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Report of the Mission

When the Sinai-Jerusalem Expeditions of 1949-50 completed their work of recording on microfilm the complete contents of 2,717 manuscripts,1 there remained only one known center whose rich manuscript collections had not been thoroughly investigated and made available to the world of scholars. The twenty ruling monasteries of Mount Athos in Macedonia house a manuscript collection of staggering proportions, estimated to number about 11,000 books which represent the vast learning of the ages of Athens and Byzantium. The work reported in this Checklist is the result of a photographing program which extended over a period of six months in 1952 and 1953 and brought back the largest single collection of photographs ever taken at Athos. With the use of an electrically operated microfilm camera lent by the Library of Congress, there were copied the texts of 209 Greek and Georgian manuscripts of the Bible, ranging in age from the sixth to the fifteenth century, and selected portions of 44 others containing documents of the apocryphal New Testament, writings of John of Damascus and Theophylact of Bulgaria, and various books of Byzantine music and letters. In July, 1952, notification was received that I had been awarded a United States Educational Exchange Grant for research in Greece. My project had been defined as a photographic mission to Mt. Athos in the interests of the International Greek New Testament Project.2 A conference with Verner W. Clapp, then Chief Assistant Librarian of the Library of Congress, and with Donald C. Holmes, Chief of the Library's Photoduplication Service, disclosed their keen interest in the possibility of an expedition to Athos similar to the Sinai program. They pledged their assistance to this pilot mission and promised to make available a portable microfilm camera with a supply of film once the necessary permissions to carry on such work at Athos could be secured. Although many scholars from Europe and America have visited the Athonite libraries during the last 75 years, only K. Lake, who traveled among them in 1899, attempted any extensive copying of New Testament tests.3 For his iconographic studies, K. Weitzmann of Princeton University, has systematically photographed many of the miniatures found in these biblical manuscripts.4 Furthermore, a German expedition of 1942 enabled F. Dolger and his associates to record on film the great collection of monastic charters, property deeds and chrysobuls which completed a task initiated as early as 1857 when Russian scholar, P. I. Sevastianov, did the first photographing of manuscripts at Athos.5 Father M. Richard of the Parisian Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes, added some 9,915 frames of selected manuscripts to the Institute's collection as a result of his visit in 1951.6 He has made subsequent trips in 1953 and again in 1955. Even though preparations were made with great haste, it was nearly two months after arrival in Salonika before the first trip to the Holy Mountain was made.


Athos monastery of Simonopetra

Athos Monastery of Simonopetra
From the Arnold Genthe Collection
Prints and Photographs Division
Reproduction Number: LC-G4085- 0258

Guide to Manuscripts in the Monasteries of Mt. Athos

Table of Contents

Viewing or Ordering Copies of Manuscripts
Foreward to the 1957 edition
Manuscript Reproductions available at LC
      Monastery of Dionysios
      Monastery of Iviron
      Monastery of The Lavra
      Monastery of Pantokrator            [Pant]
      Monastery of Stravroniketa           [Stavr.]
      Monastery of Vatopedi                 [Vat.]
      Monastery of Iviron
      Anatolia College, Salonika
Other Collections

The list of those who expedited the plans is a lengthy one, but special acknowledgment is gratefully recorded here of several to whom I am especially indebted.

