Building executive information systems and other decision support applications / Hugh J. Watson, George Houdeshel, Rex Kelly Rainer, Jr.

Watson, Hugh J.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog
Counter
Chapter I An Introduction to EIS	1
	An EIS Defined	3
	A Typical EIS Screen	4
	The Emergence of EIS	6
	The Application Versus the Technology	8
	Why EIS?	8
	MIS, DSS and EIS: Deja Vu	10
	What An EIS Is Not	12
	Three Perspectives on EIS	13
	The EIS Acronym	13
	Current Trends	14
	Another Perspective: When Will EIS Deliver?	14
	Questions	18
	References	18

Chapter 2 An EIS Development Framework	19
	The Structural Perspective	21
	Pressures to Develop the EIS	21
	The Executive Sponsor	22
	The Operating Sponsor	22
	The EIS Staff	23
	Functional Area Personnel	23
	Data	24
	EIS Software and Vendors	25
	Consultants	26
	The Development Process	26
	The Proposal	27
	The Prototype	28
	The Initial Version	28
	Iterative and Evolutionary Development	28
	EIS Evolution	28
	EIS Spread	28
	The Dialog	29
	The Action Language	29
	The Presentation Language	30
	The Knowledge Base	31
	What EIS Professionals Worry About	31
	Another Perspective: Software at the Hands of Executives	32
	Questions	35
	References	38

	Chapter 3 Understanding Executives, Their Work, and Information Needs	39
	Who Are Executives?	40
	Personal Characteristics of Executives	41
	What Executives Do	42
	The Nature of Executive Work	42
	Executive Tasks	43
	Executive Roles	44
	Executive Decision Making	47
	Executive Information: What They Need Is Not Always What They 
Get	47 	Types of Executive Information	49
	Sources of Executive Information	50
	Executives' Mental Models	51
	EIS and Executive Work	52
	Another Perspective: User Expectations-The Ceo's Perspective	53
	Questions	58
	References	58

	Chapter 4 Gaining Executive Commitment	60
	The Executive Sponsor	61
	Cultivating an Executive Sponsor	62
	The Executive Sponsor's Role	62
	Expanding the Executive Base of Support	63
	The Operating Sponsor	63
	Required Skills	63
	The Operating Sponsor's Role	65
	Winning Over the Tough Ones	65
	Touting the Benefits	68
	Retaining Executive Commitment	70
	Questions	70
	References	71

	Chapter 5 Assembling the EIS Staff	73
	Special Considerations for Staff Selection	75
	EIS Staff Roles and Tasks: Development Phase	75
	EIS Manager	77
		Information Analyst		78
		Technical Specialist		79
		Data Suppliers		80
		External Assistance		83
		The EIS Staff Structure		84
		Influences on Structure		84
		Administrative or Management Oriented		87
		IS Oriented		87
		Transition From the Development Phase to the	Maintenance Phase	87
		Maintenance Considerations		87
		EIS Staff Responsibilities		88
		EIS Staff Roles and Tasks: Maintenance Phase		88
		EIS Manager		89
		Information Analyst		90
		Technical Specialist		91
		Data Suppliers		91
		External Assistance		92
		A Study of EIS Staffs		92
		Structure Alternatives		93
		Physical Location		93
		EIS Staff Size		94
		Contact Time		95
		Support Staff Rewards and Hazards		96
		Exposure		96
		Understanding Information Usage		96
		Developing Trust		97
		Career Paths		98
		Questions		103
		References		103
	
		Chapter 6 Determining the Need		104
		A Study of EIS Need		106
		Initial Objectives		107
		Identifying Objectives		107
		Expanding the Objectives		110
		Demands of the Initial Version		110
		Selecting the Objectives		110
		Refining the Objectives
		Developmental Impacts
		Operational Experience		112
		Influences on Operational Objectives		112
	New Organizational Goals		112
		Personnel Changes		113
		Technology		113
		System Efficiency and Effectiveness		113
		Constantly Changing Objectives		114

