, Donelson, 229-230, 700 Callaghan, John M., letter from Sam- uel Gompers, 244-245 Calloway, Ernest, "The C.I.O. and Negro Labor," 453-463 Cameron, Andrew C., 698 Campbell, John, 4 Canneries, black women employed in, during World War II, 520-521 Cap and Millinery Union, 458 Capitalism, 649-650, 653, 655 Caraway, Hattie, 492 Carey, James B., 48-49, 547-548 Carey, Mary, 177 Carey, Mrs., 185 Carnegie, Andrew, 303, 702 Carney, Frank P., 534 Carpentry, black workers engaged in, 61-62 Carpetbaggers, 367, 703 Carter, Elizabeth C., 356 Carter, Elmer Anderson, "The A. F. Carter, Elmer Anderson (cont.) of L. and the Negro," 408- 410 William Green's reply to, 411-413 Carter, Jeannette, 350 Carter, W. S., correspondence with Samuel Gompers, 249-252 Carver, George Washington, 701 Cary, M. A. S., 187 Celler, Emanuel, 677 Chaka, Bro., 659 Charleston, South Carolina hospital workers' strike, 57, 604- 611 letters of participants, 611-619 petition to State Legislature, 1822, 98-99 Chesapeake Marine Railway and Dry Dock Company, 10 Chicago job prospects in, 686 militant steel workers in, 471-472 riot, in 1919, 29-30, 335-344 Chicago Defender, 37 Chicago Labor News, 32 Chicago-Virden Coal Company, 24 Chicago Whip, 37 Chinese labor, 250, 682 Chisholm, Shirley, 611 Christensen, Edith, 460 Christian Recorder, 24 Ciampa, P. J., 591 Cigarmakers' International Union, 700 CIO. See Committee for Industrial Organization (later Congress of Industrial Organizations) Civil rights, 52, 56, 436-437, 602 AFL-CIO Executive Council report on (1975), 619-624 and employment, 622 Civil Rights Act of 1964, 619, 623- 624, 672-676 Civil War, 453 blacks' service in, 6 northern black worker during, 5-7 Clark, Champ, 703 Clark, Peter H., 160 Class consciousness, 633, 638-641 among black workers, 628 Class solidarity, 650-651 Cleveland, steel workers' unionism in, 477-479 Clifford, Caroline, 356 CNLU. See Colored National Labor Union Coalition of Black Trade Unionists, 56, 662-666 Cobb, Hilda, 460 Code on Fair Trade Union Racial Practices, 559 Cohn, Fania M., 460 Colbath, Jeremiah James. See Wil- son, Henry Colby, Caroline E. G., 187 Cold war, 48 Cole, Miss, 186 Coleman, Julia P. H., 350 Colored American, 24 Colored Caulkers' Trade Union Soci- ety, 10 Colored National Labor Convention, 10-11 Colored National Labor Union, 11- 13 Colored National Union, 160 Colored Seamen's Home, 694-695 Coloured Sailor's Home, 99-101 Columbia Typographical Union, 8 Committee for Industrial Organiza- tion (late Congress of Indus- trial Organizations), 58, 456, 458-459, 463-465, 471, 705 Committee on Civil Rights, 52, 548 Committee to Abolish Racial Dis- crimination, 548-549 Negro organizers in, 474-475 and Philadelphia transport work- ers' strike, 532-535 race relations in, 41-43, 45-46, 48- 49, 445-452, 548-549 Ernest Calloway on, 453-463 statement on discrimination, 447- 448 Steel Workers' Organizing Com- mittee, 42, 448, 461-463, 469, 472, 705-706 Commonwealth College, 43 Communication Workers of America, 665 The Communist, trade union pro- gram of action for Negro workers, 432-438 Communist party, 39-40, 48-49, 58, 489, 647 Congressional Black Caucus, 670 Congress of Racial Equality. See CORE Conscription Act. See National Con- scription Act Construction. See Building trades Conyers, John M., 611 Cook, Joe, 473-474 Cooper, Henry Allen, 334 CORE, 581-583, 706 Baltimore Convention, 582 Cotton, Stanley, 472 Cotton industry, 345 Cox brothers, 233 Crawford, Anthony, 319, 703 Crawford, James, 340 Cresswell, John A. J., 159 Crimes against blacks, 653, 682 by blacks, 682 The Crisis, 31 Crosswaith, Frank R., 706 "The Negro Labor Committee," 535-537 Cuba, liberation fighters in, 171, 696 Curran, Joseph, 547 Curtiss, William C. H., 200 D Dabney, Tom, 460 Dacus (Negro), 360 Dacus, Sol, 32 Damisch, Max J., 478 Daniels, Floyd, 642 Davis, Angela, 659 Davis, Fred, 587-588 Davis, John P., 38, 46, 486, 703 "A Black Inventory of the New Deal," 378-384 Davis, Ossie, 56 Davis, R. L., controversy with S. Glasgow over blacks in min- ing industry, 262-275 Davis, Richard L., 23 Day laborers. See Sharecroppers Deas, Rosabelle, 618-619 Debs, Eugene V., 704-705 letter to editors of The Messenger, April 9, 1923, 420-422 Dee, Ruby, 56 Delany, Martin R., 5 DeLeon, Daniel, 455-456 Democratic party, 10, 168, 197, 668, 706, 707 Dennis, John Lucus, 220-221 Depression, Great, economic condi- tion of black worker in, 34- 36, 375-377 Dernell, John C., 240 Desmond, F. T., on blacks in railroad work, 258-261 Detroit blacks in, 646-647 job prospects in, 686 Detroit-Willow Run Area, black women employed in, during World War II, 518-519 De Vattel, Emeric, 695 Dickerson, William F., 202-203 Dickinson, W. H., 200 Dining Car Cooks and Waiters Union, 37 Disarmament, 688-689 Discrimination. See also Unions, race relations in in Antebellum Era, 3 CIO statement on, 447-448 in employment, in 1955, 544-545 in Reconstruction period, 7 in unions, 665 in war industry employment, 512- 513 Dixiecrat Party, 552 Dixon, W. A., 200 Doctor, Bobby, 