Table of contents for Environmental chemistry / Colin Baird.


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Preface
Environmental Chemistry
Introduction
A Brief History of Environmental Regulation
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry
Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards
Real-World Examples of Green Chemistry
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Scientific American Feature Article: Little Green Molecules
PART I Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution
Chapter 1 Stratospheric Chemistry: The Ozone Layer

Introduction
The Physics and Chemistry of the Ozone Layer
Box 1-1: The Steady-State Analysis of Atmospheric Reactions
Catalytic Processes of Ozone Destruction
Box 1-2: The Rates of Free-Radical Reactions
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Chapter 2 The Ozone Holes
Introduction
The Ozone Hole and Other Sites of Ozone Depletion
Box 2-1: The Chemistry Behind Mid-Latitude Decreases in Stratospheric Ozone
The Chemicals That Cause Ozone Destruction
Green Chemistry: The Replacement of CFC and Hydrocarbon Blowing Agents with Carbon Dioxide in Producing Foam Polystyrene
Green Chemistry: Harpin Technology—Eliciting Nature’s Own Defenses Against Diseases
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Ground-Level Air Pollution
Introduction
Box 3-1 The Interconversion of Gas Concentrations
Urban Ozone: The Photochemical Smog Process
Technological Control of Emissions
Green Chemistry: The Replacement of Organic Solvents with Supercritical and Liquid Carbon Dioxide; Development of Surfactants for This Compound
Green Chemistry: Using Ionic Liquids to Replace Organic Solvents; Cellulose, A Naturally Occurring Polymer Replacement for Petroleum-Derived Polymers
Particulates in Air Pollution
Air Quality Indices and Size Characteristics for Particulate Matter
Box 3-2 Distribution of Particle Sizes in an Urban Air Sample
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Chapter 4 The Environmental and Health Consequences of Polluted Air—Outdoors and Indoors
Introduction
Acid Rain
The Human Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollutants
Indoor Air Pollution
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Chapter 5 The Detailed Chemistry of the Atmosphere
Introduction
Box 5-1: Lewis Structures of Simple Free Radicals
Tropospheric Chemistry
Systematics of Stratospheric Chemistry
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Environmental Instrumental Analysis I: Instrumental Determination of NOX via Chemiluminescence
PART II Energy and Climate Change
Chapter 6 The Greenhouse Effect
Introduction
The Mechanism of the Greenhouse Effect
Box 6-1: A Simple Model of the Greenhouse Effect
Molecular Vibrations: Energy Absorption by Greenhouse Gases
The Major Greenhouse Gases
Green Chemistry: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in the Production of Computer Chips
Box 6-2: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Atmospheric Residence Time
Other Greenhouse Gases
Box 6-3: Determining the Emissions of “Old Carbon” Sources of Methane
The Climate-Modifying Effects of Aerosols
Global Warming to Date
Box 6-4: Cooling over China from Haze
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Chapter 7 Fossil-Fuel Energy, CO2 Emissions, and Global Warming
Introduction
Energy Reserves and Usage
Fossil Fuels
Box 7-1: Petroleum Refining: Fractional Distillation
Energy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Future
Green Chemistry: Polyactic Acid—The Production of Biodegradable Polymers from Renewable Resources; Reducing the Need for Petroleum and the Impact on the Environment
The Extent and Potential Consequences of Future Global Warming
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Chapter 8 Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels, and the Hydrogen Economy
Introduction
Renewable Energy
Alternative Fuels: Alcohols, Ethers, and Esters
Green Chemistry: Valuable Chemical Feedstocks from Glycerin, a Waste By-Product in the Production of Biodiesel
Hydrogen—Fuel of the Future?
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Chapter 9 Radioactivity, Radon, and Nuclear Energy
Introduction
Radioactivity and Radon Gas
Box 9-1: Steady-State Analysis of the Radioactive Decay Series
Nuclear Energy
Box 9-2: Radioactive Contamination by Plutonium Production

