Table of contents for An introduction to molecular biotechnology : molecular fundmentals, methods and applications in modern biotechnology / edited by Michael Wink ; translated by Renate Fitzroy ... [et al.].

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List of Contributors.
Colour Plates.
Part I: Fundamentals of Cellular and Molecular Biology.
1 The Cell as the Basic Unit of Life (M. Wink).
2 Structure and Function of Cellular Macromolecules (M. Wink).
2.1 Introduction.
2.2 Structure and Function of Sugars.
2.3 Structure of Membrane Lipids.
2.4 Structure and Function of Proteins.
2.5 Structure of Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA).
3 Structure and Function of a Cell (M. Wink).
3.1 The Structure of a Eukaryotic Cell.
3.2 The Structure of Bacteria.
3.3 The Structure of Viruses.
3.4 The Differentiation of Cells.
4 Biosynthesis and Function of Macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and Proteins) (M. Wink).
4.1 Genomes, Chromosomes, and Replication.
4.2 Transcription: From Gene to Protein.
4.3 Protein Biosynthesis (Translation).
5 Distributing Proteins in the Cell (Protein Sorting) (M. Wink).
5.1 Import and Export of Proteins via the Nuclear Pore.
5.2 Import of Proteins in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts.
5.3 Protein Transport in the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
5.4 Vesicle Transport from the ER via the Golgi Apparatus to the Cytoplasmic Membrane.
6 Diversity of Organisms (M. Wink).
6.1 Prokaryotes.
6.2 Eukaryotes.
Further Reading for Chapters 1–6.
Part II: Standard Methods in Molecular Biotechnology.
7 Isolation and Purification of Proteins (T. Wieland, S. Lutz).
7.1 Introduction.
7.2 Producing a Protein Extract.
7.3 Gel Electrophoretic Separation Methods.
7.4 Methods of Protein Precipitation.
7.5 Column Chromatography Methods.
7.6 Examples.
Further Reading.
8 Peptide and Protein Analysis with Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry (A. Schlosser, W.D. Lehmann).
8.1 Introduction.
8.2 Principles of Mass Spectrometry.
8.3 Mass Precision, Resolution, and Isotope Distribution.
8.4 Principles of Electrospray Ionization.
8.5 Tandem Mass Spectrometers.
8.6 Peptide Sequencing with MS/MS.
8.7 Identifying Proteins with MS/MS-Data and Protein Databases.
8.8 Determining Protein Molecular Mass.
8.9 Analysis of Covalent Protein Modification.
Further Reading.
9 Isolation of DNA and RNA (H. Weiher, R. Zwacka, I. Herr).
9.1 Introduction.
9.2 DNA Isolation.
9.3 RNA Isolation.
9.3.1 Enrichment of Messenger RNA (mRNA).
10 Chromatography and Electrophoresis of Nucleic Acids (H. Weiher, R. Zwacka, I. Herr).
10.1 Introduction.
10.2 Chromatographic Separation of Nucleic Acids.
10.3 Electrophoresis.
Further Reading.
11 Hybridization of Nucleic Acids (H. Weiher, R. Zwacka, I. Herr).
11.1 The Significance of Base Pairing.
11.2 Experimental Hybridization, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Control.
11.3 Analytical Techniques.
Further Reading.
12 The Use of Enzymes in the Modification of Nucleic Acids (I. Herr, H. Weiher, R. Zwacka).
12.1 Restriction Enzymes (Restriction Endonucleases).
12.2 Ligases.
12.3 Methylases.
12.4 DNA Polymerases.
12.5 Nucleases.
12.6 T4 Polynucleotide Kinase.
12.7 Calf Intestinal Phosphatase.
Further Reading.
13 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (A. Mohr, H. Weiher, I. Herr, R. Zwacka).
13.1 Introduction.
13.2 Techniques.
13.3 Areas of Application.
Further Reading.
14 DNA Sequencing (R. Zwacka, A. Mohr, I. Herr, H. Weiher).
14.1 Introduction.
14.2 DNA Sequencing Methods.
14.3 Strategies for Sequencing the Human Genome.
14.4 The Practical Significance of DNA Sequencing.
Further Reading.
15 Cloning Procedures (T. Wieland, S. Lutz).
15.1 Introduction.
15.2 The Production of Recombinant Vectors.
Further Reading.
16 Expression of Recombinant Proteins (T. Wieland, S. Lutz).
16.1 Introduction.
16.2 Expression of Recombinant Proteins in Host Organisms.
16.3 Expression in Cell-Free Systems.
Further Reading.
17 The Patch Clamp Method (R. Kraft, S. Patt).
17.1 Biological Membranes and Ion Channels.
17.2 Physical Foundations of the Patch Clamp Method.
17.3 Patch Clamp Configurations.
17.4 Heterologous Expression Systems and Section Preparations.
Further Reading.
18 Cell Cycle Analysis (S. Wölfl, A. Kitanovic).
18.1 Analyzing the Cell Cycle.
18.2 Experimental Analysis of the Cell Cycle.
Further Reading.
19 Techniques in Microscopy (G. Fricker).
19.1 Light Microscopy.
19.2 Phase Contrast Light Microscopy.
19.3 Darkfield Microscopy.
19.4 Polarization and Interference Microscopy.
19.5 Fluorescence Microscopy.
19.6 Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.
19.7 Electron Microscopy.
Further Reading.