John Nuveen, former Chief of the United States ECA mission to Greece introduced me to several American officials in Greece who made their resources available; in particular, Russell P. Drake and Archie Johnston of the Mutual Security Agency. Albert Miller, Chief of the U. S. Information Service in Salonika, not only offered the use of equipment, but, as a professional photographer, advised me on technical problems encountered. In Athens, I had the pleasure of meeting Professors N. Louvaris and H. Alivisatos who generously prepared letters of introduction to the Metropolitan of Salonika and to the Holy Synod of Athos. Our cultural attache, W. E. Weld, Jr., assisted me in obtaining the necessary permission from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Early in November I was granted an audience with His Holiness, the Ecu- menical Patriarch Athanagoras in Istanbul. The gracious hospitality and keen interest with which he received the plans for a photographic mission confirmed the testimony of other friends that this supreme leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church is a devoted friend of America and one who is both aware of the religious treasures his church holds as trustee and desirous that they be shared with all Christendom. The learned Metropolitan of Thessaloniki, Panteleimon, and Dr. S. Pelekanides, curator of Byzantine antiquities in Macedonia, greatly encouraged me by their interest and offered assurances that the Athonite communities would cooperate with our research program.
     While I awaited the arrival of the photographic equipment by air service from the United States, I searched Salonika for certain New Testament manuscripts known to have been located there. The abbot of Moni Vlatadon, the sole monastery remaining in the city, informed me that their 9 New Testament manuscripts had been transferred to Moni Iviron on Athos for safekeeping during World War II and remained there still. The New Testament manuscripts which were formerly housed in the First Greek Gymnasium are now domiciled at the National Library in Athens, including some 247 (and 7 fragments) of the 691 manuscripts taken by the Bulgarians during World War I from the monasteries at Serres and Drama.7 In the library of Anatolia College in Salonika I came upon a mutilated Armenian manuscript of the Four Gospels which was later photographed for this collection.
     December 11 was Departure Day. A truck from the American Mission transported all our supplies including the Recordak camera and two portable electric plants, one loaned by the Greek Army and the other by the United States Information Service, across the peninsula of Chalcidice to the little fishing village of Ierrisos. My com- panion was John E. Keshishoglou, a photoreporter for a daily newspaper in Salonika, who had agreed to join me in this expedition as photog-rapher and general assistant. A four-hour trip by fishing boat the following morning brought us to the ancient monastery of Vatopedi, a seacoast monastery located about the midpoint of the eastern side of the peninsula, where we were to carry on our work for the next month and a half. Traveling on immediately by mule to Karyes, capital of the little republic, we presented our credentials the following morning to the holy Epistasia, or executive committee, and received in return the official diamonitirion which gave us access to the libraries and treasuries of the Athonite monasteries. We were commended to the hospitality of the twenty Holy and Venerable Monasteries of Athos that we might accomplish our "holy purpose to study and photograph codices, manuscripts and holy treasures." The famous seal was affixed, a quarter of which is held in the possession of each member of the Epistasia, and the date stamped November 30, 1952, according to the old Julian calendar which is still followed in all but one of the monasteries of Athos. Here in Karyes we met the Honorable Constantine Constantopoulos, his Majesty's repsentative at Athos, a sensitive and learned person who is devoted to the purpose of acquainting the present communities with the rich tradition of the Byzantine civilization which they have inherited. He is no less concerned about encouraging the interest of scholars in Athos as a center of Byzantine studies.