Review Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Environmental Instrumental Analysis II: Instrumental Determination of Atmospheric Methane
Scientific American Feature Article: A Plan to Keep Carbon in Check
PART III Toxic Organic Compounds
Chapter 10 Pesticides

Introduction
DDT
The Accumulation of Organochlorines in Biological Systems
Other Organochlorine Insecticides
Box 10-1: The Controversial Insecticide Endosulfan
Principles of Toxicology
Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides
Natural and Green Insecticides, and Integrated Pest Management
Green Chemistry: Insecticides That Target Only Certain Insects
Green Chemistry: A New Method for Controlling Termites
Herbicides
Box 10-2: Genetically Engineered Plants
Summary
Box 10-3: The Environmental Distribution of Pollutants

Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Chapter 11 Dioxins, Furans, and PCBs
Introduction
Dioxins
Box 11-1: Deducing the Probably Chlorophenolic Origins of a Dioxin
PCBs
Box 11-2: Predicting the Furans That Will Form from a Given PCB
Other Sources of Dioxins and Furans

Green Chemistry: H2O2, an Environmentally Benign Bleaching Agent for the Production of Paper
The Health Effects of Dioxins, Furans, and PCBs
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Websites of Interest
Chapter 12 Other Toxic Organic Compounds of Environmental Concern
Introduction
Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Box 12-1: More on the Mechanism of PAH Carcinogenesis
Environmental Estrogens
The Long-Range Transport of Atmospheric Pollutants
Brominated Fire Retardants
Perfluorinated Sulfonates
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Environmental Instrumental Analysis III: Electron Capture Detection of Pesticides
Environmental Instrumental Analysis IV: Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)
Scientific American Feature Article: Tackling Malaria
PART IV Water Chemistry and Water Pollution
Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Natural Waters
Introduction
Oxidation–Reduction Chemistry in Natural Waters
Box 13-1: Redox Equation Balancing Reviewed
Green Chemistry: Enzymatic Preparation of Cotton Textiles

Acid–Base Chemistry in Natural Waters: The Carbonate System
Box 13-2: Derivation of Equations for the Species Diagram Curves
Ion Concentrations in Natural Waters and Drinking Water
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Chapter 14 The Pollution and Purification of Water
Introduction
Water Disinfection
Box 14-1: Activated Carbon
Box 14-2: The Desalination of Salty Water
Box 14-3: The Mechanism of Chloroform Production in Drinking Water
Groundwater: Its Supply, Chemical Contamination, and Remediation
The Chemical Contamination and Treatment of Wastewater and Sewage
Box 14-4: Time Dependence of Concentrations in the Two-Step Oxidation of Ammonia
Green Chemistry: Sodium Iminodisuccinate—A Biodegradable Chelating Agent
Modern Wastewater and Air Purification Techniques
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Environmental Instrumental Analysis V: Ion Chromatography of Environmentally Significant Anions
Part V Metals, Soils, Sediments, and Waste Disposal
Chapter 15 Toxic Heavy Metals

Introduction
Mercury
Lead
Green Chemistry: Replacement of Lead in Electrodeposition Coatings
Cadmium
Arsenic
Box 15-1: Organotin Compounds
Chromium
Green Chemistry: Removing the Arsenic and Chromium from Pressure-Treated Wood
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Chapter 16 Wastes, Soils, and Sediments
Introduction
Domestic and Commercial Garbage: Its Disposal and Minimization
Green Chemistry: Polyaspartate—A Biodegradable Antiscalant and Dispersing Agent
The Recycling of Household and Commercial Waste
Green Chemistry: Development of Recyclable Carpeting
Soils and Sediments
Box 16-1: The Superfund Program
Hazardous Wastes
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Further Readings
Websites of Interest
Environmental Instrumental Analysis VI: Inductively Coupled Plasma Determination of Lead
Scientific American Feature Article: Mapping Mercury
Appendix
Answers to Selected Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems
Index




Library of Congress subject headings for this publication:
Environmental chemistry -- Textbooks.