Understanding statistics : an introduction for the social sciences / Daniel B. Wright.

Wright, Daniel B.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog
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	Acknowledgements	viii

	1	Statistics in Social Science Research	1
	Conducting Scientific Research	2
	Levels of Measurement	3
	Sampling	7
	Measures of Central Tendency: the Three Ms	11
	Constants, Variables and Equations	16
	Experimental and Non-experimental Research	20
	Summary	23
	Assignment	26
	Further Reading	27

	2	Introduction to Hypothesis Testing	29
	Measures of Dispersion	29
	The Normal Distribution and z Scores	33
	The Standard Error of the Mean	35
	Testing Hypotheses: What to Do with p	38
	Summary	41
	Assignment	44
	Further Reading	47

	3	Comparing the Means of Paired Data	49
	Student's Paired t Test	49
	Example: Political Attitudes	50
	Another Example: a Very Satisfying Day	53
	Confidence Intervals of the Mean	55
	Assumptions of the t Test	57
	Computer Example	58
	Alternatives When the Variable is Not Normally Distributed	59
	Distribution-free Techniques	61
	Transforming the Variable	63
	Summary	64
	Assignment	64

	4	Comparing the Means of Two Groups	68
	The Group t Test: Formal Definitions	68
	Two Examples	69
	Comparing Group Standard Deviations	70
	An Equation Form of the Group t Test	73
	Assumptions of the Group t Test	74
	Power Analysis	77

	Comparing the Paired and Group t Tests	82
	Summary	83
	Assignment	84
	Further Reading	87

       5	Introducing Regression and Correlation	88
	Scatterplots	88
	Regression	90
	Partitioning Sums of Squares	94
	Example: Pollution and House Prices	95
	Interpreting Regressions: the Overall Fit	98
	Significance Testing	101
	Assumptions for Significance	104
	Examining Residuals	106
	Alternatives When Assumptions Are Not Satisfied	109
	Summary	112
	Assignment	112

6	Comparing  Many Means: the Analysis of Variance Approach	116
	Between-subjects Comparisons	116
	Graphing Means	116
	The Oneway Between-subjects ANOVA	118
	ANOVA as an Equation	119
	Partitioning the Sums of Squares in an ANOVA	121
	Another Example: Study Habits	125
	Planned and Unplanned Comparisons	126
	Assumptions and Alternatives for a Between-subjects ANOVA	131
	Repeated Measures or the Within-subject ANOVA	133
	Graphing Within-subject Means	135
	Calculations for Within-subject ANOVA	137
	Computer Output and Syntax	139
	Assumptions for the Repeated Measures ANOVA	141
	Summary	142
	Assignment	142
	Further Reading	145

7	Comparing Proportions	146
	Single Variables	146
	Confidence Intervals	146
	Hypothesis Testing	147
	Using a Computer	151
	Two-variable Problems	153
	Another Example: What Is Science?	156
	Collapsing	159
	 x2  : the Equation Approach	162
	Graphing Techniques (Optional)	166

	Summary	169
	Assignment	169

		172
8 Advanced Techniques
	Multiple Regression	173
	Collinearity and the Partial Correlation	173
	Predicting Crime from Several Variables	174
	Low Temperatures and the Dropout Rate	180
	ANCOVA	184
	Multivariable ANOVA	188
	Factorial Between-subjects Designs	190
	Within-subject ANOVA	192
	Mixed Between-subjects and Within-subject Designs	193
	Summary of ANOVA	195
	Analysing Categorical Variables	196
	Loglinear Modelling with Three Variables	196
	Logistic Regression	199
	Graphing Three Variables	201
	Overall Summary	203
	Assignment	203
	Further Reading	204

	Answers to Selected Exercises	205
	References	208
	Appendix A The US States Data Set	211
	Appendix B The Normal (z) Distribution	213
	Appendix C Student's t Distribution	216
	Appendix D The F Distribution	218
	Appendix E The X2 Distribution	220

	Index	223