Table of contents for Responding to literature : stories, poems, plays, and essays / [edited by] Judith A. Stanford.

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CHAPTER 1. Why Read Literature? Exercise Why Do You Read Literature? Why Do We Read Literature? Bridging the Gap Responding to What You Read Exercise ROBERT FROST, The Road Not Taken Sample Student Response to “The Road Not Taken” Commentary Exercise Considering Evidence to Support Your Response Close Active Reading Sample Oral Response to “The Road Not Taken” Commentary Exercise Keeping a Reading Journal Guidelines: Keeping a Reading Journal

CHAPTER 2. Joining the Conversation: Ways of Talking about Literature PATRICIA GRACE, Butterflies (short story) Responding to “Butterflies” LANGSTON HUGHES, Theme for English B (poem) Responding to “Theme for English B” WENDY WASSERSTEIN, The Man in a Case (play) Responding to The Man in a Case E. B. WHITE, Education (essay) Responding to “Education” The Vocabulary of Literature Actions and Events Plot Structure Conflict Irony of Situation Box: Terms Related to Actions and Events Exercises: Actions and Events People Characters: Listening and Observing

Observing Characters: Growing and Changing Characters: Point of View
Author and Speaker
People in Nonfiction
Box: Terms Related to People
Exercises: People Places and Times Time and Place: The Cultures of the Work, the Writer, and the Reader Place Time Box: Terms Related to Places and Times Exercises: Places and Times Words and Images, Sounds and Patterns Style Tone Diction Syntax Rhythm and Rhyme Figurative Language Verbal Irony Allusions Box: Trems Related to Words and Images, Sounds and Patterns Exercises: Words and Images, Sounds and Patterns Ideas Exercises: Ideas

CHAPTER 3. Continuing the Conversation: Considering Genre and Listening to Other Voices Expectations: Short Fiction, Poetry, Drama, Nonfiction Distinctions: Short Fiction and Drama Distinctions: Poetry MARGARET ATWOOD, you fit into me Distinctions: Nonfiction An Introduction to Short Fiction Early Forms of Fiction

Fairy Tale
Parable Modern Short Fiction
The Realistic Short Story
The Nonrealistic Short Story A Word about Fiction and Truth Guidelines: Short Fiction An Introduction to Poetry Suggestions for Reading Poetry Types of Poetry Guidelines: Poetry An Introduction to Drama Suggestions for Reading Drama Traditional Forms of Drama Modern Forms of Drama Types of Drama Guidelines: Drama An Introduction to Nonfiction Suggestions for Reading Speeches Suggestions for Reading Letters Suggestions for Reading Documents Suggestions for Reading Journals and Diaries Suggestions for Reading Essays Guidelines: Nonfiction Considering Other Voices Authors’ Commentaries and Interviews Reviews Scholarly Criticism

CHAPTER 4. Writing About Literature DYLAN THOMAS, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night Responding to “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night” JOAN ALESHIRE, Slipping Responding to “Slipping” Preparing to Write About Literature Understanding the Assignment Thinking about the Assignment Assignment Topics Writing to Respond Topic 1 Discovering Ideas: Journal Entries Considering Audience Narrowing the Topic Devising a Preliminary Thesis Statement Planning and Organizing Drafting “Changes,” KAREN ANGSTROM (draft student paper) Revising Focus: Titles, Openings, Conclusions Karen Angstrom’s Revision List Editing Focus: “To Be,” Expletives, Passive Voice Karen Angstrom’s Editing List Proofreading Focus: Fragments and Comma Splices Exercise Final Copy: Writing to Respond “Changes: For Better or Worse?” KAREN ANGSTROM (Student Paper) Exercise Guidelines: Writing a Response Writing to Compare Topic 2 Discovering Ideas: Discussion and Collaboration Box: Strategies for Collaborative Work Considering Audience, Narrowing the Topic, and Devising a Preliminary Thesis Drafting

