Table of contents for Solar energy at urban scale / edited by Benoit Beckers.


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Introduction xiii
The Authors xvi
Chapter 1. The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space: Half a Century of Satellites for Earth Observations 1 Theo PIRARD
1.1. To improve the weather forecasts 2
1.2. Technological challenges to spy and to map from orbit 3
1.3. Toward global environmental observers in space 6
1.4. The digital revolution of the ICTs for GIS applications 9
1.5. Suggested reading 12
Chapter 2. Territorial and Urban Measurements 13 Marius PAULESCU and Viorel BADESCU
2.1. Solar radiation at the Earth's surface 13
2.2. Instrumentation 17
2.3. Radiation measurements in urban environment 29
2.4. Conclusions 33
2.5. Acknowledgments 33
2.6. Bibliography 33
Chapter 3. Sky Luminance Models 37 Matej KOBAV and Grega BIZJAK
3.1. CIE standard overcast sky (1955) 39
3.2. CIE standard clear sky (1996) 39
3.3. CIE standard general sky 40
3.4. All-weather model for sky luminance distribution - Perez 45
3.5. ASRC-CIE model 48
3.6. Igawa all-sky model 49
3.7. Absolute luminance 52
3.8. Visualization 54
3.9. Conclusion 54
3.10. Bibliography 55
Chapter 4. Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar Radiation Estimation 57 Bella ESPINAR and Philippe BLANC
4.1. The solar resource 57
4.2. Ground measurements of the solar resource 60
4.3. Satellite images for SSI estimation 64
4.4. Two different approaches for satellite-based SSI estimation 68
4.5. Accuracy of satellite-based SSI estimations 74
4.6. Use of satellite observations for high-resolution solar radiation estimation78
4.7. Bibliography 92
Chapter 5. Worldwide Aspects of Solar Radiation Impact 99 Benoit BECKERS
5.1. Global energy budget at the Earth level 99
5.2. The distribution of solar radiation on the Earth's surface 102
5.3. The Sun at different latitudes 107
5.4. The solar diagrams 108
5.5. Climate and housing 111
5.6. Solar energy at urban scale 113
5.7. Conclusions and perspectives 115
5.8. Bibliography 117
Chapter 6. Local Energy Balance 119 Pierre KASTENDEUCH
6.1. Introduction 119
6.2. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model 120
6.3. Physiographic data and boundary conditions 121
6.4. Solar radiation transfers 123
6.5. Infrared radiation transfers 129
6.6. Other heat fluxes 131
6.7. Conclusions 134
6.8. Bibliography 135
Chapter 7. Evapotranspiration 139 Marjorie MUSY
7.1. Physical bases 140
7.2. Related interest of different types of evapotranspirating surfaces 142
7.3. From microscale to city scale: the modeling approaches 149
7.4. Conclusions154
7.5. Bibliography 154
Chapter 8. Multiscale Daylight Modeling for Urban Environments 159 John MARDALJEVIC and George M. JANES
8.1. Introduction 159
8.2. Background160
8.3. Visualizing the urban solar microclimate 167
8.4. The ASL building: a solar access study 173
8.5. Daylighting the New York Times building 180
8.6. Summary 187
8.7. Acknowledgments 187
8.8. Bibliography 187
Chapter 9. Geometrical Models of the City 191 Daniel G. ALIAGA
9.1. Introduction 191
9.2. Forward procedural modeling 194
9.3. Inverse procedural modeling 196
9.4. Simulation-based modeling 199
9.5. Example systems 200
9.6. Bibliography 200
Chapter 10. Radiative Simulation Methods 205 Pierre BECKERS and Benoit BECKERS
10.1. Introduction 205
10.2. Geometry 206
10.3. Loading 218
10.4. Computation model 223
10.5. Transient thermal coupled problem 232
10.6. Conclusion 234
10.7. Bibliography 234
Chapter 11. Radiation Modeling Using the Finite Element Method 237 Tom van EEKELEN
11.1. Basic assumptions 237
11.2. Visibility and view factors 239
11.3. Thermal balance equations 245
11.4. Finite element formulation 250
11.5. Example problems 254
11.6. Bibliography 257
Chapter 12. Dense Cities in the Tropical Zone 259 Edward NG
12.1. Introduction 259
12.2. Access to the sky 261
12.3. Designing for daylight 266
12.4. Designing for solar access 272
12.5. Designing with solar renewable energy 281
12.6. Conclusion 287
12.7. Bibliography 288
Chapter 13. Dense Cities in Temperate Climates: Solar and Daylight Rights 291 Guedi CAPELUTO
13.1. Introduction 291
13.2. Solar rights in urban design 292
13.3. Solar envelopes as a design tool 293
13.4. Solar envelopes as a tool for urban development 295
13.5. Regulations and applications 297
13.6. Methods of application 299
13.7. A simple design tool 300
13.8. Modeling the building shape for self-shading using the solar collection envelope 302
13.9. Daylight rights 306
13.10. Daylight access 306
13.11. Conclusions 308
13.12. Bibliography 309
Chapter 14. Solar Potential and Solar Impact 311 Frederic MONETTE and Benoit BECKERS
14.1. Methodological considerations 312
14.2. Definition of the residential area 312
14.3. Estimation of irradiance and solar gains 319
14.4. Estimation of energy needs for heating 321
14.5. Results analysis 322
14.6. Perspectives and conclusions 331
14.7. Acknowledgments 332
14.8. Bibliography 332
Conclusion 335 Benoit BECKERS
APPENDICES 339
Appendix 1. Table of Europe's Platforms (Micro- and Minisatellites) for Earth Observations 341 Theo PIRARD
Appendix 2. Commercial Operators of Earth Observation (EO) Satellites (as of January 1, 2012) 347 Theo PIRARD
Appendix 3. Earth's Annual Global Mean Energy Budget 355 Benoit BECKERS
List of Authors 357
Index 361


Library of Congress subject headings for this publication:
Solar energy.
Urban climatology.
Environmental engineering.
City planning.