Table of contents for Vehicle safety communications : protocols, security, and privacy / Luca Delgrossi, Tao Zhang.


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Foreword xv Ralf G. Herrtwich
Foreword xvii Flavio Bonomi
Foreword xix Adam Drobot
Preface xxi
Acknowledgments xxv
1 Traffic Safety 1
1.1 Traffic Safety Facts / 1
1.1.1 Fatalities / 2
1.1.2 Leading Causes of Crashes / 3
1.1.3 Current Trends / 5
1.2 European Union / 5
1.3 Japan / 7
1.4 Developing Countries / 7
References / 8
2 Automotive Safety Evolution 10
2.1 Passive Safety / 10
2.1.1 Safety Cage and the Birth of Passive Safety / 10
2.1.2 Seat Belts / 11
2.1.3 Air Bags / 11
2.2 Active Safety / 12
2.2.1 Antilock Braking System / 12
2.2.2 Electronic Stability Control / 13
2.2.3 Brake Assist / 13
2.3 Advanced Driver Assistance Systems / 14
2.3.1 Adaptive Cruise Control / 15
2.3.2 Blind Spot Assist / 16
2.3.3 Attention Assist / 16
2.3.4 Precrash Systems / 16
2.4 Cooperative Safety / 17
References / 18
3 Vehicle Architectures 20
3.1 Electronic Control Units / 20
3.2 Vehicle Sensors / 21
3.2.1 Radars / 21
3.2.2 Cameras / 21
3.3 Onboard Communication Networks / 22
3.3.1 Controller Area Network / 23
3.3.2 Local Interconnect Network / 23
3.3.3 FlexRay / 24
3.3.4 Media Oriented Systems Transport / 24
3.3.5 Onboard Diagnostics / 24
3.4 Vehicle Data / 25
3.5 Vehicle Data Security / 26
3.6 Vehicle Positioning / 27
3.6.1 Global Positioning System / 27
3.6.2 Galileo / 29
3.6.3 Global Navigation Satellite System / 29
3.6.4 Positioning Accuracy / 30
References / 30
4 Connected Vehicles 32
4.1 Connected Vehicle Applications / 32
4.1.1 Hard Safety Applications / 32
4.1.2 Soft Safety Applications / 33
4.1.3 Mobility and Convenience Applications / 33
4.2 Uniqueness in Consumer Vehicle Networks / 34
4.3 Vehicle Communication Modes / 36
4.3.1 Vehicle-to-Vehicle Local Broadcast / 36
4.3.2 V2V Multihop Message Dissemination / 37
4.3.3 Infrastructure-to-Vehicle Local Broadcast / 38
4.3.4 Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Bidirectional Communications / 39
4.4 Wireless Communications Technology for Vehicles / 39
References / 42
5 Dedicated Short-Range Communications 44
5.1 The 5.9 GHz Spectrum / 44
5.1.1 DSRC Frequency Band Usage / 45
5.1.2 DSRC Channels / 45
5.1.3 DSRC Operations / 46
5.2 DSRC in the European Union / 46
5.3 DSRC in Japan / 47
5.4 DSRC Standards / 48
5.4.1 Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments / 48
5.4.2 Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments Protocol Stack / 48
5.4.3 International Harmonization / 50
References / 50
6 WAVE Physical Layer 52
6.1 Physical Layer Operations / 52
6.1.1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing / 52
6.1.2 Modulation and Coding Rates / 53
6.1.3 Frame Reception / 54
6.2 PHY Amendments / 55
6.2.1 Channel Width / 56
6.2.2 Spectrum Masks / 56
6.2.3 Improved Receiver Performance / 57
6.3 PHY Layer Modeling / 57
6.3.1 Network Simulator Architecture / 58
6.3.2 RF Model / 59
6.3.3 Wireless PHY / 61
References / 62
7 WAVE Media Access Control Layer 64
7.1 Media Access Control Layer Operations / 64
7.1.1 Carrier Sensing Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance / 64
7.1.2 Hidden Terminal Effects / 65
7.1.3 Basic Service Set / 66
7.2 MAC Layer Amendments / 66
7.3 MAC Layer Modeling / 67
7.3.1 Transmission / 68
7.3.2 Reception / 68
7.3.3 Channel State Manager / 68
7.3.4 Back-Off Manager / 69
7.3.5 Transmission Coordination / 70
7.3.6 Reception Coordination / 71
7.4 Overhauled ns-2 Implementation / 72