“Responses: Raging Versus Slipping,” WALTER JOHNSON (draft student paper) Revising Focus: Transitions, Development of Ideas
Workshop Excerpt Editing Focus: Nominalizations, Parallel Structure
Workshop Excerpt Proofreading Focus: Subject-Verb Agreement, Tense Agreement
Workshop Excerpt Exercise Final Copy: Writing to Compare “Responses: Raging Versus Slipping,” WALTER JOHNSON (student paper) Exercise Guidelines: Writing a Comparison Writing to Analyze Topic 3 Discovering Ideas: Listing and Grouping
Excerpt from Catherine Hupel's Work Considering Audience, Narrowing the Topic, and Devising a Preliminary Thesis
Excerpt from Catherine Hupel's Work Planning, Organizing, and Drafting
“Love and Loss in ‘Slipping’,” CATHERINE HUPEL (draft student paper) Revising Focus: Using and Explaining Examples
Excerpt from Catherine Hupel's Work Exercise Editing Focus: Word Choice
Excerpt from Catherine Hupel's Work Exercise Proofreading Focus: Misplaced Modifiers
Excerpt from Catherine Hupel's Work Exercise Final Copy: Writing to Analyze
“Love and Loss in ‘Slipping’,” CATHERINE HUPEL (student paper) Guidelines: Writing an Analysis Writing to Explicate Topic 4 Discovering Ideas: Paraphrasing
Matt Cejak’s Paraphrases (student work) Considering Audience, Narrowing the Topic, and Devising a Preliminary Thesis
Excerpt from Matt Cejak’s Work Planning and Organizing Drafting
Excerpt from Matt Cejak’s Work Revising Focus: Summarizing Versus Analzying Guidelines: Preparing for a Writing Conference Excerpt from Matt Cejak’s Writing Conference Matt Cejak’s Second Draft
“Explication: ‘Do Not Go Gentle’,” MATTHEW CEJAK (draft student paper) Editing Focus: Conciseness
Excerpt from Matt Cejak’s Work Exercise Proofreading Focus: Apostrophes, Quotation Marks to Indicate Words Used in a Special Way
Excerpt from Matt Cejak’s Work Exercise Final Copy: Writing to Explicate
“The Power of Sound and Sight in ‘Do Not Go Gentle’,” MATTHEW CEJAK Exercise Guidelines: Writing an Explication Writing to Evaluate Topic 5 Discovering Ideas: Interviewing
Joann Epstein’s Journal Entry Considering Audience, Narrowing the Topic, and Devising a Preliminary Thesis
Excerpt from Joann Epstein’s Work Planning and Organizing
Excerpt from Joann Epstein’s Work Drafting Revising Focus: Logic
Excerpt from Joann Epstein’s Work Editing Focus: Integrating and Punctuating Quotations
Excerpt from Joann Epstein’s Work Proofreading Focus: Pronoun Reference, Pronoun Agreement, Treatment of Titles
Excerpt from Joann Epstein’s Work Final Copy: Writing to Evaluate
“Love and Strength,” JOANN EPSTEIN (student paper) Exercise Guidelines: Writing an Evaluation of Beliefs and Values

5. Argument, Critical Thinking, and Research Argument and Critical Thinking Definition of Argument Purpose for Argument "The Storm" Kate Chopin Argument and Controversy Determining a Thesis for Argument Topics for Argument Considering Audience Exploring Ways to Refine the Thesis and Support the Argument Close Reading Discussion and Interviews Library and On-line Research Argument and Research The Research Question The Persuasive Research Paper Exploring the Research Question Resources for Research: Reference Works Monographs and Other Books Printed Periodicals Online Resources Guidelines: Locating Online Resources Guidelines: Evaluating Internet Resources Planning an Argument and Formulating the Thesis Drafting an Argument Guidelines: Rational Appeals Revising an Argument Using and Documenting Sources Taking Notes Organizing Your Notes Summarizing and Paraphrasing Copying Quotations Sample Notecards Determining What Needs to be Documentated What Does Not Need to Be Documented Avoiding Plagiarism Exercise Using and Documenting Quotations from Literary Works: MLA Style Quoting from Poems Quoting from Plays Quoting from Fiction Incorporating Material from Sources into Your Paper Compiling a List of Works Cited Print Resources Oral Communication Media and Performance Sources Online Sources Guidelines: Preparing the List of Works Cited Sample of a Completed Researched Argument “A Closer Look at Bobinôt,” JOSH LACHANCE (student paper) Note: Selections that are new to the fifth edition are indicated with an asterisk