     Throughout our stay at the tenth-century monastery of Vatopedi we were granted every courtesy and privilege. The library, which is located in an ancient tower, as is customary among these monasteries, provides excellent storage facilities for its well-bound and carefully kept books. Because of the winter's chill, a specially heated room was made available to us by the kindly epitropoi, and Fathers Porphyrios and Gennadios, the librarians, supervised and en- couraged our task. Here in this idiorhythmic monastery of about fifty men the day began at five o'clock with the singing of the Liturgy, following which we were permitted to enter the Library to select our books for the day's work. So obliging was our aged supervisor that he often remained with us during the mid-afternoon vesper service so that we might continue our work without pause. With our microfilming at Vatopedi virtually completed, distressing news arrived from Washington on January 20 that an improper camera adjustment had resulted in copies slightly out of focus and hence not compatible with the exacting standards microfilm copy must meet. Of the 56 manuscripts photographed, 33 had to be retaken, although this was only a small fraction of the total of about 1,686 handwritten books in this monastery's possession.
     The need for a thorough survey of the many scattered skitai and kellia of Athos was confirmed by visits to two which are related to Vatopedi. At the Skete of Hagios Demetrios we found 35 manuscripts and a handwritten catalog. At the tiny Roumanian kellion of St. Hypatios, where we were royally received, half a dozen Roumanian manuscripts were brought out for our admiration. It is impossible here to describe the extensive Byzantine remains in the forms of inscriptions, mosaic, frescoes, relics, chrysobuls, icons, enamels, and reliefs which are to be found wherever the traveler goes. Elsewhere we have given some account of these treasures which constitute Athos a veritable Byzantine museum.8
     We arrived at our second monastery, Iviron, on February 17, at the beginning of the 50-day fast until Pascha. Here we were welcomed by a French-speaking monk, Father Athanasios, who serves as the monastery's official host to all foreign visitors and librarian of the splendid collection of Greek and Georgian manuscripts. On the following day we were able to select and photograph the four Georgian manuscripts requested by Canon Briere for his critical edition of the Gospel of Luke in the Georgian version. Thanks to Father Athanasios, considerable freedom was accorded us in daily working schedules; thus, we were able to work from 8:30 in the morning until 8 or 9 o'clock in the evening. Physical descriptions of each manuscript were recorded, foliations checked and corrected, and colophons transcribed before the manuscript was passed from the editor's table to the camera lens. At night, test strips were developed and examined carefully by flickering kerosene or candle light. At intervals of 3 to 4 weeks the exposed film was carried back to Salonika from whence it was flown by diplomatic air pouch service to Athens and on to Washington for processing. During our 11-day stay at Iviron, 34 Greek manuscripts out of the total of 1,386 reported by Lambros were photographed. Permission was denied to copy MS. 1, a 10th century lectionary, and MS. 23 could not be located. The Greek manuscripts here have been completely recataloged, but by the use of the concordance which the librarian had prepared, one can readily identify the manuscripts desired. The library is located above the narthex of the church in a small but well-lighted, dry room.
     The small monastery of Pantokrator received us on March 27 for a 3-day visit. With great effort our heavy equipment was carried up the long winding staircase that led to the library on the second floor of the tower. The manuscripts were in considerable disarray, but Father Eugenios, the librarian, informed us that renovations begun on the library had been temporarily halted when it was learned that the government intended to provide steel cases and shelves for the books. We were privileged to study and photograph a beautiful copy of the New Testament kept in the treas-ury of the church, known as the Gospels of John Kalyvitas. Beautifully written in a very small hand, the book contains New Testament writings, a Psalter, selections from the Fathers, novellae, and a profusion of tiny paintings of biblical personages and fathers of the church. In all, 10 manuscripts of the 234 were photographed; a shortage of fuel for the motor prevented the copying of one other which was on our work program.


