Wright, Daniel B.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalogAcknowledgements viii 1 Statistics in Social Science Research 1 Conducting Scientific Research 2 Levels of Measurement 3 Sampling 7 Measures of Central Tendency: the Three Ms 11 Constants, Variables and Equations 16 Experimental and Non-experimental Research 20 Summary 23 Assignment 26 Further Reading 27 2 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing 29 Measures of Dispersion 29 The Normal Distribution and z Scores 33 The Standard Error of the Mean 35 Testing Hypotheses: What to Do with p 38 Summary 41 Assignment 44 Further Reading 47 3 Comparing the Means of Paired Data 49 Student's Paired t Test 49 Example: Political Attitudes 50 Another Example: a Very Satisfying Day 53 Confidence Intervals of the Mean 55 Assumptions of the t Test 57 Computer Example 58 Alternatives When the Variable is Not Normally Distributed 59 Distribution-free Techniques 61 Transforming the Variable 63 Summary 64 Assignment 64 4 Comparing the Means of Two Groups 68 The Group t Test: Formal Definitions 68 Two Examples 69 Comparing Group Standard Deviations 70 An Equation Form of the Group t Test 73 Assumptions of the Group t Test 74 Power Analysis 77 Comparing the Paired and Group t Tests 82 Summary 83 Assignment 84 Further Reading 87 5 Introducing Regression and Correlation 88 Scatterplots 88 Regression 90 Partitioning Sums of Squares 94 Example: Pollution and House Prices 95 Interpreting Regressions: the Overall Fit 98 Significance Testing 101 Assumptions for Significance 104 Examining Residuals 106 Alternatives When Assumptions Are Not Satisfied 109 Summary 112 Assignment 112 6 Comparing Many Means: the Analysis of Variance Approach 116 Between-subjects Comparisons 116 Graphing Means 116 The Oneway Between-subjects ANOVA 118 ANOVA as an Equation 119 Partitioning the Sums of Squares in an ANOVA 121 Another Example: Study Habits 125 Planned and Unplanned Comparisons 126 Assumptions and Alternatives for a Between-subjects ANOVA 131 Repeated Measures or the Within-subject ANOVA 133 Graphing Within-subject Means 135 Calculations for Within-subject ANOVA 137 Computer Output and Syntax 139 Assumptions for the Repeated Measures ANOVA 141 Summary 142 Assignment 142 Further Reading 145 7 Comparing Proportions 146 Single Variables 146 Confidence Intervals 146 Hypothesis Testing 147 Using a Computer 151 Two-variable Problems 153 Another Example: What Is Science? 156 Collapsing 159 x2 : the Equation Approach 162 Graphing Techniques (Optional) 166 Summary 169 Assignment 169 172 8 Advanced Techniques Multiple Regression 173 Collinearity and the Partial Correlation 173 Predicting Crime from Several Variables 174 Low Temperatures and the Dropout Rate 180 ANCOVA 184 Multivariable ANOVA 188 Factorial Between-subjects Designs 190 Within-subject ANOVA 192 Mixed Between-subjects and Within-subject Designs 193 Summary of ANOVA 195 Analysing Categorical Variables 196 Loglinear Modelling with Three Variables 196 Logistic Regression 199 Graphing Three Variables 201 Overall Summary 203 Assignment 203 Further Reading 204 Answers to Selected Exercises 205 References 208 Appendix A The US States Data Set 211 Appendix B The Normal (z) Distribution 213 Appendix C Student's t Distribution 216 Appendix D The F Distribution 218 Appendix E The X2 Distribution 220 Index 223