References / 74
8 DSRC Data Rates 75
8.1 Introduction / 75
8.2 Communication Density / 76
8.2.1 Simulation Study / 77
8.2.2 Broadcast Reception Rates / 78
8.2.3 Channel Access Delay / 81
8.2.4 Frames Reception Failures / 83
8.3 Optimal Data Rate / 85
8.3.1 Modulation and Coding Rates / 85
8.3.2 Simulation Study / 86
8.3.3 Simulation Matrix / 87
8.3.4 Simulation Results / 88
References / 91
9 WAVE Upper Layers 93
9.1 Introduction / 93
9.2 DSRC Multichannel Operations / 94
9.2.1 Time Synchronization / 94
9.2.2 Synchronization Intervals / 95
9.2.3 Guard Intervals / 96
9.2.4 Channel Switching / 96
9.2.5 Channel Switching State Machine / 96
9.3 Protocol Evaluation / 97
9.3.1 Simulation Study / 98
9.3.2 Simulation Scenarios / 99
9.3.3 Simulation Results / 99
9.3.4 Protocol Enhancements / 102
9.4 WAVE Short Message Protocol / 103
References / 104
10 Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications 106
10.1 Intersection Crashes / 106
10.2 Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System for Violations / 107
10.2.1 CICAS-V Design / 107
10.2.2 CICAS-V Development / 110
10.2.3 CICAS-V Testing / 116
10.3 Integrated Safety Demonstration / 118
10.3.1 Demonstration Concept / 118
10.3.2 Hardware Components / 120
10.3.3 Demo Design / 121
References / 124
11 Vehicle-to-Vehicle Safety Applications 126
11.1 Cooperation among Vehicles / 126
11.2 V2V Safety Applications / 127
11.3 V2V Safety Applications Design / 128
11.3.1 Basic Safety Messages / 129
11.3.2 Minimum Performance Requirements / 129
11.3.3 Target Classifi cation / 131
11.3.4 Vehicle Representation / 132
11.3.5 Sample Applications / 133
11.4 System Implementation / 135
11.4.1 Onboard Unit Hardware Components / 135
11.4.2 OBU Software Architecture / 135
11.4.3 Driver-Vehicle Interface / 137
11.5 System Testing / 138
11.5.1 Communications Coverage and Antenna Considerations / 138
11.5.2 Positioning / 139
References / 140
12 DSRC Scalability 141
12.1 Introduction / 141
12.2 DSRC Data Traffi c / 142
12.2.1 DSRC Safety Messages / 142
12.2.2 Transmission Parameters / 143
12.2.3 Channel Load Assessment / 144
12.3 Congestion Control Algorithms / 145
12.3.1 Desired Properties / 145
12.3.2 Transmission Power Adjustment / 146
12.3.3 Message Rate Adjustment / 147
12.3.4 Simulation Study / 148
12.4 Conclusions / 148
References / 149
13 Security and Privacy Threats and Requirements 151
13.1 Introduction / 151
13.2 Adversaries / 151
13.3 Security Threats / 152
13.3.1 Send False Safety Messages Using Valid Security Credentials / 152
13.3.2 Falsely Accuse Innocent Vehicles / 153
13.3.3 Impersonate Vehicles or Other Network Entities / 153
13.3.4 Denial-of-Service Attacks Specific to Consumer Vehicle Networks / 154
13.3.5 Compromise OBU Software or Firmware / 155
13.4 Privacy Threats / 155
13.4.1 Privacy in a Vehicle Network / 155
13.4.2 Privacy Threats in Consumer Vehicle Networks / 156
13.4.3 How Driver Privacy can be Breached Today / 158
13.5 Basic Security Capabilities / 159
13.5.1 Authentication / 159
13.5.2 Misbehavior Detection and Revocation / 160
13.5.3 Data Integrity / 160
13.5.4 Data Confidentiality / 160
13.6 Privacy Protections Capabilities / 161
13.7 Design and Performance Considerations / 161
13.7.1 Scalability / 162
13.7.2 Balancing Competing Requirements / 162
13.7.3 Minimal Side Effects / 163
13.7.4 Quantifi able Levels of Security and Privacy / 163
13.7.5 Adaptability / 163
13.7.6 Security and Privacy Protection for V2V Broadcast / 163
