Table of contents for Criminal justice : an introduction / Freda Adler, Gerhard O. Mueller, William Laufer.


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Preface PART 1. The Universe of Crime and Justice 1 Chapter 1. Criminal Justice: Introduction and Overview Criminal Justice: The Origins of a Young Discipline Creating a Criminal Justice System
Criminal Justice as a System Models of the Criminal Justice System
The Goals
The Means Stages of the Criminal Justice Process Entry into the System
Decisions by Victims
Decisions by the Police
Legal Standards
The Right to Counsel Prosecution and Pretrial Services
The Judicial Decision to Release
The Preliminary Hearing
The Decision to Charge and to Indict
Plea Bargaining Adjudication and Sentencing Corrections
Community Decisions
Institutional Decisions
Release and Parole Decisions Diversion
Looking Ahead: A Preview of This Book Review Thinking, Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes Chapter 2. Crime and Criminals Transnational Crime
Terrorism
Illegal Drug Trafficking
Money Laundering
Infiltration of Legal Business
Computer Crime
Illicit Arms Trafficking
Traffic in Persons
Destruction of Cultural Property Types of Crime
Violent Crime
Homicide
Assault
Rape and Sexual Assault
Robbery
Property Crimes
Fraud
High-tech Crimes
Burglary
Arson
White-Collar Crime
Corporate Crime
Organized Crime
Crimes against Public Morality: Drugs, Alcohol, and Vice Counting Crime
Sources of Information
The Amount of Crime
Arrests
Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes Chapter 3 Explaining Criminal Behavior Biology and Crime Psychology and Criminality Biological and Psychological Explanations: Practical Applications Sociology and Criminality
Strain Theory
Cultural Deviance Theories
Social Control
Recent Explanations of Criminality Alternative Explanations for Crime
Labeling Theory
Conflict Theory
Labeling and Conflict: Practical Application
Sociological Explanations: Practical Applications Situational Crime Prevention Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Notes Chapter 4. The Criminal Law The Criminal Law and Its Seven Basic Principles
1. Legality: Is There a Law That Makes Something Criminal?
2. Conduct: Only the Acts of Persons Can Be Covered by Criminal Law
3. Harm: Protecting a Legally Recognized Value
4. Causation: Bringing about the Harm
5. Mens Rea (Guilty Mind): Criminal Intent
6. The Concurrence Requirement
7. The Punishment Requirement The Principles Applied: Defenses
Excuses
Justifications
The Arithmetic of Crime Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes PART 2. The Police Chapter 5. History and Organization of the Police The History of American Police
The Expanding West
The East: Urban Riots The Problem of Political Control
Early Reformers: Vollmer
The Wickersham Report
The New Wave of Reform: Crime Fighters
Post-9/11: Exploring a New Role for Police as First Responders Police Systems in the United States
Chain of Command
Division of Labor
The Eight-hour Shift
Rules and Regulations The Federal System
The Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Drug Enforcement Administration
Questions and Criticisms
The Drug Enforcement Administration
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
Other Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
The Department of Homeland Security State and Local Systems
State Police
County Police
Municipal Police Forces
Special Purpose Police
Private Police Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes Chapter 6. Police Functions Managing Police Functions Management Styles
Alternatives to Traditional Management Styles
Community Policing
Police-Community Relations Programs
Citizen Involvement The Service Function
Coping with Injury and illness
Coping with the Mentally III Order Maintenance
Patrol: The Basic Technique
Types of Patrol
Evaluating Traditional Techniques
New Policing Strategies The Law Enforcement Function
Criminal Investigation
Law Enforcement Priorities Today
New Challenges: Post 9/11
Controversial Law Enforcement Techniques Changing Composition of the Police Force
Minority Groups in Policing
Women in Policing The Police Subculture
Socialization of New Recruits
The Police Personality
Styles of Policing
Stress
Behind the Blue Curtain Corruption
The Range of Corrupt Activities
Controlling Corruption Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes Chapter 7. The Rule of Law in Law Enforcement Criminal Justice Under the Constitution
Federal Criminal Justice: The Bill of Rights
State Criminal Justice: Selective Incorporation of the Bill of Rights Fourth Amendment: Unreasonable Searches and Seizures
Search and Seizure
Warrantless Searches
Arrests
The Right to Privacy Post 9/11 Fifth Amendment: Self-incrimination
The Self-incrimination Privilege
The Miranda Warnings Enforcing Constitutional Rights: The Exclusionary Rule Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Exceptions to the Rule
The Demise of Mapp v. Ohio?