     The monastery of Stavroniketa is the smallest community on the Mountain. In response to our shouted greetings, when we arrived on March 30, the ailing epitropos and librarian, Father Euthymios, finally appeared. A younger monk, Father Chrysostom, the only young man in the community of 13 men, was detailed to help us carry the equipment up the steep slope from the beach, for the monastery's only lay assistant was away at Karves with his mule. The room to which we were directed looked down upon the rocky cliffs several hundred feet below lashed by a snarling March sea. Our uneasiness was not put to rest when we learned from our genial young host that the foundations had been seriously weakened by an earthquake and necessary repairs would require an expenditure of several billions of drachmas! During our stay of 4 days, a visit was made to the Skete of Hagios Andreas just outside the village of Karyes. We stood in mute admiration before the magnificent paintings, executed in Moscow, of the great katholikon, now closed except for occasional use because the community which once numbered 2,000 men has diminished to a pathetic 20. A few years may bring to a sad end the long Russian tradition at Athos; indeed, barring a miraculous improvement in international relations, the foreign monasteries of Athos will soon become extinct.9
     The library at Stavroniketa is unfortunately located in a dark and damp room on the courtyard level and the mildewed books were sadly disarranged. Lambros listed 169 manuscripts owned by this monastery; we photographed 7. MS. Stav. 43 deserves note among examples of the finest medieval book illustration and miniature paintings. The portraits of the Evangelists and the church Fathers together with the familiar Eusebian canon tables are of magnificent design and execution and are remarkably well preserved.
     On Good Friday, April 3, we said farewell to our friends at Stavroniketa and loaded our baggage aboard a caique which was transporting some university students to the Lavra for the Easter festival. Remembering the captain's word, "You have to make a contact with God to go to the Lavra," we counted ourselves fortunate to have suffered only 2 days' delay because of rough seas. At the Lavra we joined a small company of Greek and British visitors who had come to observe these holy days according to the centuries-old liturgies of the Eastern Churches. The Lavra is the oldest of the Athonite communities, founded in 963 A. D. by St. Athanasios who left a laura or community on Mt. Kyminas in Bithynia to establish this new community at the southern tip of the Athonite peninsula under the patronage of his boyhood friend, the Emperor Nicephoras Phocas II (963-9). It boasts a splendid library, the center room of the three-room, all-stone building containing the magnificent manuscript collection. Father Panteleimon, a gentle and learned man, showed us every kindness during our lengthy stay of 28 days. Amidst the glad cries of Christos anesti ek nekron, which ushered in the begin- ning of a new church year, we commenced our task following a new daily schedule from 6:30 to 10:30 in the morning and from 2:30 to 6:30 in the afternoon. Our special mentor into whose custody we were assigned, Father Gregorios, proved to be a very amiable person and an entertaining conversationalist. A valuable week's time was lost because of a delay in a shipment of film which we sorely needed; however, the chief obstacles to our work were encountered in the form of transportation delays and mechanical breakdowns of our electric plant.
     The wonders of the Lavra treasury and library beggar description. It was a rare privilege to be permitted to photograph the magnificent gilt silver covers of the famous Lectionary of Nice-phoras Phocas II, although, to our regret, the contents could not be microfilmed. Of the many lectionaries assembled here, eight were chosen to be photographed because of the uncial script in which they were written. Codex Laurensis (044) and Codex S (049), two eighth-century uncials, were found lacking any protective covers and shelved indiscriminately with the rest. Though they have been previously photographed, it was decided to copy them again. In all, our Lavra enterprise was remarkably successful, resulting in the complete copying of 79 manuscripts out of the xtotal collection of 2,148 volumes, and selected portions of 26 others requested by European and American scholars engaged in special research projects.
     A day's journey to the Skete of Kousokalyvia made possible the photographing of a dated manuscript of the Acts, Epistles and Apocalypse (Greg. 2431), but we searched in vain for MS. 2 (Greg. 2424) a fragment of four leaves of Hebrews reported to date from the 10th century.
     Sailing around the southern tip of the peninsula, we arrived at the monastery of Dionysios on the afternoon of May 13. This was our first experience in a monastery of the cenobitic pattern, although we had made an overnight visit to Gregorios in December. There was some confusion in the work schedule for several days while guests and hosts tried to adjust to the other's system of reckoning time, for in the cenobitic communities, the old Byzantine horology continues to by employed. Father Gabriel, the abbot, was keenly interested in our work and extended to us many courtesies. An English-speaking monk, Father Hilarion, entertained us with a cup of "American coffee" in the little cell he has named his "Queen Mary cabin." Under the watchful eye of witty Father Euthymios, the librarian, our photographing began.
     In addition to some 200 incunabula, this rich collection includes 798 manuscripts. Lambros lists 586, and a Supplement published by E. Kourilas continues the collection from Nos. 587-762. However, the manuscripts have been en- tirely renumbered by the librarian and the concordance he has prepared is correlated only with the Lambros catalog. A beautifully written manuscript catalog of Father Euthymios describes additional manuscripts unmentioned by Lambros of Kourilas. A check of the supplementary catalogs revealed at least 5 additional biblical items beyond those appearing in Lambros or Gregory.10
     Uncial materials photographed at Dionysios included 8 folios of a ninth century copy of the Gospel of John (Greg. 050); 13 other leaves are located in Athens, Moscow, and Oxford. The eighth century Four Gospels Ms. 55 (Greg. 045) was rephotographed and two uncial lectionaries of the same period, Ms. 90 (Greg. L 627) and Ms. 86 (Greg. L 640). Through the kindness of the abbot, Father Gabriel, we were permitted to photograph in color the introduction and con- clusion of the magnificent chrysobul of Alexius III, dated in 1374 and authorizing the establishment of the monastery, a document that Professor G. Millet had once begged unsuccessfully to examine.
     A final few days were spent at Vatopedi where our work had begun six months earlier. Our mission came to a close on the 23rd of May when we sailed for the last time from Vatopedi to Ierissos. Extensive photographing had been carried on in six of the principal monasteries. A total of 209 manuscripts had been microfilmed in entirety; 44 others in selected portions. Everywhere we were received with cordiality and extended many courtesies which facilitated our laborious tasks. In each monastery the holy fathers had offered their customary hospitality to their visitors, and had expressed their deep concern for the preservation and wider usefulness of the precious parchments they hold in custody. With another traveler, we could heartily say, "C'est l'accueil si fraternel que nous avons reçudans tous les monastères que nous avons visités * * * Nulle part, il ne nous a été rien demandé pour nos frais de séjour * * * nous avons vu beaucoup de saintete au Mont-Athos, et ce n'est pas la le moindre benefice de notre voyage." 11 We acknowledge our sincere gratitude to these men for their generousity in sharing these treasures of the Christian past with all who earnestly devote themselves to a reverent study of the Word of God. No less today than in former years, the communities of Athos thereby continue to make a special contribution to biblical scholarship.

