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Bioremediation techniques for treating metals-contaminated soil and water are in an emerging state of development. Unlike organic compounds that can be broken down into harmless compounds such as CO2 and water, metals and their salts generally inhibit biological activity. They must be converted into more complex states, be sorbed, or undergo valence state changes before biodegradation by activated sludge treatment or other complex reactions such as air stripping can occur. This book introduces various treatment technologies and options for the bioremediation of metals. The chapters, written by researchers and practitioners from North America and Europe, represent the most recent compilation of state-of-the-art techniques and methods for metals biotreatment. These topics and more are addressed: