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1 Introduction 1
Learning Objectives 1
1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids 3
1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity, and Units 4
1.2.1 Systems of Units 7
1.3 Analysis of Fluid Behavior 11
1.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight 11
1.4.1 Density 11
1.4.2 Specific Weight 12
1.4.3 Specific Gravity 12
1.5 Ideal Gas Law 12
1.6 Viscosity 14
1.7 Compressibility of Fluids 20
1.7.1 Bulk Modulus 20
1.7.2 Compression and Expansion of Gases 21
1.7.3 Speed of Sound 22
1.8 Vapor Pressure 23
1.9 Surface Tension 24
1.10 A Brief Look Back in History 27
1.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 29
References 30
Review Problems 31
Conceptual Questions 31
Problems 31
2 Fluid Statics 40
Learning Objectives 40
2.1 Pressure at a Point 40
2.2 Basic Equation for Pressure Field 42
2.3 Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest 43
2.3.1 Incompressible Fluid 44
2.3.2 Compressible Fluid 47
2.4 Standard Atmosphere 49
2.5 Measurement of Pressure 50
2.6 Manometry 52
2.6.1 Piezometer Tube 52
2.6.2 U-Tube Manometer 53
2.6.3 Inclined-Tube Manometer 56
2.7 Mechanical and Electronic Pressure-Measuring Devices 57
2.8 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface 59
2.9 Pressure Prism 65
2.10 Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface 68
2.11 Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability 70
2.11.1 Archimedes' Principle 70
2.11.2 Stability 73
2.12 Pressure Variation in a Fluid with Rigid-Body Motion 74
2.12.1 Linear Motion 75
2.12.2 Rigid-Body Rotation 77
2.13 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 79
References 80
Review Problems 80
Conceptual Questions 81
Problems 81
3 Elementary Fluid Dynamics--The Bernoulli Equation 101
Learning Objectives 101
3.1 Newton's Second Law 101
3.2 F ma along a Streamline 104
3.3 F ma Normal to a Streamline 108
3.4 Physical Interpretation 110
3.5 Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure 113
3.6 Examples of Use of the Bernoulli Equation 117
3.6.1 Free Jets 118
3.6.2 Confined Flows 120
3.6.3 Flowrate Measurement 126
3.7 The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line 131
3.8 Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation 134
3.8.1 Compressibility Effects 134
3.8.3 Rotational Effects 138
3.8.4 Other Restrictions 139
3.9 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 139
References 141
Review Problems 141
Conceptual Questions 141
4 Fluid Kinematics 157
Learning Objectives 157
4.1 The Velocity Field 157
4.1.1 Eulerian and Lagrangian Flow Descriptions 160
4.1.2 One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows 161
4.1.4 Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines 162
4.2 The Acceleration Field 166
4.2.1 The Material Derivative 166
4.2.3 Convective Effects 169
4.2.4 Streamline Coordinates 173
4.3 Control Volume and System Representations 175
4.4 The Reynolds Transport Theorem 176
4.4.1 Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem 178
4.4.2 Physical Interpretation 183
4.4.3 Relationship to Material Derivative 183
4.4.6 Moving Control Volumes 186
4.4.7 Selection of a Control Volume 187
4.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 188
References 189
Review Problems 189
Conceptual Questions 189
Problems 190
5 Finite Control Volume Analysis 199
Learning Objectives 199
5.1 Conservation of Mass--The Continuity Equation 200
5.1.1 Derivation of the Continuity Equation 200
5.1.2 Fixed, Nondeforming Control Volume 202
5.1.3 Moving, Nondeforming Control Volume 208
5.1.4 Deforming Control Volume 210
5.2 Newton's Second Law--The Linear Momentum and Moment-of-Momentum Equations 213
5.2.1 Derivation of the Linear Momentum Equation 213
5.2.2 Application of the Linear Momentum Equation 214
5.2.3 Derivation of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 228
5.2.4 Application of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 229
5.3 First Law of Thermodynamics--The Energy Equation 236
5.3.1 Derivation of the Energy Equation 236
5.3.2 Application of the Energy Equation 239
5.3.3 Comparison of the Energy Equation with the Bernoulli Equation 243