	Managing the Objectives	114
	Questions	116
	References	116

	Chapter 7 Determining the Information Requirements	117
	The Phases of Development	119
	The Prototype	119
	The Initial Version	119
	The Ongoing Version	120
	The People Involved	120
	A Portfolio of Methods	121
	Discussions with Executives	125
	EIS Planning Meetings	126
	Examinations of Computer-Generated Information	127
	Discussions,,vith Support Personnel	127
	Volunteered Information	127
	Examinations of Other Organizations'EIS	128
	Examinations of Non-Computer Generated Information	128
	Critical Success Factor Sessions	128
	Participation in Strategic Planning Sessions	130
	91
	Strategic Business Objectives Method	130
	Attendance at Meetings	134
	Examination of the Strategic Plan	135
	Tracking Executive Activity	135
	Software Tracking of EIS Usage	136
	Formal Change Requests	136
	Why the Methods Are or Are Not Useful	136
	Another Perspective: Wayne Burkan on the Executive Interview Questions	137
	Questions	140
	References	140

	Chapter 8 Determining EIS Hardware and Software Requirements	142
	Hardware Issues	144
	The Client	144
	The Server	146
	Software Issues	147
	The EIS Product Spectrum	147
	Factors that Influence EIS Software Selection	150
	Evaluation Process	153
	The Western Mining Corporation Experience,	154
	Questions	158
	References	159

	Chapter 9 Structuring the Information	160
	Basic Structures	161
	Planning	161

	Organizational Structure
		161
	Functional Structure
		162
	Modular Structure
		162
	Structural Combinations		163
	Final Considerations		164
	The Influence of System Objectives on Structure		164
	Save Users' Time		164
	More Accurate Information		166
	More Timely Information		168
	System Navigation		170
	Subject Menus		170
	Sequencing		172
	Systems Menu		173
	Other Considerations		174
	Users		174
	Data Suppliers		175
	Cultures		176
	Individual Preferences		176
	Questions		178
	References		178

Chapter 10 Designing EIS Screens		179
	Put Someone in Charge		180
	The Uniqueness of EIS Screens		180
	Two Categories of EIS Screens		181
	Types of Information Screens		183
	Text		183
	Tables		183
	Graphs		184
	Combinations		185
	Determining a Screen's Purpose		185
	Considerations in Screen Design		186
	Executive Users		186
	Executive Preferences		187
	Alternative Designs		187
	Culture		188
	Executive Feedback		188
	Executive-Designed Screens		189
	System's Features/Constraints		189
	Screen Space Limitations		190
	Design Tips		190
	System Standards		192
	Layout Standards		192
	Specific Content Standards		193-
	Additional Considerations		194
	Hard Copy Output		194
	Large Screen Projection	194
	Expanded Use of EIS	195
	New Users	195
	Summary	195
	Questions	196
	References	196

	Chapter 1 1 Managing the Data	197
	The Data Management Challenge	198
	Who Is Responsible	198
	Determining the Data Requirements	199
	Data Development	199
	Sharpening the Focus	199
	Understanding the Source	200
	Data Integration	201
	Links to Other Applications	202
	Data Management Issues	202
	Integrity	202
	Ownership and Sharing 206
	Security	207
	Storage	208
	Data Warehouses	208
	The Need for Data Warehouses	209
	The Benefits of Data Warehouses	209
	Building a Data Warehouse	209
	An Example of EIS Data	212
	Another Perspective: The "Back-End Wars" and other Developments	213
	Questions	216
	References	216

	Chapter 12 Including Soft Information	217
	What is Soft Information	219
	A Study of Soft Information
	Types of Soft Information, How They are Entered,
	and How They are Presented	222
	The Exclusion of Soft Information	224
	Most Popular Soft Information Applications	224
	Important Decisions Affected by Soft Information	224
	Soft Information and the Value of EIS	225
	Future Plans for Including Soft Information	225
	Propositions About Soft Information	225
	Proposition 1: The nature of executive work requires
	the use of soft information	226
	Proposition 2: The culture of a firm affects the inclusion
	of soft information in the company's EIS	226
	Proposition 3: Executives may be unwilling to share soft
	information in an EIS		226
	Proposition 4: Soft information in an EIS increase executives'
	awareness of critical issues		227
	Proposition 5: Including soft information in the EIS enhances
	the corporate grapevine		227
	Proposition 6-. The inclusion of soft information varies with
	the industry		227
	Proposition 7: Soft information about competitors
	is highly valued		228
	Proposition 8: Some soft information may be excluded
	intentionally from the EIS		228
	Proposition 9: The value of soft information depends
	on its timeliness		229
	Proposition 10: Increasing the quantity and variety
	of soft information in an EIS increases the support
	staff requirements		229
	Proposition  11: The variety and quantity of soft information
	increases the value of an EIS		229
	Proposition 12: Organizations increase the variety and quantity
	of soft information over time	229
	Proposition 13: Identifying the source enhances the value
	of the soft information in an EIS	230
	Proposition 14: The delivery of soft information by the EIS
	depends on the technology employed	230
	Proposition 15: Rumors, gossip, and hearsay are the least likely
	of soft information to be included in an executive information
	system; predictions, forecasts, and estimates are the most likely	230
	Technology for Handling Soft Information	231
	Another Perspective: A Bunch of Softies	231
	Questions	234
	References	234

Chapter 13 Overcoming Political Resistance	235
	Causes of Resistance	237
	Why Change?	237
	Technology Phobia	237
	Fear of Exposure	238
	Loss of Control	238
	Sources of Resistance	239
	User	239
	Middle Managers	239
	Data Suppliers	240
	IS Organization	241
	EIS Staff	241
	Resistance Management	242
        Anticipate, Understand, and Prevent	242
	Overcoming Resistance	243
	Selling the System	246
	Questions	246
	References	247

	Chapter 14 Managing EIS Spread and Evolution	248
	The Theory of Innovation Diffusion	250
	Determinants of EIS Spread	251
	The Study	251
	Management Determinants	252
	Information Systems Infrastructure Determinants	253
	Resource Determinants	253
	Organizational Determinants	254
	Information Determinants	254
	EIS Technology Determinants	255
	Design and Implementation Determinants	256
	User-Oriented Determinants	256
	EIS Staff Determinants	257
	Vision Determinants	257
	External Determinants	257
	Prior Success Determinants	258
	Other Determinants	258
	EIS Evolution	258
	Evolution of EIS from Custom-Built to Vendor-Supplied	258
	Evolution of EIS Inside the Organization	259
	Evolution of Information in the EIS	260
	Questions	260
	References	261

	Chapter 15 Including Decision Support Systems	262
	A DSS Defined	263
	An Alternative View	265
	Three Levels of DSS Technology	265
	Specific DSS	265
	DSS Generator	265
	DSS Tools	266
	Relationships Among DSS Levels	266
	Organizational Roles	267
	The Developmental Process	268
	Institutional and Ad Hoc DSS	268
	Components of a DSS	269
	The Dialog	269
	The Data	272
	The Models	274
	Online Analytical Processing	275
	OLAP Defined		276
	Data Warehouses and Multidimensional Databases		277
	End-User Tools		280
	Business Objects: A Decision Support Tools		281
	DSS in EIS		282
	Four Approaches to Including DSS		282
	Questions		285
	References		285

        Chapter 16 Including Artificial Intelligence.		286
	Artificial Intelligence: The Early Years		287
The Family of Al Applications		288
	Robotics		288
	Vision Systems		289
	Natural Language Processing		289
Expert Systems		290
	Expert System Applications		291
	Selecting an Application		292
	Vv'ho Builds the Expert System		295
	Building the System		295
	An Expert System For Processing Overdrafts		299
	Expert System Success and Failure		303
	Other Methods		304
	Expert Systems in EIS		304
Software Agents		305
	Software Agents in EIS		307
Poor Man's Artificial Intelligence		312
Questions		313
References		314

Chapter 17 Integrating Groupware		316
What is Groupware		317
TheTime/Place Matrix		318
Group Support Systems		319
	A Typical GSS Meeting		322
	Gaining Access to a GSS		324
	What Has Been Learned		324
GSS in EIS		328
	Integrating GSS into EIS		328
	Designing an EIS		329
	Maintaining an EIS		330
Lotus Notes		330
	What Notes Can Do		332
	Types of Applications		333
How Companies Use Notes for EIS		334
	How Notes for EIS Began		334
	How Notes Is Used	334
	EIS Capabilities	335
	Benefits	338
	Limitations	339
	The Future of Notes for EIS	339
	Questions	340
	References	341

	Chapter 18 Assessing the Benefits	342
	The Costs and Benefits of an EIS	343
	What Benefits Companies Expect and Realize	345
	Benefit/Cost Analysis	347
	Assessing the Value of Conoco's EIS	349
	About Concoco and Its EIS	349
	Events Leading to the Evaluation of Conoco's EIS	350
	Evaluation of Conoco's EIS	350
	Lessons Learned	361
	Another Perspective: Vision and Knowledge at Quaker Oats	363
	Questions	366
	References	366