13.7.7 Security and Privacy Protection for Communications with Security Servers / 164
References / 165
14 Cryptographic Mechanisms 167
14.1 Introduction / 167
14.2 Categories of Cryptographic Mechanisms / 167
14.2.1 Cryptographic Hash Functions / 168
14.2.2 Symmetric Key Algorithms / 169
14.2.3 Public Key (Asymmetric Key) Algorithms / 170
14.3 Digital Signature Algorithms / 172
14.3.1 The RSA Algorithm / 172
14.3.2 The DSA Algorithm / 178
14.3.3 The ECDSA Algorithm / 184
14.3.4 ECDSA for Vehicle Safety Communications / 194
14.4 Message Authentication and Message Integrity Verifi cation / 196
14.4.1 Authentication and Integrity Verifi cation Using Hash Functions / 197
14.4.2 Authentication and Integrity Verifi cation Using Digital Signatures / 198
14.5 Diffi e-Hellman Key Establishment Protocol / 200
14.5.1 The Original Diffie-Hellman Key Establishment Protocol / 200
14.5.2 Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Key Establishment Protocol / 201
14.6 Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) / 202
14.6.1 The Basic Idea / 202
14.6.2 Scheme Setup / 202
14.6.3 Encrypt a Message / 202
14.6.4 Decrypt a Message / 204
14.6.5 Performance / 204
References / 206
15 Public Key Infrastructure for Vehicle Networks 209
15.1 Introduction / 209
15.2 Public Key Certificates / 210
15.3 Message Authentication with Certificates / 211
15.4 Certifi cate Revocation List / 212
15.5 A Baseline Reference Vehicular PKI Model / 213
15.6 Confi gure Initial Security Parameters and Assign Initial Certificates / 215
15.6.1 Vehicles Create Their Private and Public Keys / 216
15.6.2 Certificate Authority Creates Private and Public Keys for Vehicles / 217
15.7 Acquire New Keys and Certifi cates / 217
15.8 Distribute Certifi cates to Vehicles for Signature Verifications / 220
15.9 Detect Misused Certifi cates and Misbehaving Vehicles / 222
15.9.1 Local Misbehavior Detection / 223
15.9.2 Global Misbehavior Detection / 224
15.9.3 Misbehavior Reporting / 224
15.10 Ways for Vehicles to Acquire CRLs / 226
15.11 How Often CRLs should be Distributed to Vehicles? / 228
15.12 PKI Hierarchy / 230
15.12.1 Certifi cate Chaining to Enable Hierarchical CAs / 231
15.12.2 Hierarchical CA Architecture Example / 231
15.13 Privacy-Preserving Vehicular PKI / 233
15.13.1 Quantitative Measurements of Vehicle Anonymity / 234
15.13.2 Quantitative Measurement of Message Unlinkability / 234
References / 235
16 Privacy Protection with Shared Certificates 237
16.1 Shared Certificates / 237
16.2 The Combinatorial Certificate Scheme / 237
16.3 Certificate Revocation Collateral Damage / 239
16.4 Certified Intervals / 242
16.4.1 The Concept of Certified Interval / 242
16.4.2 Certified Interval Produced by the Original Combinatorial Certificate Scheme / 242
16.5 Reduce Collateral Damage and Improve Certified Interval / 244
16.5.1 Reduce Collateral Damage Caused by a Single Misused Certificate / 245
16.5.2 Vehicles Become Statistically Distinguishable When Misusing Multiple Certificates / 248
16.5.3 The Dynamic Reward Algorithm / 250
16.6 Privacy in Low Vehicle Density Areas / 253
16.6.1 The Problem / 253
16.6.2 The Blend-In Algorithm to Improve Privacy / 256
References / 259
17 Privacy Protection with Short-Lived Unique Certificates 260
17.1 Short-Lived Unique Certificates / 260
17.2 The Basic Short-Lived Certificate Scheme / 261
17.3 The Problem of Large CRL / 263
17.4 Anonymously Linked Certificates to Reduce CRL Size / 264
17.4.1 Certificate Tags / 264
17.4.2 CRL Processing by Vehicles / 265
17.4.3 Backward Unlinkability / 267