590 Dodge Revolutionary Union Move- ment. See DRUM Dollar, U.S., 628 Dombrowski, Jim, 461 Domestic service, women employed in, 466-468 Donald, William, 477 Donnells, W. M., 357-359, 361 Douglass, Frederick, 5, 12, 160, 693, 696 encounter with racial violence in Baltimore shipyard, 68-76 on need for free Negroes to learn trades, 118-120 plan for industrial college, pre- sented to Harriet Beecher Stowe, 120-123 on rejection of his son by Typo- graphical Union, 152 Douglass, Lewis H., 8, 145-149, 152, 176, 189, 696 Douglass, S. M., Mrs., 186 Downing, George T., 159, 165-166, 200-204 Draft riots, 6 Driver, E. B., 404 Drug and Hospital Employees Local 1199, and black worker, 56- 57 DRUM, 54, 633-636, 638, 641, 643, 646, 648-649, 659-661 Drury, Victor, 699 Dual unionism, 650-651 Dubroca, E. M., 230 Dudnick, Robert, "Black Workers in Revolt," 632-651 Duffy, Frank, 299 Duncan, James, 294, 407-408 Duncanson, Robert, 698 Durham, John, 25-26 E Eager, J. J., 364 East, Clay, 43, 491-492 Eastern Steamship Company, strike on, 389 East St. Louis black migration to, in early 20th century, 28-29 riots, 29 report of special Congressional committee investigating, 324- 334 Education, 5, 14, 25, 276-277, 659, 692 Booker T. Washington on, 277-279 discrimination in, during Depres- sion, 385 Frederick Douglass on need for, 118-123 Nashville American piece on, 280- 283 universal, 436 Edwards, James H., 214 Edwards, Joe, 158 Edwards, Nelson Jack, 663, 668 Eight-hour day, 434 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 545 Eldon Ave. Revolutionary Union Movement. See ELRUM Electrical equipment industry, black women employed in, during World War II, 515 Elliot, Joe, 636 ELRUM, 54, 634, 637, 638 English Industrial Commission, 1911 report on labor conditions in South, 295-296 Epps, Jesse, 596-597 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 623-624, 688 Equal Rights Congress (Washington), 484 Evans, Fred Ahmed, 659 Evans, Joseph P., 175, 187 Evans, Sam, 588 Executive Order 8802, 45, 528 F Facing Reality, 644 Fair Employment Practices Commit- tee, 45, 47, 58, 451, 512-513, 528-534, 559, 562 Fanion, Gerald, 591 Fanon, Frantz, 640 Farm and Forest Workers Union, 363-364 Farmer, James, 706 Farmers' Improvement Society, 701 Farm Security Administration, 500, 506 Featherstone, Ralph, 659 Federation for Constitutional Gov- ernment, 552 Federation of Organized Labor Unions, 700 Feinglass, Abe, exchange of views with Jerry Menapeace, on black power and labor, 581- 585 FEPC. See Fair Employment Prac- tices Committee Ferrell, Frank J., 16-17, 699 at Knights of Labor convention, 212-213 Fireman's Magazine, 704 Firemen (locomotive), 287, 302. See also Brotherhood of Locomo- tive Firemen; National Order of Locomotive Firemen Fisher, Charles, 158 report on textile manufacture. See Fisher's Report Fisher, Elwood, 96 Fisher, Jacob, 291 Fisher's Report, 84-89 Fletcher, Benjamin H., 33 "The Negro and Organized La- bor," 422-425 Flynn, John J., 293-294 Fobbs, Annie G., 618 Fontecchio, Nicholas, 475 Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and Al- lied Workers Union, 48 Foote, J. H. R., 229 Forced labor, 434-435 Ford Motor Company, 45 strike against, in 1941, 524-526 Ford Revolutionary Union Move- ment. See FRUM Fort-Whitman, Levett, 40 Foster, A. L., 475 Foster, M. D., 334 Foster, William Z., 39-40 on Trade Union Educational League convention in Cleve- land, 429-432 Fox, Art, 644-645 Francis, Ola Bell, 474 Franklin, Abraham, 131 Frazier, E. Franklin, 34 Freed, Mildred G., "Ten Million Sharecroppers," 495-500 Freedmen in Antebellum Era, 2, 5 Douglass's paper on need for edu- cation in trades for, 118-120 in northern states, 2-3 observations on labor of, by Carl Schurz, 135-138 Freedmen's Bureau, 697, 698 Freedom, 50 Freedom Budget, 571-580 Freedom from want, 576-577 Freeman (Indianapolis), The, 24, 26 on Isaac Myers, 158-161 Free Soil party, 697 Frey, John P., 297-298 FRUM, 54, 633-638, 643, 644 Fur and Leather Workers Union, 48 Furuseth, Andrew, 240, 700 Futrell, J. Marion, 493 G Gains, Isaac, 364-365 Gardiner, William, 68-71, 74 Garnett, Henry Highland, 200, 203 Garrison, William Lloyd, 693 Garvey, Marcus, 704 Garvey Movement, 382-383, 437, 475 Georgia Railroad Strike of 1909, 27, 302-303 Gilthorpe, William J., 298 Ginger, Ray, 49 Glaberman, Martin, 644-645, 647 Glasgow, S., controversy with R. L. Davis over blacks in mining industry, 262-275 Godoff, Elliott, 605, 607 Goldberg, Arthur J., 538-539 Gompers, Samuel, 21-22, 27, 289, 300, 363, 416, 456, 700 correspondence with W. S. Carter, 249-252 letter from E. M. McGruder, 245- 246 Gompers, Samuel (cont.) letter to John M. Callaghan, 244- 245 letters to George L. Norton, 247- 249 report to AFL convention of 1900, 237-254 Government Printing Office, 287 Gradualism, 573 Granger, Lester B., 462 "The National Negro Congress: An Interpretation," 484-488 Granite Cutters' International Associ- ation of America, 294 Graniteville Company, 97 Grant, Ulysses S., 10, 11, 154-157 Graves, Samuel T., on blacks in