	Chapter 19 The Keys to EIS Success	368
	Anecdotal Wisdom about the Keys to EIS Success	369
	Additional Insights into the Keys to EIS Success	370
	Phase One: The Interviews	370
	Phase Two: The Survey	371
	Keys to Successful Development of the Initial Version	371
	Executive Involvement Keys	374
	Executive/EIS Staff Relationship Keys	376
	EIS Staff Keys	377
	Keys to Successfully Maintaining the Ongoing System	379
	Information Quality Keys	383
	Impact on Executive Work Keys	383
	EIS Function Keys	384
	Ease of Use Keys	385
	Information Delivery Keys	385
	A Concluding Perspective	387
	Questions	387
	References	388

	Chapter 20 Public Sector EIS	389
	Private vs. Public Systems	391
	Systems Cost and Risk	391
	Data	392
	Decision Making	392
	EIS-State of the Art	392
	EIS Issues		393
	Level of Detail		393
	Analytical Capacity		394
	Ease of Use		395
	Data Problems		395
	The OGS System		396
	The Case Environment		396
	System Development		397
	The Data Cube		398
	Working with the System		402
	Analytical Features		402
	Expansion to Planning Activities		403
	Conclusion		404
	Questions		405
	References		405

		Chapter 21 Future Directions for EIS		406
		Assumptions 407
	Executives More Comfortable with Technology		407
	Increased Responsibilities for Executives		407
	More Diverse Information Requirements		408
		increased Urgency for Executive Decisions		408
	Future Directions		409
	Universal Application		409
	Technology Advances		409
		Executive Intelligence Systems		415
		Future Challenges		417
		Executive Education		417
		Data Security		417
		Data Analysis Revisited		417
	The Human Factor		418
		Questions		419
		References		419
	
	Appendix A Birth of an EIS At the World Bank		420
	Background on the World Bank		420
	The Motivation for Building an EIS		421
	The Initial Exploration		421
	The EIS Team		422
	Preliminary Work		423
	The Proposal		424
		Software Solution		425
		The EIS Project Staff		427
		The System's Architecture		427
		The System's Content and Functionality		428
		Interface Design		431
	Testing the System	431
	Implementing the System	431
	Putting the System into Operation	432
	System Evolution	432
	Epilogue 433

	Appendix B MPS Executive Information System Framework	434

	Appendix C Management and Personnel Services Executive
	Information System Project Proposal	437
	Table of Contents	438
	Executive Summary	439
	The Initial Investigation	439
	The Findings	439
	System Overview	439
	Resources and Estimated Costs for Implementation	440
	System Evolution	440
	introduction	440
	Business Purpose	440
	The Potential of an EIS	441
	Anticipated Benefits	441
	System Overview	444
	5. 1. Users	444
	5.2. Interface	444
	5.3. Capabilities	447
	Information Requirements Summary	447
	6.1. President's Concerns	448
	6.2. MPS and Departmental Objectives	448
	6.3. Major Projects	448
	6.4 Targeted Services	448
	6.5. Board Schedule and Other Deliverable.5	449
	6.6. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)	449
	6.7. Budget Information	449
	6.8. Bank Information	450
	6.9. Personnel Profile	450
	6. 1 0. HQ Construction	450
	6. 1 1. Management Succession	450
	6.12. Management Issues	450
	6.13. MPS Calendar	451
	6.14. Organization Chart	451
	Resource Requirements and Costs	451
	7. 1. Hardware	451
	7.2. Software	451
	7.3. Personnel	451
	7.4. Cost Summary	452
	Timetable for Development	453

System Evolution		454
9. 1. Users		454
9.2. Information Contents		454
9.3. Capabilities		454
9.4. Resource Requirements		455
9.5. System Success		455

Appendix D MPS EIS Software Selection		456
Introduction		456
Software Selection		456
What We are Expecting		457
Data Sources		457
Navigation		457
Annex 1: MPS EIS Prototype Specifications		457
Annex 2: EIS Evaluation, Criteria and Features		460
Annex 3: Memorandum		462

Name Index		463
Organization Index		467
Subject Index		469