Protecting youth at work : health, safety, and development of working children and adolescents in the United States / Committee on the Health and Safety Implications of Child Labor, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council, Institute of Medicine.

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PREFACE																	ix

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY									1

1   INTRODUCTION									17
	Historical Context, 								20
	Why U.S. Children and Adolescents Work,			25
	International Context, 							26
	This Study and Report,							 28

2	SCOPE AND PATTERNS OF WORK BY
	CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS						31
	Data on Work, 					32
	Intensity of Work, 							39
	Where Young People Work,						46
	Work-Related Issues for Special Populations,	 		49
	Conclusions, 								52

3	HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK					53
	Nonfatal Work-Related Injuries,					56
	Fatal Injuries, 								77
	Exposures to Potential Health Hazards, 				83
     Do Children and Adolescents Have Unique Risks at Work?, 		85
     Sources of Surveillance Data,							97
     Conclusions,										108

4	WORK'S EFFECTS ON CHILDREN AND
	ADOLESCENTS										110
	Adolescent Development and the Role of Work, 					110
	The Nature of Work by Young People, 					112
	Consequences of Working, 						113
	Minority and Disadvantaged Youth, 				134
	Conclusions, 								138

5	AGRICULTURE									141
	Unique Features of Agriculture,					146
	In'uries to Children and Adolescents in Agriculture, 				152
	Hazards Faced by Children in Agriculture, 					153
	Regulation of Agriculture, 								157
	Barriers to Regulation of Agriculture, 						159
	Conclusions,										160

6	LAWS, REGULATIONS, AND TRAINING						162
	Laws and Regulations Pertaining to Child Labor,					163
	Workers' Compensation, 								177
	Enforcement of Child Labor Laws and Regulations,			 	180
	Training and Other' Efforts to Educate Young Workers, 			184
	Conclusions, 									         191

7	CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS						212
	Surveillance Systems, 									214
	Data, 											217
	Education, 										220
	Protective Measures, 								225
	Other Research, 									235


REFERENCES										237

APPENDICES

A Sources of Information							267
B Descriptions of Longitudinal Studies					269

Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff		291

Index										299

Other Reports from the Board on Children, Youth,
and Families									317