CHAPTER 6. Innocence and Experience On Reading Literature Thematically: Critical Thinking Fiction [Each chapter begins with a brief introduction to its theme] [“Considerations” questions follow each selection] [“Connections” questions, “Suggestions for Connections Across Chapters,” and “Suggestions for Collaborative Learning” conclude each chapter] FICTION NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, Young Goodman Brown JAMES JOYCE, Araby WAKAKO YAMAUCHI, And the Soul Shall Dance LOUISE ERDRICH, The Red Convertible W.D. WETHERELL, The Bass, The River and Sheila Mant POETRY WILLIAM BLAKE, London GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, Spring and Fall A.E. HOUSMAN, When I Was One and Twenty COUNTEE CULLEN, Incident *GWENDOLYN BROOKS, We Real Cool JOHN UPDIKE, Ex-Basketball Player SEAMUS HEANEY, Mid-Term Break GARY SOTO, Oranges *NAOMI SHIHAB NYE, Rain DRAMA WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet Commentary: CAROLYN HEILBRUN, The Character of Hamlet’s Mother *Commentary: LAURA BOHANNAN, Shakespeare in the Bush *Photo Essay THEN AND NOW : Images of Hamlet *Film Connection: Hamlet ESSAYS LANGSTON HUGHES, Salvation MAYA ANGELOU, Graduation in Stamps

Chapter 7. Roots, Identity, and Culture FICTION RICHARD WRIGHT, The Man Who Was Almost a Man (moved from Ch. 6 in Responding 4th Ed.) JAMES BALDWIN, Sonny’s Blues RAYMOND CARVER, Cathedral JOSE ARMAS, El Tonto del Barrio TONI CADE BAMBARA, The Lesson POETRY PAUL LAWRENCE DUNBAR, We Wear the Mak LUCILLE CLIFTON, Quilting *LUCILLE CLIFTON, in the inner city WOLE SOYINKA, Telephone Conversation MARTIN ESPADA, Coca-Cola and Coco Frio CATHY SONG, The Youngest Daughter JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, Latin Women Pray *N.SCOTT MOMADAY, New World *SHERMAN ALEXIE, Evolution DRAMA ATHOL FUGARD, “Master Harold”…and The Boys Commentary: *ERVIN BECK "Fugard's 'Master Harold' …and The Boys *BRIAN SUTTON "Fugard's 'Master Harold' …and The Boys (A RESPONSE TO ERVIN BECK) ESSAYS CHIEF SEATTLE, My People FREDERICK DOUGLASS, Learning to Read and Write

Chapter 8. Love and Hate FICTION CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, The Yellow Wallpaper Commentary: CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, Why I Wrote “The Yellow Wallpaper” EDITH WHARTON, Roman Fever *SUSAN GLASPELL, A Jury of Her Peers NADINE GORDIMER, Town and Country Lovers RITA DOVE, Second Hand Man Poetry SAPPHO, To Me He Seems Like a God WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Let me not to the marriage of true minds JOHN DONNE, The Sun Rising ANDREW MARVELL, To His Coy Mistress APHRA BEHN, The Willing Mistress CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love SIR WALTER RALEIGH, The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd *W.S. MERWIN, Separation *KRISTINE BATEY, Lot's Wife DONALD HALL, The Wedding Couple TESS GALLAGHER, The Hug *KITTY TSUI, A Chinese Banquet Drama HENRIK IBSEN, A Doll’s House *SUSAN GLASPELL, Trifles Essays C.S. LEWIS, We Have No “Right to Happiness" *JOAN DIDION, Marrying Absurd

Chapter 9. Families Fiction TILLIE OLSON, I Stand Here Ironing JOYCE CAROL OATES, Shopping ALICE WALKER, Everyday Use MARY HOOD, How Far She Went *GISH JEN "Who's Irish?" Poetry THEODORE ROETHKE, My Papa’s Waltz SHARON OLDS, The Possessive SYLVIA PLATH, Metaphors DONALD HALL, My Son, My Executioner NEAL BOWERS, Driving Lesson ROBERT HAYDEN, Those Winter Sundays Commentary: DAVID HUDDLE, ‘The Banked Fires’ of Robert Hayden’s ‘Those Winter Sundays’ *URSULA K. LEGUIN, The Old Falling Down *LOUSE GLU;CK, Terminal Resemblance *GAIL MAZUR, Family Plot, October Drama SOPHOCLES, Oedipus Rex *LANGSTON HUGHES, Soul Gone Home Essays *RAYMOND CARVER, My Father's Life *JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, A Partial Remembrance of a Puerto Rican Childhood PHOTO ESSAY: THEN AND NOW: Images of Families

