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Preface.

Chapter 1: Introduction.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 What Is Feedback, and What Are Its Effects?

1.3 Types of Feedback Control Systems.

1.4 Summary.

Chapter 2: Mathematical Foundation.

2.1 Complex-Variable Concept.

2.2 Frequency-Domain Plots.

2.3 Introduction to Differential Equations.

2.4 Laplace Transform.

2.5 Inverse Laplace Transform by Partial-Fraction Expansion.

2.6 Application of the Laplace Transform to the Solution of Linear Ordinary Differential Equations.

2.7 Impulse Response and Transfer Functions of Linear Systems.

2.8 Stability of Linear Control Systems.

2.9 Bounded-Input, Bounded-Output.

2.10 Relationship between Characteristic Equation Roots and Stability.

2.11 Zero-Input and Asymptotic Stability of Continuous-Data Systems.

2.12 Methods of Determining Stability.

2.13. Routh-Hurwitz Criterion.

2.14 MATLAB Tools and Case Studies.

2.15 Summary.

Chapter 3: Block Diagrams and Signal-Flow Graphs.

3.1 Block Diagrams.

3.2 Signal-Flow Graphs (SFGs).

3.3 MATLAB Tools and Case Studies.

3.4 Summary.

Chapter 4: Theoretical Foundation and Background Material: Modeling of Dynamic Systems.

4.1 Introduction to Modeling of Mechanical Systems.

4.2 Introduction to Modeling of Simple Electrical Systems.

4.3 Modeling of Active Electrical Elements: Operational Amplifiers.

4.4 Introduction of Modeling of Thermal Systems.

4.5 Introduction of Modeling of Fluid Systems.

4.6 Sensors and Encoders in Control Systems.

4.7 DC Motors in Control Systems.

4.8 Systems with Transportation Lags.

4.9 Linearization of Nonlinear Systems.

4.10 Analogies.

4.11 Case Studies.

4.12 MATLAB Tools.

4.13 Summary.

Chapter 5: Time-Domain Analysis of Control Systems.

5.1 Time Response of Continuous-Data Systems: Introduction.

5.2 Typical Test Signals for the Time Response of Control Systems.

5.3 The Unit-Step Response and Time-Domain Specification.

5.4 Steady-State Error.

5.5 Time Response of a Prototype First-Order System.

5.6 Transient Response of a Prototype Second-Order System.

5.7 Speed and Position Control of a DC Moto.

5.8 Time-Domain Analysis of a Position-Control System.

5.9 Basic Control Systems and Effects of Adding Poles and Zeros to Transfer Functions.

5.10 Dominant Poles and Zeros of Transfer Functions.

5.11 Basic Control Systems Utilizing Addition of Poles and Zeros.

5.12. MATLAB Tools.

5.13 Summary.

Chapter 6: The Control Lab.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Description of the Virtual Experimental System.

6.3 Description of SIMLab and Virtual Lab Software.

6.4 Simulation and Virtual Experiments.

6.5 Design Project 1—Robotic Arm.

6.6 Design Project 2—Quarter-Car Model.

6.7 Summary.

Chapter 7: Root Locus Analysis.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Basic Properties of the Root Loci (RL).

7.3 Properties of the Root Loci.

7.4 Design Aspects of the Root Loci.

7.5 Root Contours (RC): Multiple-Parameter Variation.

7.6 MATLAB Tools and Case Studies.

7.7 Summary.

Chapter 8: Frequency-Domain Analysis.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Mr, wr, and Bandwidth of the Prototype Second-Order System.

8.3 Effects of adding a Zero to the Forward-Path Transfer Function.

8.4 Effects of adding a Pole to the Forward-Path Transfer Function.

8.5 Nyquist Stability Criterion: Fundamentals.

8.6 Nyquist Criterion for Systems with Minimum-Phase Transfer Functions.

8.7 Relation between the Root Loci and the Nyquist Plot.

8.8 Illustrative Examples: Nyquist Criterion for Minimum-Phase Transfer.

8.9 Effects of Adding Poles and Zeros to L(s) on the Shape of the Nyquist Plot.

8.10 Relative Stability: Gain Margin (GM).

8.11 Stability Analysis with the Bode Plot.

8.12 Relative Stability Related to the Slope of the Magnitude Curve of the Bode Plot.

8.13 Stability Analysis with the Magnitude-Phase Plot.

8.14 Constant-M Loci in the Magnitude-Phase Plane: The Nichols Chart Applied to Nonunity-Feedback Systems.

8.15 Nichols Chart Applied to Nonunity-Feedback Systems.

8.16 Sensitivity Studies in the Frequency Domain.

8.17 MATLAB Tools and Case Studies.

8.18 Summary.

Chapter 9: Design of Control Systems.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Design with the PD Controller.

9.3 Design with the PI Controller.

9.4 Design with the PID Controller.

9.5 Design with Phase-Lead Controller.

9.6 Design with Phase-Lag Controller.

9.7 Design with Lead-Lag Controller.

9.8 Pole-Zero-Cancellation Design: Notch Filter.

9.9 Forward and Feedforward Controllers.

9.10 Design of Robust Control Systems.

9.11 Minor-Loop Feedback Control.

9.12 A Hydraulic Control System.

9.13 Controller Design.

9.14. MATLAB Tools and Case Studies.

9.15 Plotting Tutorial.

9.16 Summary.

Chapter 10: State Variable Analysis.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Block Diagrams, Transfer Functions, and State Diagrams.

10.3 Vector-Matrix Representation of State Equations.

10.4 State-Transition Matrix.

10.5 State-Transition Equation.

10.6 Relationship between State Equations and High-Order Differential Equations.

10.7 Relationship between State Equations and Transfer Functions.

10.8 Characteristic Equations, Eigenvalues, and Eigenvectors.

10.9 Similarity Transformation.

10.10 Decompositions of Transfer Functions.

10.11 Controllability of Control Systems.

10.12 Observability of Linear Systems.

10.13 Relationship among Controllability, Observability, and Transfer Functions.

10.14 Invariant Theorems on Controllability and Observability.

10.15 Case Study: Magnetic-Ball Suspension System.

10.16 State-Feedback Control.

10.17 Pole-Placement Design Through State Feedback.

10.18 State Feedback with Integral Control.

10.19 MATLAB Tools and Case Studies.

10.20 Summary.

Index.

Appendix A: Elementary Matrix Theory and Algebra.

Appendix B: Difference Equations.

Appendix C: Laplace Transform Table.

Appendix D: z-Transform Table.

Appendix E: Properties and Construction of the Root Loci.

Appendix F: General Nyquist Criterion.

Appendix G: ACSYS 2008: Description of the Software.

Appendix H: Discrete-Data Control Systems.

Library of Congress subject headings for this publication:

Automatic control.

Control theory.