Alternatives to the Rule
Illegally Seized Persons The Use and Abuse of Force
The Ultimate Seizure of the Person: Deadly Force
Abuse of Force Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes PART 3. The Courts Chapter 8. The Origin and Role of the Courts Origin of America's Courts
Colonial Courts
Courts for a New Nation State Courts: Organization and Role
Courts of Limited or Special Jurisdiction
Courts of General Jurisdiction
Appellate Courts
Intermediate Appellate Courts and Supreme Courts Federal Courts: Organization and Role
Federal Magistrates
United States District Courts
United States Circuit Courts of Appeal
The Supreme Court of the United States Interaction between State Courts and Federal Courts
Appeal and the Writ of Certiorari
Habeas Corpus
The Future of the Courts: Issues
Federal Issues
State Issues Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes Chapter 9. Lawyers and Judges Prosecution
Roles and Duties
Federal Prosecutors
State Prosecutors
Politics and Policy
Discretion Defense Counsel
Roles and Duties
Private Defense Counsel
Public Defenders
Ethical Issues Judges
Roles and Duties
Types of Judges
Qualifications and Background
Selection Other Court Personnel Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes Chapter 10. Criminal Prosecution and Adjudication No Trial
Diversion
Evaluation of Diversion Programs Pretrial
Pretrial Release
Pretrial Detention
The Plea
Plea Bargaining Trial
Voir Dire
Opening Statements
The Prosecution's Case
The Defense's Case
Closing Arguments and Instructions
Jury Deliberations
Sentencing Posttrial
Rights to Appeal
Appellate Review
Appellate Process Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes Chapter 11. Sentencing Purposes and Goals of the Criminal Sanction
Retribution
Just Desserts
Deterrence
Incapacitation
Rehabilitation
Mixed Goals The Choice of a Sanction Structuring Sentences
Indeterminate Sentences
Determinate Sentences
Mandatory Sentences
Sentencing Guidelines Capital Punishment
The Deterrence Argument
The Discrimination Argument
Other Arguments
The Future of the Death Penalty Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes PART 4. Corrections Chapter 12. Corrections: Yesterday and Today The History of Institutional Corrections
The Workhouse Movement
The Penitentiary Movement
The Reformatory Movement
The Rehabilitation Model Major Developments in American Corrections
The Prisoners' Rights Movement
The Impact of the Prisoners' Rights Movement
The Rebirth of Retribution Philosophy Institutional Corrections Today
Jails
Prisons
Federal Prison System
State Prison Systems
Institutions for Women
Co-correctional Facilities The Size and Cost of the Corrections Enterprise
The Size of the System
The Cost of the System Privatization of Corrections
Effectiveness of Privatization
Trends in Privatization Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes Chapter 13. Institutional Corrections Custody/Security
Rules and Regulations
Classification
Corrections Officers Living with Convicts
Who Are the Inmates?
The Deprivation Model
The Importation Model
A New Prison Society
Prison Violence and Overcrowding
Life in a Women's Prison Beyond Custody and Control: Old and New Goals
The Rehabilitation Approach
Vocational Training and Prison Industries
Educational Programs
Recreation
Health Problems
Mental Health
Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Religion in Prison
Furloughs Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes Chapter 14. Alternatives: Community Corrections Probation
The Benefits of Probation
Revocation of Probation
Probation Officers
Effectiveness of Probation Parole
Origins of Parole
The Decision to Parole
Revocation of Parole
Parole Officers
Effectiveness of Parole Intermediate Sanctions
Pardons and Monetary Sanctions
Restitution to Victims
Intensive Supervision Programs
Restitution to Victims
Intensive Supervision Programs
Shock Programs
Residential Programs
Home Confinement and Electronic Monitoring
Community Service
Evaluation of Alternative Programs Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes PART 5. Challenges for the Twenty-first Century Chapter 15. Justice for Juveniles, Victims, and the Global Village The Challenge of Juvenile Justice
Approaches to Juvenile Delinquency
In re Gault: A Landmark Case
Treating Juveniles as Adults
Changing the Juvenile Justice Process The Challenge of Victimology: Toward Restorative Justice
The Rediscovery of the Victim
Compensation for Victims of Crime
The Promise of Restorative Justice
Case Study: A New Approach to Juvenile Offending Review Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice Internet Connection Notes APPENDIX The Constitution of the United States of America Glossary Credits Index


Library of Congress subject headings for this publication:
Criminal justice, Administration of -- United States.