rail- road work, 260-261 Great Depression. See Depression, Great Great Southern Lumber Company, 357 Greeley, Horace, 696 Green, A. G., 356 Green, William, 37, 38, 47, 455-456, 704, 706 "At the Crossroads," 415 "National Negro Labor Confer- ence," 413 "Negro Wage Earners and Trade Unions," 417-419 P. J. White, Jr.'s reply to, 419- 420 open letter to, from T. Arnold Hill, 413-417 response to Elmer Anderson Carter on A. F. L. and Negro, 411- 413 Greer, T. J., on Louisiana lumber in- dustry, 357-362 Gregg, William, 97 Griffin, Jim, 645-646 Griffing, Charles, 698 Griffing, Josephine Sophie White, 187, 698 Grimes, Bushrod, 381 H Hall, Covington, 33 "Labor Struggles in the Deep South," 224-233, 363-366 Hall, Otto, 429, 705 Hamilton, C. M., 187-188 Hamlin, Mike, 634-640, 645, 646 Hammond, James, 96-97, 693-694 "Progress of Southern Industry," 90-96 Hampton, Fred, 659 Harmon, Harry S., 175 Harris, J. H., 189 Harris, Louise "Mamma," 480-484 Harrison, Benjamin, 696 Harrison, George M., 3, 52, 568 Hart, James, 477 Hatcher, Richard G., 611 Hate strikes, 45 Hawes, Elizabeth (Zilla), 460-461 Hayes, Charles, 663, 667, 668 Hayes, Denis A., 240, 701 Hayes, Ned, 71-72 Haynes, Elizabeth Ross, 356 Hays, Mr., 176 Haywood, William "Big Bill," 33, 455-456 appeal to blacks to join IWW, 369- 373 Health services, black workers in, 691 Heberling, S. E., 293 Height, Dorothy I., 611 Henri, Florette, Black Migration: Movement North, 1900-1920, 703 Herling, Jack, 494 Herndon, Angelo, 40 speech to jury, 438-443 Heuston, Peter, 131-132 High-tech industry, opportunities for blacks in, 686, 689-692 Hill, T. Arnold, open letter to Wil- liam Green, 413-417 Hirst, James, letter to Terence Pow- derly, 215 Hodges, Willis A., 200, 204 Hodgson, James D., 630 Holman, M. Carl, 542 Home Club. See Knights of Labor, District Assembly 49 Horton, Miles, 461 Hosley, Fred, 661 Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union, 569 Household Employees Union, 476 House Un-American Activities Com- mittee, 49 Housing, 436, 578 Howard, Charles P., 458 Howard, O. O., 175 Howard University, conference on economic status of Negroes, 1935, 383, 485 Hughes, Thomas L., 292-293 Human Resources Development Insti- tute, 622 Humphrey, Hubert H., Jr., 677, 707 Humphreys, Tom, 71-72 Hunter, Charlayne, "Last Hired, and Usually the First Let Go,' 541-543 Hunter, John M., 240 Hutcheson, William, 46 Hut taxes, 436 I IBEW. See International Brother- hood of Electrical Workers Industrial college for blacks, 5 Industrial Commission on the Rela- tions of Capital and Labor, 26 Industrial Workers of the World, 32- 34, 362-364, 369-373, 456- 457 appeal to black workers to join, 369-373 Industry, black workers in, during era of National Labor Union, 177-185 Inflation, 574-575, 629 Inner City Voice, 635 Innis, Roy, 611 International Association of Machin- ists, 422, 669 International Black Appeal, 660-661 International Brotherhood of Boiler- makers, 45, 46 International Brotherhood of Boiler- makers, Iron Shipbuilders and Helpers, 298 International Brotherhood of Electri- cal Workers, 665 International Brotherhood of Team- sters, 414 International Brotherhood of Team- sters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen and Helpers, 292 Internaontional Fishermen and Allied Workers, 48 International Ladies Garment Work- ers Union, 36, 457, 458, 476 race relations in, 459-460 International Longshoremen, Ware- housemen's Union, 48 International Machinist's Union of America, 22 International Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, 48 International Moulders' Union, 296- 298 International Seamen's Union, 701 International Timber Workers' Union, 32 Irish immigrants, competition with blacks for work, 5-6, 114 IWW. See Industrial Workers of the World J Jackson, Charles, 133-134 Jackson, Ralph, 594, 596, 600 Jacobs, Jim, 643-645 James, C. L. R., 644 Jarrett, John, 221, 700 JARUM, 54, 634, 638 Jefferson Ave. Revolutionary Union Movement. See JARUM Jernigan, Ike, 631 Jewish Labor Committee, 551 Jim Crow system, 317, 381, 527, 702 Jobs, prospects, for blacks, 685-687 programs for improving, 687-689 Johnson, Ben, 324-334, 703 Johnson, Charles S., The Negro in American Civilization, 704 Johnson, Henry, 472-473, 475-476 Johnson, James, 631, 659 "The Weber Decision," 678-679 Johnson, James Weldon, on status of Negro labor, in early 20th century, 352-353 Johnson, Roy, 642 Joint Committee on National Recov- ery, 703 Jones, T. O., 590 Jones, Thomas P., on textile manu- facture and slave labor, 76-83 Jones, William, 132 Jones & Laughlin Steel Company, 471 Journeymen Barbers' International Union, 291 Journeymen Tailors' Union, 294 K Kaiser Aluminum, 671-672, 674-676, 678 Kansas emigration, 13-15, 190-199, 200-204 Keith, Harold L., "AFL-CIO Seats Two Negroes," 566-567 Keough, M. J., 296-297 Kester, Howard, 461 "Formation of the Southern Ten- ant Farmers' Union," 489- 495 Ketchum, Miss, 186 King, Coretta Scott, 57, 610 King, Martin Luther, 56-57, 557, 571, 583, 604 Kinkel, Gottfried, 695 Kirby, John