17.5 Reduce CRL Search Time / 268
17.6 Unlinked Short-Lived Certificates / 269
17.7 Reduce the Volume of Certificate Request and Response Messages / 270
17.8 Determine the Number of Certificates for Each Vehicle / 270
References / 273
18 Privacy Protection with Group Signatures 274
18.1 Group Signatures / 274
18.2 Zero-Knowledge Proof of Knowledge / 275
18.3 The ACJT Group Signature Scheme and its Extensions / 277
18.3.1 The ACJT Group Signature Scheme / 277
18.3.2 The Challenge of Group Membership Revocation / 282
18.3.3 ACJT Extensions to Support Membership Revocation / 283
18.4 The CG Group Signature Scheme with Revocation / 286
18.5 The Short Group Signatures Scheme / 288
18.5.1 The Short Group Signatures Scheme / 288
18.5.2 Membership Revocation / 291
18.6 Group Signature Schemes with Verifier-Local Revocation / 292
References / 293
19 Privacy Protection against Certificate Authorities 295
19.1 Introduction / 295
19.2 Basic Idea / 295
19.3 Baseline Split CA Architecture, Protocol, and Message Processing / 297
19.4 Split CA Architecture for Shared Certifi cates / 301
19.5 Split CA Architecture for Unlinked Short-Lived Certificates / 302
19.5.1 Acquire One Unlinked Certifi cate at a Time / 302
19.5.2 Assign Batches of Unlinked Short-Lived Certifi cates / 304
19.5.3 Revoke Batches of Unlinked Certifi cates / 306
19.5.4 Request for Decryption Keys for Certificate Batches / 307
19.6 Split CA Architecture for Anonymously Linked Short-Lived Certificates / 308
19.6.1 Assign One Anonymously Linked Short-Lived Certificate at a Time / 308
19.6.2 Assign Batches of Anonymously Linked Short-Lived Certificates / 311
19.6.3 Revoke Batches of Anonymously Linked Short-Lived Certificates / 312
19.6.4 Request for Decryption Keys for Certificate Batches / 313
References / 314
20 Comparison of Privacy-Preserving Certificate Management Schemes 315
20.1 Introduction / 315
20.2 Comparison of Main Characteristics / 316
20.3 Misbehavior Detection / 320
20.4 Abilities to Prevent Privacy Abuse by CA and MDS Operators / 321
20.5 Summary / 322
21 IEEE 1609.2 Security Services 323
21.1 Introduction / 323
21.2 The IEEE 1609.2 Standard / 323
21.3 Certificates and Certificate Authority Hierarchy / 325
21.4 Formats for Public Key, Signature, Certificate, and CRL / 327
21.4.1 Public Key Formats / 327
21.4.2 Signature Formats / 328
21.4.3 Certificate Format / 329
21.4.4 CRL Format / 332
21.5 Message Formats and Processing for Generating Encrypted Messages / 333
21.6 Sending Messages / 335
21.7 Request Certifi cates from the CA / 336
21.8 Request and Processing CRL / 343
21.9 What the Current IEEE 1609.2 Standard Does Not Cover / 344
21.9.1 No Support for Anonymous Message Authentication / 344
21.9.2 Separate Vehicle-CA Communication Protocols Are Required / 344
21.9.3 Interactions and Interfaces between CA Entities Not Addressed / 346
References / 346
22 4G for Vehicle Safety Communications 347
22.1 Introduction / 347
22.2 Long-Term Revolution (LTE) / 347
22.3 LTE for Vehicle Safety Communications / 353
22.3.1 Issues to Be Addressed / 353
22.3.2 LTE for V2I Safety Communications / 353
22.3.3 LTE for V2V Safety Communications / 356
22.3.4 LTE Broadcast and Multicast Services / 357
References / 358
Glossary 360
Index 367


Library of Congress subject headings for this publication:
Vehicular ad hoc networks (Computer networks) -- Safety measures.
Automobiles -- Safety appliances.
Automobiles -- Collision avoidance systems.
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General. -- bisacsh