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Presents up-to-date concepts and approaches to the theory and practice of alternatives to animal testing and promotes technology transfer. The text addresses some of the ramifications of the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993 which instructs the NIH to fund replacement, reduction and refinement alternatives. It also describes the likely impact of the European Union's Cosmetic Directive, which bans marketing of animal tested cosmetics in Europe after 1997 if alternatives are available. Contributions are grouped into five categories including: dermal toxicity; immunotoxicity; neurotoxicity; and oral/dermal/ocular validation.