Henry, 34 Knights of Labor, 15-20, 454, 699 1886 convention in Richmond, 16- 17 black member, letter from, 210 convention in Richmond, 211-214 District Assembly 49, 16-17, 211- 212, 699 banquet for, at Richmond con- vention, 218-219 meeting in Memphis, described by Ida B. Wells, 219-220 race relations in, 16-17 sugar workers' strike, 1887, 17-19, 224-233 Know-Nothing party, 697 Korean War, black workers during, 47-48 Kuchel, Thomas H., 677 Ku Klux Klan, 363-364, 551 L Labor, cost of, in manufacturing, in Antebellum Era, 84-96 Labor Auxiliary of Redcaps, 705 Labor Herald, 705 Labor History, 49 Labor legislation, 435 Labor movement. See specific union; Unions black radicalism in, 53-55 blacks' participation in, 237-238, 268-269, 409, 417-419, 453- 463 Ben Fletcher on, 422-425 in early 20th century, race relations in, 26-27 in mining industry, 268-269 and repression of blacks, 653 during World War I and readjust- ment, 31-32 Labor Reform party, 10, 12, 160 La Follette Seamen's Act of 1915, 701 LaForge Project, 500, 505 Lancaster, Roy, 36, 393 Land confiscation, 436 Land monopoly, 187-188, 698 Langston, John M., 168, 175, 177 Larger, B. A., 290-291 Larry, R. Health, 630 Last hired, first fired, 541-542. See also Seniority system Laundresses, 468-469 Laundry operatives, 468-469 Lawson, James, 587 League of Revolutionary Black Workers, 54, 634, 638-640, 645, 650 General Policy Statement, Labor History, and Labor Program, 652-658 LeBlanc, Captain, 360 Lee, Curtis, 641-642 Lee, Fitzhugh, 16 Lee, Henry, 175 Left in labor movement, 39-41 white, 647 Lehman, Ed, 365-366 Leonard, James, 357 Levey, Stanley, "Meany Vows Fight on Bias When Labor Ranks Unite," 538-539 Lewis, Edmonia, 186, 698 Lewis, John L., 41, 58, 455, 463, 567, 704, 705 The Liberator, 693 on rights of white labor over black, 123-125 Lily-white union policy. See Ameri- can Federation of Labor, race relations in Lincoln, Abraham, 695 Little, Herbert, exchange with Aubrey Williams, on sharecroppers, 501-503 Lloyd, Edward, 693 Lockwood, Belva A., 187 Loeb, Henry, 586-589, 594, 596, 600 Loeb, William, 592 Logan, Rose, 641 Loguen, Jermain W., 176, 696-697 Long, Osie, 404 Longshoremen's strike (1869), 143- 144 Louisiana, oppression in, in late 19th century, 233-234 Lovings, Joseph, 342 Lucy, Bill, 663, 667, 668 Lumber industry, 367-368 blacks in, 63-68 labor movement in, at turn of cen- tury, 357-362 Lynch, Leon, 673 Lynchings, 18, 319, 450, 452, 529, 547, 553, 700, 703 M Maceo, Antonio, 696 Machinery industry, black women employed in, during World War II, 515 Machinists' and Blacksmiths' Union, 699 Maintenance of Way Organization, 406 Malcolm X, 56 March, Ron, 636, 661 March on Washington (1963), 668, 704 March on Washington Movement, 528-530, 704 Marine Transport Workers Union, 33 Markham, Edwin, 701 Mars, James W., 203 Marshall, Dave, 197 Marshall, Thurgood, 547 Martin, Sella J., 159 MARUM, 54 Marxism, 640-641 Maryland Freedom Union, 581-582 Massey, Thomas, 84 Matthews, John, Jr., 642 Mays, R. L., 404-405 McCord, William M., 606, 608-609 McCray, George, 473 McDonald, David J., 469, 567, 706 McDonald, Leonidas, 475 McEnery, Thomas, 18 McGee, Mineola, 333, 334 McGinnis Labor Law, 470 McGovern, George, 666-668 McGruder, E. M., letter to Samuel Gompers, 245-246 McGuire, P. J., 701 McKinley, William, 699, 702 McKinley, E. B., 43-44 McKinney, Ernest Rice, 461 McNair, Robert E., 605, 610 McQuillan, Dr., 327-328 Meany, George, 53, 57, 538-539, 553, 554, 558, 565, 568-570, 662, 666-668, 670-673, 706 Mechanics. See Slaves Media coverage of blacks, in Detroit, 647- 648 report on sharecroppers' demon- stration (1939), 506 Memminger, Christopher G., 96-97, 694 Memphis garbage strike (1968), 585- 603, 604 Menapeace, Jerry, exchange of views with Abe Feinglass, on black power and labor, 581-585 Merryville, Louisiana strike (1913), 33-34 The Messenger, 31, 36, 704 on blacks' participation in labor movement, 422-425 open letter to editors of, from Eu- gene V. Debs (April 9, 1923), 420-422 Midwest, unemployment in, 683 Migrations. See also Kansas emigra- tion of Southern blacks to North, 27- 29, 38, 50-51, 304-323, 352 during Reconstruction, 190-199 Militancy, among blacks, 632 Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers' Union, 458 Mine Workers' Union, 291-292 Mining industry, 295 blacks in, in early 20th century, 291-292 Davis-Glasgow controversy over blacks in, 262-275 race relations in, 22-24 strikes in, 24-25 Mitch, William, 42 Mitchell, Harry L., 43, 461, 491-492 Mitchell, John, 291-292 Mob violence, 6. See also Chicago, riot; East St. Louis, riots in Antebellum Era, 3-4 in New York City (1863), 130-134 Morrison, Frank, 357, 407 Moss, Mr., 470 Moulders' Union, 32 Moultrie, Mary A., 607, 615-616 Mounier, D., 229 Mozambique Treaty, 435 Muller, James N., 159 Murray, Philip, 42, 450-451, 705-706 Myers, Isaac, 10, 12, 165, 172, 175, 189, 696 address to white labor convention, 153-157 biographical sketch of, 158-161 Myrdal, Gunnar, 44, 47 N NAACP. See National Association for the