5.3.4 Application of the Energy Equation to Nonuniform Flows 249
5.3.5 Combination of the Energy Equation and the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 252
5.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics--Irreversible Flow 253
5.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 253
References 254
Review Problems 255
Conceptual Questions 255
Problems 255
6 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow 276
Learning Objectives 276
6.1 Fluid Element Kinematics 277
6.1.1 Velocity and Acceleration Fields Revisited 278
6.1.2 Linear Motion and Deformation 278
6.1.3 Angular Motion and Deformation 279
6.2 Conservation of Mass 282
6.2.1 Differential Form of Continuity Equation 282
6.2.2 Cylindrical Polar Coordinates 285
6.2.3 The Stream Function 285
6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 288
6.3.1 Description of Forces Acting on the Differential Element 289
6.3.2 Equations of Motion 291
6.4 Inviscid Flow 292
6.4.1 Euler's Equations of Motion 292
6.4.2 The Bernoulli Equation 292
6.4.3 Irrotational Flow 294
6.4.4 The Bernoulli Equation for Irrotational Flow 296
6.4.5 The Velocity Potential 296
6.5 Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows 286
6.5.1 Uniform Flow 300
6.5.2 Source and Sink 301
6.5.3 Vortex 303
6.5.4 Doublet 306
6.6 Superposition of Basic, Plane Potential Flows 308
6.6.1 Source in a Uniform Stream--Half-Body 308
6.6.2 Rankine Ovals 311
6.6.3 Flow around a Circular Cylinder 313
6.7 Other Aspects of Potential Flow Analysis 318
6.8 Viscous Flow 319
6.8.1 Stress-Deformation Relationships 319
6.8.2 The Navier-Stokes Equations 320
6.9 Some Simple Solutions for Viscous, Incompressible Fluids 321
6.9.1 Steady, Laminar Flow between Fixed Parallel Plates 322
6.9.2 Couette Flow 324
6.9.3 Steady, Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes 326
6.9.4 Steady, Axial, Laminar Flow in an Annulus 329
6.10 Other Aspects of Differential Analysis 331
6.10.1 Numerical Methods 331
6.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 332
References 333
Review Problems 334
Conceptual Questions 334
Problems 334
7 Dimensional Analysis, Similitude, and Modeling 346
Learning Objectives 346
7.1 Dimensional Analysis 347
7.2 Buckingham Pi Theorem 349
7.3 Determination of Pi Terms 350
7.4.1 Selection of Variables 355
7.4.2 Determination of Reference Dimensions 356
7.4.3 Uniqueness of Pi Terms 358
7.5 Determination of Pi Terms by Inspection 359
7.6 Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics 360
7.7 Correlation of Experimental Data 364
7.7.1 Problems with One Pi Term 365
7.7.2 Problems with Two or More Pi Terms 366
7.8 Modeling and Similitude 368
7.8.1 Theory of Models 368
7.8.2 Model Scales 372
7.8.3 Practical Aspects of Using Models 372
7.9 Some Typical Model Studies 374
7.9.1 Flow through Closed Conduits 374
7.9.2 Flow around Immersed Bodies 377
7.9.3 Flow with a Free Surface 381
7.10 Similitude Based on Governing Differential Equations 384
7.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 387
References 388
Review Problems 388
Conceptual Questions 389
Problems 389
8 Viscous Flow in Pipes 400
Learning Objectives 400
8.1 General Characteristics of Pipe Flow 401
8.1.1 Laminar or Turbulent Flow 402
8.1.2 Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow 405
8.1.3 Pressure and Shear Stress 406
8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow 407
8.2.1 From F ma Applied Directly to a Fluid Element 407
8.2.2 From the Navier-Stokes Equations 411
8.2.3 From Dimensional Analysis 413
8.2.4 Energy Considerations 414
8.3 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow 416
8.3.1 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 416
8.3.2 Turbulent Shear Stress 418
8.3.3 Turbulent Velocity Profile 422
8.3.4 Turbulence Modeling 426
8.3.5 Chaos and Turbulence 426
8.4 Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow 426
8.4.1 Major Losses 427
8.4.2 Minor Losses 432
8.4.3 Noncircular Conduits 442
8.5 Pipe Flow Examples 445
8.5.1 Single Pipes 445
8.5.2 Multiple Pipe Systems 455
8.6 Pipe Flowrate Measurement 459
8.6.1 Pipe Flowrate Meters 459
8.6.2 Volume Flowmeters 464
8.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 465
References 467
