Table of contents for Problems from philosophy.

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Preface Chapter 1: The Legacy of Socrates 1.1. Why Was Socrates Condemned? 1.2. Why Did Socrates Believe He Had to Die? Chapter 2: God and the Origin of the Universe 2.1. Is It Reasonable to Believe in God? 2.2. The Argument from Design 2.3. Evolution and Intelligent Design 2.4. The First Cause Argument 2.5. The Idea that God Is a Necessary Being Chapter 3: The Problem of Evil 3.1. Why Do Good People Suffer? 3.2. God and Evil 3.3. Free Will and Moral Character Chapter 4: Do We Survive Death? 4.1. The Idea of an Immortal Soul 4.2. Is There Any Credible Evidence of an Afterlife? 4.3. Hume's Argument Against Miracles Chapter 5: The Problem of Personal Identity 5.1. The Problem 5.2. Personhood at a Moment 5.3. Personhood over Time 5.4. Bodily Continuity 5.5. Memory Chapter 6: Body and Mind 6.1. Descartes and Elizabeth 6.2. Materialist Theories of the Mind 6.3. Doubts About Materialist Theories Chapter 7: Could a Machine Think? 7.1. Brains and Computers 7.2. An Argument that Machines Could Think 7.3. The Turing Test 7.4. Why the Turing Test Fails Chapter 8: The Case Against Free Will 8.1. Are People Responsible for What They Do? 8.2. Determinism 8.3. Psychology 8.4. Genes and Behavior Chapter 9: The Debate Over Free Will 9.1. The Determinist Argument 9.2. The Libertarian Response 9.3. The Compatibilist Response 9.4. Ethics and Free Will Chapter 10: Our Knowledge of the World Around Us 10.1. Vats and Demons 10.2. Idealism 10.3. What Evidence for These Views Might Be Like 10.4. Descartes' Theological Response 10.5. Direct vs. Indirect Realism 10.6. Vision and the Brain 10.7. The Natural Theory Chapter 11: Ethics and Objectivity 11.1. Thrasymachus's Challenge 11.2. Is Ethics Just Social Conventions? 11.3. Ethics and Science 11.4. The Importance of Human Interests Chapter 12: Why Should We Be Moral? 12.1. The Ring of Gyges 12.2. Ethics and Religion 12.3. The Social Contract 12.4. Morality and Benevolence Chapter 13: The Meaning of Life 13.1. The Problem of the Point of View 13.2. Happiness 13.3. Death 13.4. Religion and the Indifferent Universe 13.5. The Meaning of Particular Lives Appendix: How to Evaluate Arguments Notes on Sources Index

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