Advancement of Col- ored People NALC. See Negro American Labor Council NAM. See National Association of Machinists National Association for the Ad- vancement of Colored People, 46, 53-54, 58, 549-551, 557, 587 National Association of Machinists, 22 National Bureau of Labor, 11 National Conference of Colored Men of the United States, May 1879, report of Committee on Address, 205-208 National Conscription Act, 6 National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, 704 National Labor Conference for Negro Rights, 49 National Labor Congress (1871), 160 National Labor Convention, 156 National Labor Convention of the Colored Men of the United States, 159, 163-165 National Labor Relations Act, 607. See also Wagner Act National Labor Relations Board, 40 National Labor Union, 9-11, 160, 453-454, 698 third national convention (1869), 696 proceedings, 165-189 National Maritime Union, 42 National Negro Congress, 40, 42, 46, 58, 475, 484-488, 703 National Negro Labor Council, 49- 50, 58 National Order of Locomotive Fire- men, 37, 403-406 National Organizing Committee of Hospital and Nursing Home Employees, 607, 610-611 National Union of Marine Cooks and Stewards, 48 National Urban League, 58, 375, 411, 413-417, 462, 470-471, 476, 551, 557, 705 Labor Education Advancement Program, 622 National Women's Trade Union League of America, 355 Negro American Labor Council, 55- 56, 555 Negro Convention movement, 5 Negro Industrial League, 703 Negro-labor alliance, 55-56 Negro Labor Committee, 535-537 Negro Labor Congress (1925), 484 Negro Welfare Association, 478 Newark, N.J., job prospects in, 686 New Deal, 703 effects on black workers, 378-384 New Era, 176, 696 New National Era, 8, 696 New Orleans, industry in, race rela- tions in, 296 New Orleans Daily Tribune, 7 New Orleans General Strike of 1892, 21-22, 242, 701 New York, job prospects in, 686 New York Age, article on murders of blacks in Louisiana, in 19th century, 233-234 New York Call, 31 Nixon Administration, 620, 624-625, 629-630, 665 NLU. See National Labor Union NMU. See National Maritime Union NNC. See National Negro Congress NNLC. See National Negro Labor Council Noble Order of the Knights of Labor. See Knights of Labor Nonviolence, 601-602, 616. See also Memphis garbage strike (1968) North black workers during Antebellum Era, 2-5, 113 in early 20th century, 27-32, 353 during Civil War, 5-7 discrimination in, during Depres- sion, 385 race relations in in Antebellum Era, 2-3 during World War I and read- justment, 31-32 in Reconstruction period, 13-19, 205 unemployment in, 683 war industries in, 508, 511-512 North, Edward (Ned), 71-72 The North Star (later Frederick Doug- lass' Paper), 693 Norton, Eleanor Holmes, 542-543 Norton, George L., letters from Sam- uel Gompers, 247-249 NRA, 378-379 Nunally, Alvin, 491 O O'Bryan, Ed., 359-360 Oglethorpe, George, 702 Olmstead, Frederick Law, on lumber- men, 63-68 Opportunity on C.I.O. and Negro labor, 453- 463 correspondence between William Green (AFL) and Elmer An- derson Carter, 408-413 correspondence between William Green and P. J. White, Jr., on black workers, 417-420 open letter to William Green, from T. Arnold Hill, 413-417 Order of Railroad Telegraphers, 293 Order of Railway Conductors, 20 Ordnance manufacture, black women employed in, during World War II, 515-516, 522-523 Outreach programs, 622 Overstolz, Henry, 192-193 Owen, Chandler, 704 P Packing House Workers Industrial Union, 476 Page, Thomas Nelson, 1 Palmer, A. Mitchell, 363 Parrish, Dick, 663 Pattern Makers' League, 294 Patterson, J. O., 600 Pendleton, Leilia, 356 Peonage system, 316, 703 Per capita tax, 436 Perham, H. B., 293 Perlman, David L., "High Court De cision Backs Affirmative Ac- tion on Jobs," 671-673 Perlo, Victor, 707 "Jobs for Afro-Americans," 681- 692 Perry, Edwin, 292 Peters, George H., call for admissior of blacks into Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, 254-255 Philadelphia transit workers' strike (1944), 530-535 Philadelphia Transportation Com- pany, 45, 532-535 Phillips, H. W., 40 Plantation lease, 195-196 Plantation strike, witnessed by White law Reid, 139-141 Police officers, southern, in early 20th century, 317-318 Pollard, Curtis, 195 Poll tax, 436, 450, 529, 547 Pomeroy (U.S. Senator), 159 Ponder, Amos L., 361 Popkess, G. E., 333 Poston, Ted, article on Mamma Harris, 480-484 Potofsky, Jacob S., 568 Pottawatomie Massacre, 699 Poverty, 572-575, 577-578 in Antebellum Era, 3 among blacks, 683 Powderly, Terence V., 16-17, 699 letter from D. H. Black, 216 letter from J. M. Townsend, 215 letter from James Hirst, 215 letter from "Tradesman," 217 letter from W. R. Ramsay, 234-235 open letter on race, 222-224 Powell, Dan, 597 Powell, Lewis F., Jr., 673, 707 Powell, Tom, 597 Powell, William P., 694-695 on Coloured Sailor's Home, 99-101 President's Committee on Govern- ment Contracts, 545 Price, Walter, 71, 74 Prisons, blacks in, 682, 684-685 Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America, 30-31, 345 Constitution, 346-349 Providence Riot (1831), 115-117 Pryor, Downing, 589 Public Works Administration, 380- 381, 704 Pullman Company, 36-37, 560, 564, 569 open letter from A. Philip Ran- dolph, 392-403 Pullman Porters' Brotherhood, 427 Q Quill, Michael J., 538, 566 Quinn, Timothy, 699 R Race riots in 1863, 6 of early 20th century, 29-30, 324- 344 Racial solidarity, 22, 32, 633 Racial violence. See Mob violence Racism, 640, 644, 682 Railroad brotherhoods, 20-22, 37, 46, 52, 422 Railroads black women employed in, during World War II, 521-522 black workers in, 62-63 Railway Men's International Benevo- lent Industrial Association, 37 Raker, John E., 334 Ramsay, W. R., letter to T. V. Pow- derly, 234-235 Randall, J. A., report on Providence Riot of 1831, 115-117 Randolph, A. Philip, 36-37, 40, 44- 47, 52-53, 55-56, 413, 547, 563-565, 611, 668, 704 on AFL-CIO Executive Board, 566-567 charges of race bias in AFL-CIO, 567-570 on Freedom Budget for All Amer- icans, 572-576 open letter to Pullman Company, 392-403 on race bias, in 1961, 554-561 "Why Should We March?," 527- 530 Randolph Resolution, 46-47 Rapier, James T., 13, 177, 697 Reagan Administration, 684, 687-688 Reconstruction, 7-9, 205, 453 Recorder (Philadelphia), 24-25 Red Caps union, 476 Red Cross, and sharecroppers, 498 Red International of Labor Unions, 430, 457 Redmond, Miss, 476 Red Summer (1919), 30 Reed, Adolph, Jr., "The Liberal Technocrat," 707 Reese, Jesse, 474 Rehnquist, William H., 673-677, 707 Reid, Whitelaw, 695-696 on plantation strike, 139-141 Republican party, 10, 12-13, 168, 197, 454 Retail, Wholesale Department Store Union, 606 local 1199, 607, 610, 612, 614, 616- 618 Reuther, Walter, 52, 54, 56, 57, 538, 634 Revenue sharing, 668 Reverse discrimination, 671, 674, 677 Rhodes, Robert, 22 Right-to-work laws, 552 RILU. See Red International of La- bor Unions Roberts, E. F., on colored firemen's organization, 403-406 Robeson, Paul, 49-50 Robinson, Cleveland, 55, 667, 668 Robinson, Joe, 492 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 40, 45, 528, 576 Roosevelt, Theodore, 702 Roper, Elmer, 555 Rosemond, Henry, 428 Ross, Mamie R., 356 Rustin, Bayard, 611, 668 Ryan, Neva, 476 Rye, Eleanor, 474 S St. Louis. See also East St. Louis blacks in, during 1880s, 190-199 Saltonstall, Leverett, 677 Sanford, George, 474 Sanhedrin conference, 484 Saunders, Mr., 189 Savannah wharf workers' strike, 19- 20 Scabs. See Strikebreakers Scalawags, 367, 703 Schlesinger, Stephen C., "Black Cau- cus in the Unions," 666-671 Schnitzler, William F., 558 Schurz, Carl, 135, 695 Schuyler, George S., "Negro Workers Lead in Great Lakes Steel Drive," 469-479 SCLC. See Southern Christian Lead- ership Conference Seale, Bobby, 659 Seamen, 4. See also Colored Seamen's Home colored, in Southern ports, in Ante- bellum Era, 108-110 during Depression, 388-389 South Carolina laws pertaining to, in Antebellum Era, 101-108 Seeger, Murray, "Carolina Strike Unites Rights, Labor Groups," 604-609 Segregation in early 20th century, 28-29 Segregation (cont.) in public facilities, 546-547 in public schools, 546-547 Self-determination, for blacks, 437 Seligman, Herbert J., 362 Sellers, Cleveland, 659 Senate Committee on Education and Labor, 1882 hearings, 14 Senate Rule 22, 545, 547 Seniority system, 51, 541, 621 Service industries black women employed in, during World War II, 519-520 black workers in, 656, 691 Sharecroppers, 489, 495-503 demonstration in southeastern Mis- souri (1939), 501-507 during Great Depression, 43-44 Sharecroppers unions, 383 Ship caulkers, 4, 10 in Baltimore, in Antebellum Era, 110-112 Shipyards, black women employed in, during World War II, 514 Shishkin, Boris, 549 Silicon Valley, job prospects in, 686 Simms, J. M., 176 Simons, William, 662 Sims, Jacoby, "A Giant Step Toward Unity," 662-666 Sinclair, John, 648 Singleton, Benjamin "Pap," 14 Singleton's Colony, 14 Slaves. See also Douglass, Frederick as artisans, 1-2 effect of paying wages to, 67-68 in industry, 96-97 as lumbermen, 63-68 in manufacture of cotton, 76-83 as mechanics, 1-2, 61, 98 in textile manufacture, 86-89 trades practiced by, 1-2, 61-63 Smedley, Bill, "The Life of Negroes in the Automobile Industry," 385-387 Smith, C. H., 491 Smith, Ferdinand C., 42 Smith, Hoke, 303 Smith, Howard, 46 Smith, J. D., letter on Negro artisans in South, 61-63 Smith, Nick, 298 Smith, R. L., 259, 701 Smith, Vascoe A., Jr., 590 Smith Committee, 46 Social Democratic party, 705 Socialist party, 39, 43, 58, 383, 489 Socialist Trades and Labor Alliance, 456 Socialist Workers party, 647 Soledad Brothers, 659 Sorrels, E. M., 331-332 Sortre, Martin, 659 South in 1880s, 15 in Antebellum Era, 2, 61-68 black exodus from, 38, 50-51, 304- 323, 352. See also Migrations black workers in, 61-63 in early 20th century, 353 CIO drive in, 449 discrimination in, during Depres- sion, 385 economy of, in Reconstruction pe- riod, 7 oppression in, in late 19th century, 233-234 race relations in, during World War I and readjustment, 31-32 in Reconstruction period, 7-9, 205 war industries in, 508, 