Review Problems 468
Conceptual Questions 468
Problems 468
9 Flow Over Immersed Bodies 480
Learning Objectives 480
9.1 General External Flow Characteristics 481
9.1.1 Lift and Drag Concepts 482
9.1.2 Characteristics of Flow Past an Object 485
9.2 Boundary Layer Characteristics 489
9.2.1 Boundary Layer Structure and Thickness on a Flat Plate 489
9.2.2 Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution 493
9.2.3 Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation for a Flat Plate 497
9.2.4 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 502
9.2.5 Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow 504
9.2.6 Effects of Pressure Gradient 507
9.2.7 Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation with Nonzero Pressure Gradient 511
9.3 Drag 512
9.3.1 Friction Drag 513
9.3.2 Pressure Drag 514
9.3.3 Drag Coefficient Data and Examples 516
9.4 Lift 528
9.4.1 Surface Pressure Distribution 528
9.4.2 Circulation 537
9.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 541
References 542
Review Problems 543
Conceptual Questions 543
Problems 544
10 Open-Channel Flow 554
Learning Objectives 554
10.1 General Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow 555
10.2 Surface Waves 556
10.2.1 Wave Speed 556
10.2.2 Froude Number Effects 559
10.3 Energy Considerations 561
10.3.1 Specific Energy 562
10.3.2 Channel Depth Variations 565
10.4 Uniform Depth Channel Flow 566
10.4.1 Uniform Flow Approximations 566
10.4.2 The Chezy and Manning Equations 567
10.4.3 Uniform Depth Examples 570
10.6 Rapidly Varied Flow 576
10.6.1 The Hydraulic Jump 577
10.6.2 Sharp-Crested Weirs 582
10.6.4 Underflow Gates 587
10.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 589
References 590
Review Problems 591
Conceptual Questions 591
Problems 591
11 Compressible Flow 601
Learning Objectives 601
11.1 Ideal Gas Relationships 602
11.2 Mach Number and Speed of Sound 607
11.3 Categories of Compressible Flow 610
11.4 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 614
11.4.1 Effect of Variations in Flow Cross-Sectional Area 615
11.4.2 Converging-Diverging Duct Flow 617
11.4.3 Constant Area Duct Flow 631
11.5 Nonisentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 631
11.5.1 Adiabatic Constant Area Duct Flow with Friction (Fanno Flow) 631
11.5.2 Frictionless Constant Area Duct Flow with Heat Transfer (Rayleigh Flow) 642
11.5.3 Normal Shock Waves 648
11.6 Analogy between Compressible and Open-Channel Flows 655
11.7 Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow 657
11.8 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 658
References 661
Review Problems 662
Conceptual Questions 662
Problems 662
12 Turbomachines 667
Learning Objectives 667
12.1 Introduction 668
12.2 Basic Energy Considerations 669
12.3 Basic Angular Momentum Considerations 673
12.4 The Centrifugal Pump 675
12.4.1 Theoretical Considerations 676
12.4.2 Pump Performance Characteristics 680
12.4.3 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 682
12.4.4 System Characteristics and Pump Selection 684
12.5 Dimensionless Parameters and Similarity Laws 688
12.5.1 Special Pump Scaling Laws 690
12.5.2 Specific Speed 691
12.5.3 Suction Specific Speed 692
12.6 Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps 693
12.7 Fans 695
12.8 Turbines 695
12.8.1 Impulse Turbines 696
12.8.2 Reaction Turbines 704
12.9 Compressible Flow Turbomachines 707
12.9.1 Compressors 708
12.9.2 Compressible Flow Turbines 711
12.10 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 713
References 715
Review Problems 715
Conceptual Questions 715
Problems 716
A Computational Fluid Dynamics 725
B Physical Properties of Fluids 737
C Properties of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 742
D Compressible Flow Graphs for an Ideal Gas (k 1.4) 744
E Comprehensive Table of Conversion Factors See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.
F CFD Problems and Tutorials See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.
G Review Problems See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.
H Lab Problems See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.
I CFD Driven Cavity Example See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.