Selecting and Editing the Manuscripts

     The chief purpose of this six months mission at Mount Athos was to microfilm approximately 350 New Testament manuscripts in these libraries which were representative of Von Soden's subdi- visions of the Koine recension, the readings of which might ultimately by incorporated into the new apparatus criticus now being compiled by the International Greek New Testament Project. C. R. Gregory's catalog, based on the visits he made to Athos in 1886, 1902, and 1906, provided invaluable help. In addition, the catalogs of S. P. Lambros and S. Eustratiades were available in the monasteries visited, although they are frequently inaccurate and certainly incomplete. At the Lavra permission was granted to photo- graph the great manuscript catalog of Father Chrysostom employed by Eustratiades. Furthermore, we microfilmed the Library's copy of the Eustratiades catalog containing numerous corrections by the present librarian, Father Panteleimon. Two manuscript catalogs of Father Panteleimon were microfilmed, one describing an additional 27 manuscripts in the library; the other listing a supplementary 36 manuscripts to the printed list of 79 liturgical texts which are kept in the katholikon or Great Church. At Dionysios we were permitted to see but not to photograph Father Euthymios' supplement to the catalog of Lambros. We were told that Father Alexandros of Vatopedi is preparing a catalog of the texts at the Skete of Hagios Dionysios and others scattered about in various kellia and kalyvia.
     Our program of work was only partially fulfilled. But, in addition to the principal portion of the desiderata on our original list, we were able to meet the requests for special materials received from nine scholars and institutions in America and Europe. It will be seen from the Checklist that these included liturgical, patristic, and musical writings. Three dated manuscripts containing the full text of the New Testament were photographed: Vatop. 966 (1289 A. D. replete with miniatures); Lav. A.99 (1317 A. D.); and Omega 141 (1328 A. D.). The oldest dated Greek manuscript copied was Four Gospels (Vatop. 949) bearing the name of the scribe Ephraim and the date 949 A. D. C. R. Gregory, who saw the manuscript on a visit in 1902, believed that the colophon was added by a later hand but admitted, "Das Jahr passte ganz gut," 12 but a Georgian manuscript of the Gospels at Iviron (83) bears the date 913 A. D. Five uncial straight-text manuscripts were microfilmed, a Four Gospels (Dion. 55); Gospel of John (Dion. 2); Apocalypse (Pant. 44); Praxapostolos (Lav. A.88); and a New Testament lacking the Apocalypse (Lav. B.52). In addition, thirteen lectionaries written in uncial letters were included. Ms. Vatop. 1219 contains a rich assortment of stray leaves from continuous text and lectionary manuscripts ranging from the eighth to the eleventh centuries, a number of the pieces in uncial script. Some identifications of these fugitive pieces have already been made.
     Every effort was made to secure the most important biblical texts. This involved not only a careful study of the published catalogs, but also a patient combing of the shelves to confirm and supplement the catalog descriptions. Careful notations were made of the binding and the general conditions of each manuscript chosen to be copied. Folios were checked and errors noted where corrections in the original manuscript were impossible. New measurements were taken and all original colophons were copied directly from the manuscript itself since they are often badly faded and the film copy is difficult to read. In the list that follows, local library numbers appear together with the accepted numeration universally employed for New Testament texts. The total number of folios is given and any errors in the foliation of the manuscript are noted. In many instances selections from the church fathers appearing in an accompanying commentary to the text are identified. Since the measurements were very carefully taken and an average compiled, it was decided to supply this information as a check upon, and correction to other published descriptions. Scribes and dates are identified. Technical difficulties were legion for the microfilming operation: thin vellum revealing the writing from the opposite side; tight bindings preventing flat openings; badly water-stained parchment and worm-eaten paper; diminutive books written in a microscopic hand. Withal, however, the scholar is presented with a copy of his manuscript which is the most accurate facsimile science can offer.
     The preparation of this Checklist has involved many months of editing the processed film and of checking the compiling data. The author welcomes any inquiries for information beyond the descriptions given here. Corrections and supple- mentary information are earnestly solicited. It is our fervent hope that this pioneer project represents truly a pilot mission, a preliminary phase in a large-scale operation which will establish a microfilm record of the chief contents of these monastic libraries to meet the immediate research needs of international scholarship and to provide an imperishable resource for future labors. It is worthy of note here that many of the Athonite leaders urged strongly that steps be taken in this fashion to ensure the survival and the availability of their manuscript treasures. It is a sad commen- tary on our present civilization that in their frantic struggle for survival men may permit the slow deterioration or sudden destruction of that legacy from an earlier time which gives continuance to the past and meaning to the present.