20 Laser Applications (M. Vogel, R. Fink).
20.1 Principles of Laser Technology.
20.2 Properties of Laser Radiation.
20.3 Types of Lasers and Their Setups.
20.4 Applications.
Further Reading.
Part III:Key Topics.
21 Genomics (M. Frohme, St. Wiemann).
21.1 Introduction.
21.2 Technological Developments in Sequencing.
21.3 Genome Sequencing.
21.4 cDNA Projects.
Further Reading.
22 Functional Genomics (M. Frohme, St. Wiemann).
22.1 Introduction.
22.2 The Identification and Analysis of Individual Genes.
22.3 The Investigation of Transcriptional Activity.
22.4 Cell-based Methods.
22.5 Functional Analysis of Entire Genomes.
Further Reading.
23 Protein–Protein and Protein–DNA Interaction (P. Uetz, E. Pohl).
23.1 Protein–Protein Interactions.
23.2 Protein–DNA Interactions.
Further Reading.
24 Bioinformatics (B. Brors, K. Fellenberg).
24.1 Introduction.
24.2 Data Sources.
24.3 Sequence Analysis.
24.4 Gene Prediction.
24.5 Bioinformatics in Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis.
24.6 Systems Biology.
Further Reading.
25 Drug Research (U. Denschle, M. Kögl, R. Tolle).
25.1 Introduction.
25.2 Active Compounds and Their Targets.
25.3 Pre-Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology.
25.4 Clinical Development.
25.5 Clinical Testing.
Further Reading.
26 Drug Targeting and Prodrugs (G. Fricker).
26.1 Drug Targeting.
26.2 Prodrugs.
26.3 Penetration of Drugs through Biological Membranes.
26.4 Prodrugs to Extend Duration of Effect.
26.5 Prodrugs for the Targeted Release of a Drug.
26.6 Prodrugs to Minimize Side Effects.
Further Reading.
27 Molecular Diagnostics in Medicine (S. Wölfl, R. Gessner).
27.1 Uses of Molecular Diagnostics.
27.2 Which Molecular Variations should be detected?
27.3 Molecular Diagnostic Methods.
27.4 Outlook.
Further Reading.
28 Recombinant Antibodies and Phage Display (S. Dübel).
28.1 Introduction.
28.2 Why Recombinant Antibodies?
28.3 Obtaining Specific Recombinant Antibodies.
28.4 Production of Recombinant Antibodies.
28.5 Formats for Recombinant Antibodies.
28.6 Applications of Recombinant Antibodies.
28.7 Outlook.
Further Reading.
29 Genetically Modified Mice (Transgenic and Knockout) and their Impact on Medicine (R. Sprengel).
29.1 Overview.
29.2 Transgenic Mice.
29.3 The Impact of Genetically Modified Mice in Biomedicine.
Further Reading.
30 Gene Therapy: Strategies and Vectors (I. Herr).
30.1 Introduction.
30.2 Principles of Somatic Gene Therapy.
30.3 Germ Line Therapy.
30.4 Setbacks in Gene Therapy.
30.5 Vectors for Gene Therapy.
30.5.1 Retroviral Vectors.
30.6 Specific Expression.
Further Reading.
31 Modified DNA, PNA, and Applications in Medicine and Biotechnology (N. Metzler-Nolte).
31.1 Introduction.
31.2.1 Phosphorthioate.
31.3 Interactions of DNA Analogs with Complementary DNA and RNA.
31.4 Applications.
Further Reading.
32 Plant Biotechnology (R. Hell, H. Hillebrand).
32.1 Introduction.
32.2 Development of Transgenic Plants.
32.3 Selection of Transformed Plant Cells.
32.4 Regeneration of Transgene Plants.
32.5 Plant Analysis: Identification and Characterization of Genetically Engineered Plants.
Further Reading.
33 Biocatalysis in the Chemical Industry (B. Hauer, M. Breuer).
33.1 Introduction.
33.2 Bioconversion/Enzymatic Procedures.
33.3 Development of an Enzyme for the Industrial Biocatalysis.
33.4 Fermentative Procedures.
Further Reading.
Part IV: Biotechnology in Industry
34 Industrial Application (Biotech Industry, Markets and Opportunities) (J. Schüler).
34.1 Historical Overview and Definitions of Concepts.
34.2 Areas of Industrial Application of Molecular Biotechnology.
34.3 The Status Quo of the Biotech Industry Worldwide.
Further Reading.
35 Patents in the Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Industry: Legal and Ethical Issues (David B. Resnik).
35.1 Patent Law.
35.2 Ethical and Policy Issues in Biotechnology Patents.
35.3 Conclusion.
Further Reading.
36 Drug Approval in the European Union and United States (Gary Walsh).
36.1 Introduction.
36.2 Regulation within the European Union.
36.3 Regulation in the USA.
36.4 International Regulatory Harmonization.
Further Reading.
37 The Emergence of a Biotechnology Industry (C. Kremoser).
Further Reading.
38 The 101 of Founding a Biotech Company (C. Kremoser).
38.1 The First Steps Towards Your Own Company.
38.2 Employees: Recruitment, Remuneration, Participation.
39 Marketing (C. Kremoser).
39.1 Introduction.
39.2 What Types of Deals are Possible?
39.3 Public Relations (PR) and Investor Relations (IR) in Biotech Companies.
Further Reading.
Glossary (M. Wink).
Subject Index.

Library of Congress subject headings for this publication:
Genetic engineering.
Molecular biology.
Genetic Engineering.
Molecular Biology.