510-511 South Africa, 433-437 South Carolina imprisonment of colored seamen, 109 laws pertaining to colored seamen, in Antebellum Era, 101-108 South End, 647-648 Southern Christian Leadership Con- ference, 56-57, 557, 571, 706 Southern Lumber Operators' Associ- ation, 34 Southern States Convention of Col- ored Men, 12 Southern Tenant Farmers' Union, 43- 44, 461, 489-495, 501-502 Spellman, Rev. Mr., 200 Stanfield, J. Edwin, "In Memphis: More Than a Garbage Strike," 585-603 Starr, Mark, 460 Steel industry, 457-458, 630 affirmative action in, 671 anti-Negro propaganda in, 472-473 black women employed in, during World War II, 516-518 race relations in, 461-465, 469-479 Steel workers, wages, in early 20th century, 320 Stevens, John Paul, 673, 707 Stewart, B. F., 221 Stewart, Bill, 71-72 STFU. See Southern Tenant Farmers' Union Stokes, Carl B., 611 Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 120 Streater, George, 460 Strikebreakers, 481-483, 525 blacks branded as, 414 Strikes, 209, 287-288, 383, 431, 462, 473, 476, 652. See also Hate strikes; Knights of Labor, sugar workers' strike, 1887; Plantation strike American Lumber Company, in Merryville, Louisiana (1913), 33-34 Black Diamond Steel Works, 1887, 220-221 called by Knights of Labor, 15 Charleston hospital workers, 57 of early 20th century, 29-30 Eastern Steamship Company, 389 Export tobacco company, 482-484 Ford Motor Company (1941), 524- 526 Georgia Railroad Strike of 1909, 27, 302-303 longshoremen's (1869), 143-144 Memphis garbage workers' (1968), 585-603, 604 New Orleans General Strike of 1892, 21-22, 242, 701 Philadelphia transit workers' (1944), 530-535 Republic Steel plants, 277 Savannah wharf workers', 19-20 United Automobile Workers' (1941), 45-46 Subversive Activities Control Board, 49 Sugar Planters' Association, 18 Sullivan, E. A., 227 Sumner, Charles, 697 Switchmen's Mutual Association, 20 Switchmen's Union, 293 S.W.O.C.. See Committee for Indus- trial Organization (later Con- gress of Industrial Organiza- tions), Steel Workers' Organizing Committee Sylvis, William H., 154, 453-454 Szegedy, Henry W., 240 T Taft, William Howard, 702 Tanner, John R., 24 Tannerism, 24 Taylor, William F., 158 Teamsters' Union, 470 Temple, Eugene, 340 Tennessee Valley Authority, 382 Terrell, Mary Church, 350, 356 Terrorism, 12, 17-18, 436, 551, 553 New York Herald piece on (1863), 130 Textile industry blacks in, at turn of century, 276- 277 race relations in, 460-461 Third World, conditions facing, 624- 632 Thomas, John L., 159 Thomas, John M., 203-204 Thomas, L. R., 240 Thomas, Norman, 491-495 Thompson (Mayor of Chicago, 1919), 337 Timber industry. See Lumber in- dustry Tisdale, Lee, 473 Tobacco Stemmers' and Laborers' In- dustrial Union, 42 Tobacco Workers' International Union, 42, 290 Tobin, John F., 240, 701 Totten, Ashley L., 36, 393 Townsend, J. M., letter to Terence Powderly, 215 Townsend, Willard S., 448, 547, 705 on AFL-CIO Executive Board, 566-567 Trade Union Committee for Organiz- ing Negro Workers, 706 Trade Union Educational League, 39- 40, 58, 705 call to Negro workers to meeting in Cleveland, 425-429 convention in Cleveland, 425-429 W. Z. Foster on, 429-432 Trade unions. See Unions Trade Union Unity League, 40, 58, 457 Traeye, Hermina, 616-618 Transit Workers Union, 45 Transnational corporations, 689 Transportation, black women em- ployed in, during World War II, 521-522 Transport Workers Union, 532-535, 538, 566 Trevellick, 159 Trotskyism, 647 Truck system of payment, 15 TUEL. See Trade Union Educational League Tullie, J., 203 Turner, Doris, 616 Turner, J. Milton, 199 Turner, John, 191 Tuskegee\Institute, 277-279, 321, 701, 702 TUUL. See Trade Union Unity League Typographical Union, 4 justification of rejection of Lewis Douglass, 153 race relations in, 144-151 U UCAPAWA. See United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Al- lied Workers of America UMW. See United Mine Workers of America Unemployment, 50, 51, 620-622, 626, 655, 670 among blacks, 683-684 among black women, during De- pression, 466-467 during Depression, 375-377, 418 remedies for, 577 Union of Farm Equipment and Metal Workers, 48 Unions, 8. See also specific union in Antebellum Era, 4 black membership in, in 1974, 669 black radicalism in, 53-55 of black railroad employees, 37 blacks in, 669 Booker T. Washington's Atlantic Monthly article on, 285-301 of Negro workers, call for, 435 program of action for Negro work- ers, published in The Commu- nist, 432-438 race relations in, 4, 12, 18, 21-22, 31, 46, 51, 353, 435, 455-456, 684 in early 20th century, 289 in era of A. F. of L. and railroad brotherhoods, 241-244 at turn of century, 25-26 in twenties and thirties, 37, 374- 443 women in, 36 United Association of Plumbers and Steam Fitters, 706 United Automobile Workers of America, 54-55, 448, 461- 462, 633-635, 642, 650, 669 strike against Ford Motor Com- pany (1941), 45-46, 524-526 United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, 299 United Cannery, Agricultural, Pack- ing and Allied