     As this Checklist neared completion, I consid- ered the possibility of extending its usefulness by recording, in addition to these films in the Library of Congress collection, the facsimiles of Athonite manuscripts included in other library collections. With the aid of the Library of Congress, permis- sion was secured to reproduce the lists of Harvard
College Library, the Institut de Recherche et d'His- toire des Textes in Paris, and the Deutsche Akademie in Berlin. I am deeply grateful to Robert H. Haynes, Assistant Librarian of the Harvard College Library, to my good friend Pere Marcel Richard of Paris, and to Professor Kurt Aland of Berlin for their willingness to place their library catalogs at my disposal and to permit the inclusion of their Athos photographs and films in this Check- list.
     Throughout the period of work at Athos and the subsequent completion of this Checklist, Professor Merrill M. Parvis, director of the International Greek New Testament Project, has given en- couragement and assistance. Professor G. Ernest Wright graciously granted consent to the use of some of the material I published in the Biblical Archaeologist. I am deeply grateful to Verner W. Clapp, former Chief Assistant Librarian, and to Donald C. Holmes, Chief of the Photoduplication Service of the Library of Congress, who supplied the necessary photographic equipment and who of-fered valuable counsel on many technical problems. Charles G. LaHood and his staff have expended every effort to develop the excellent form in which the Checklist appears. Whatever deficiency re- mains must be attributed to the writer alone. Had it not been for the leave of absence and material assistance extended through Dr. Horace G. Smith, former president of Garrett Biblical Institute, this program could never have been begun. Mrs. Seth P. Bower prepared a large section of the type-script and helped bring order out of a chaos of notes. But most of all, I am indebted to my wife not simply for her help in the typing and proofreading of this manuscript, but for keeping her lonely vigil with the children in Salonika during those six long months when I stepped backward in time into the Middle Ages seclusion of Athos, "Jerusalem of Orthodoxy." ERNEST W. SAUNDERS, Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, Illinois.



1See K. W. Clark, "Exploring the Manuscripts of Sinai and Jerusalem"'The Biblical Archaeologist, XVI (May, 1953), 22-43. A full account of the results may be found in his Checklist of Manuscripts in St. Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai (Wasington: Library of Congress, 1952), and in the Checklist of Manuscripts in the Libraries of the Greek and Armenian Patriarchates in Jerusalem (Washington: Library of Congress, 1953). The expeditions were jointly sponsored by the American Foundation for the Study of Man, the Library of Congress, and the American Schools of Oriental Research.

2M. M. Parvis, "The International Project to Establish a New Critical Apparatus of the Greek New Testament," Crozer Quarterly, XXVII (Oct., 1950), 301-308.

3K. Lake, "Texts from Mt. Athos" in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, V, pt. 2 (1902), 88-185, and the Journal of Theological Studies, I (1900), 290-292.

4K. Wietzmann, Die byzantinische Buchmalerei des 9. und 10. Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1935).-, "The Narrative and Liturgical Gospel Illustration," in M. M. Parvis and A. P. Wikgren, New Testament Manuscript Studies, (Chicago, 1950.)

5F. Dolger, Aus den Schatzkammern des Heiligen Berges (Munchen: F. Bruckmann Verlag, 1948), 2 vols.

6M. Richard, "Rapport sur une Mission d'Etudes en Grece, 1951," in Bulletin d'lnformation de l'lnstitut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes, I (1952) 48-80.

7Cf. M. Richard, Repertoire de Ribliotheques et des Catalogue de Manuacrits Grecs (Paris, Centre de Documentation de Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1948), 43, 98. A revised edition will soon appear.

8See the writer's article, "Operation Microfilm at Mt. Athos" in the Biblical Archaeologist, XVIII (May, 1955), 22-41. Cf. F. Dolger, Monchsland Athos (Munchen, 1945).

9There were about 450 non-Greek monks on Athos in 1953 and the number declines steadily by death. There have been no additions to the Russian communities since the Bolshevik revolution. No Roumanians have been per- mitted to enter since 1927 and despite the improvement of relationships between Greece and Yugoslavia, no novices had entered the community of Chiliandari up to 1953.

10Kourilas: 3 Four Gospels; 2 Evangelia. Euthymios: 2 Four Gospels; 3 Evangelia, one dated 1201 A. D.

11M. Richard, Rapport., p. 70.

12C. R. Gregory, Textkritik des Neuen Testaments (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs' Buchhandlung, 1900-09), III, p. 1160.

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