Workers of America, 44, 496, 499 United Caucus, 644-645 United Electrical, Radio, and Ma- chine Workers of America, 48 United Garment Makers of America, 290 United Mine Workers of America, 42, 58, 292, 457-458, 567, 704- 705 race relations in3,2-23, 27, 459 at turn of century, 262-267 United Office and Professional Workers, 48 United Public Workers, 48 United Rubber Workers, 552 United Steelworkers of America, 678, 706 United Textile Workers, race relations in, 460-461 United Transport Service Employees Union, 448, 566 Universal Franchise Association, 698 Urban League. See National Urban League U.T.W., 458 V Vann, Robert L., 470 Vaughn, Theodore, 472 Verney, W, H. Des, 36, 393 Vesey, Denmark, 694 Vietnam war, 574-575, 629, 653 Violence. See also Mob violence anti-union, 34 among workers, 630-631 W Wage-price freeze (1971), 625, 629- 630, 665 Wages in agriculture, in early 20th century, 307, 314-315, 323 of black locomotive firemen, at turn of century, 253 of blacks during Depression, 418 in railroad work, at turn of cen- tury, 261 of black women, during Depres- sion, 467 of Charleston hospital workers, 604,608 discrimination in, 434 of laundresses and laundry opera- tives, during Depression, 468 of Memphis garbage workers, in 1968, 594 of miners, at turn of century, 265 in North, in early 20th century, 320 of Philadelphia transport workers, 533 of railroad porters, in Depression, 393 in railroad work in 1961, 562 in early 20th century, 325-326 real versus monetary, 463 during Reconstruction period, 205, 224-225 sharecroppers', in 1939, 501 in South, in early 20th century, 312 in steel industry, during Depres- sion, 474 of sugar workers, in 1887, 226-227 of textile workers, in early 19th cen- tury, 84 Wagner Act, 40-41, 450, 524, 535 Waiters, 4 Waiters Protective Association of New York, 4 Walker, W. W., 700 Wallace, George C., 644-645, 706 Walsh, Richard F, 568 Washington, Booker T., 25-27, 245, 254, 282, 701-702 Atlantic Monthly article on Negro and labor unions, 285-301 on industrial education, 277-279 Washington, George M., 477 Washington Bricklayers' Union, 287 Watson, John, 638, 640, 647 "Conditions Facing Black and Third World Workers," 624- 632 Wears, I. C., 177 Wears, Isiah, 160 Weaver, George L. P., 567 Weaver, Robert, 703 Weber, Brian F., 51, 672-676, 678 Webster, Milton P., 37, 46, 561-565 Wells, Ida B., 700 description of Knights of Labor meeting in Memphis, 219-220 on Progressive Farmers and House- hold Union of America, 345- 349 Wesley, John, 282, 702 Whack, Donna M., 613-614 Whack, Virgie Lee, 614-615 White, P. J., Jr., open letter to Wil- liam Green (A. F. L.), 419- 420 White, Walter, 46 White Citizens Councils, 546, 551- 552 . White Panthers, 648 Whites, hostilities to blacks over job competition, 29-30, 335-344 White supremacy, 632-633 Whitfield, Owen H., 46, 499-500 Whittaker, S. J., on blacks in railroad work, 256-258 Wicker, Tom, "A Kind of 'Toler- ance'," 674-675 Wiley, George A., 611 Wilkins, Roy, 583, 610 Will, George F., "Court Oversteps Bounds," 676-677 Williams, Aubrey exchange with Herbert Little, on sharecroppers, 501-503 report on sharecroppers, for FDR (1939), 501-507 Williams, Eugene, 338-339 Williams, John, 292 Williams, Katherine, 476 Williams, Lewis, 203 Williams, Lum, 360-361 Williams, Mary Louise, "The Negro Working Woman," 389-391 Williams, Sol, 232 Williams, W. T. B., on black exodus from South, 304-323 Willis, A. W., 587 Wilmore, Jacques, 590-591 Wilmot, David, 697 Wilmot Proviso, 697 Wilson, Charles E., 679 Wilson, H. M., 200 Wilson, Henry, 176-177, 697 Wilson, James, 294 Wilson, James Falconer, 281-282, 701-702 Wilson, William Julius, "The Truly Disadvantaged," 680-681 Wirtz, W. Willard, 542 Woman's suffrage, 698 Woman Wage-Earners' Association, 350-351 Women, 185-187, 225, 435, 622 black first collective action of, in 1866, 142 in Great Depression, 35-36, 389- 391 as laborers, in early 20th century, 355-356 occupational status of, in De- pression, 465-469 in labor movement, 679 local union of, in stockyards, 301- 302 as union leaders, 476 as wage earnersin early 20th cen- tury, 350-351 in war industries, 512-524 recognition of, 522-524 in South, 510-511 Wood, Wire and Metal Lathers' Union, 289, 290 Woods, Louis, 195 Wooten, Chuck, 643, 646, 648 Workingmen's Amalgamated Coun- cil, 21 Workmen's Circle, 539 World War I postwar period, black worker in, 34-36 race relations and organized labor during, 31-32 World War II blacks' employment in war indus- tries, 44-46, 512-524, 528 blacks' service in, A. Philip Ran- dolph on, 527-530 CIO statement on war effort, 446- 452 employment of blacks in war indus- tries, 507-513 foreseen, in The Communist, 437- 438 postwar decade, black workers dur- ing, 47-50 Wren, Clarence, 197 Wright, Eva A., 356 Wurf, Jerry, 593, 598-599 Wycliff, Don, "Why the Underclass Is Still Under," 680-681 Y Young, Andrew, 57 Young, Whitney, 611 Young workers, 435 Z Zimmerman, Charles S., 459, 539 Zukerman, Jacob T., 539

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