*Chapter 10. Nature Fiction *STEPHEN CRANE, The Open Boat ERNEST HEMINGWAY, Hills Like White Elephants EUDORA WELTY, A Worn Path Commentary: EUDORA WELTY, Is Phoenix Jackson’s Grandson Really Dead? *LESLIE MARMON SILKO, The Man to Send Rain Clouds Poetry Haiku Moritake, Fallen Petals Rise So Kan, If Only We Could Meisetsu, City People Kyoshi, The Snake *WILLIAM BLAKE, The Tyger WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, The World Is Too much With Us *JOHN KEATS, La Belle Dame Sans Merci GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, God’s Grandeur *JEAN TOOMER, November Cotton Flower *H.D. (HILDA DOOLITTLE), Sheltered Garden ELIZABETH BISHOP, The Fish WILLIAM STAFFORD, Traveling Through the Dark MARY OLIVER, A Certain Sharpness in the Morning Drama *JOHN MILLINGTON SYNGE, Riders to the Sea Essays BARRY HOLSTUN LOPEZ, Landscape and Narrative *ANNIE DILLARD, The Deer at Providencia *VIRGINIA WOOLF, The Death of a Moth”

Chapter 11. War and Power Fiction AMBROSE BIERCE, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge FRANK O’CONNOR, Guests of the Nation Commentary: STANLEY RENNER, The Theme of Hidden Powers: Fate vs. Human Responsibility in “Guests of the Nation” CYNTHIA OZICK, The Shawl TIM O’BRIEN, The Things They Carried *BHARATI MUKHERJEE, The Management of Grief Poetry *PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, Ozymandias *WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, The Second Coming THOMAS HARDY, The Man He Killed WILFRED OWEN, Dulce et Decorum Est RANDALL JARRELL, Gunner DENISE LEVERTOV, What Were They Like YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, Facing It CAROLYN FORCHE, The Colonel STEPHEN DUNN, On Hearing the Airlines Will Use a Psychological Profile to Catch Potential Skyjackers (Moved from Ch. 6, Responding 4th ed) *GALWAY KINNELL, When the Towers Fell Drama SOPHOCLES, Antigone Essays ANDREW LAM, Goodbye, Saigon, Finally BARBARA KINGSOLVER, And Our Flag Was Still There *NAOMI SHIHAB NYE, To Any Would-Be Terrorists *PHOTO ESSAY: THEN AND NOW: Images of War *FILM CONNECTION: Three Kings

Chapter 12. Technology and Ethics Fiction *NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, The Birthmark KAY BOYLE, The Astronomer’s Wife (Moved from Chapter 8, Responding 4th ed) *B. TRAVEN, Assembly Line *DON DELILLO, Videotape *GEORGE SAUNDERS, My Flamboyant Grandson Poetry *EMILY DICKINSON, I like to see it lap the Miles *WALT WHITMAN, When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer *WILLIAM JAY SMITH, Galileo Galilei *ADRIENNE RICH, Power *MARGARET ATWOOD, The City Planners *CHARLES BUKOWSKI, maybe we'll see . . . *MARGE PIERCY, The Market Economy *ELLEN WOLFE, Amniocentesis *MICHAEL RYAN, TV Room at the Children's Hospice Drama *MARGARET EDSON,Wit Commentaries: *LLOYD ROSE, Review of Wit *ALVIN KLEIN, A Professor's Passions in Life and Death Essays *REBECCA MEAD, Eggs for Sale *LOGAN HILL, Racial Digital Divide [?]

Chapter 13. Death Fiction CHEWING BLACKBONES, Old Man and Old Woman EDGAR ALLAN POE, The Black Cat KATHERINE ANNE PORTER, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall WILLIAM FAULKNER, A Rose for Emily Commentary: WILLIAM FAULKNER, On the Meaning of “A Rose for Emily” ALICE WALKER, To Hell with Dying Poetry JOHN DONNE, Death Be Not Proud EMILY DICKINSON, Apparently With No Surprise EMILY DICKINSON, I heard a fly buzz—when I died— EMILY DICKINSON, The Bustle in a House A.E. HOUSMAN, To An Athlete Dying Young e.e. cummings, Buffalo Bill's LANGSTON HUGHES, Night Funeral in Harlem THEODORE ROETHKE, Elegy for Jane DENISE LEVERTOV, During a Son’s Dangerous Illness SEAMUS HEANEY, Punishment (Moved from ch. 6, Responding 4th edition) *WILLIAM TREMBLAY, The Lost Boy MICHAEL LASSELL, How to Watch Your Brother Die Drama HARVEY FIERSTEIN, On Tidy Endings Essays ELIZABETH KUBLER-ROSS, On the Fear of Death BARBARA HUTTMAN, A Crime of Compassion (Moved from Ch. 6, Responding 4th ed.)

Chapter 14. Connections: Art and Poetry (color section) Topics for Discussion and Writing Sample Assignment and Student Paper Death’s Image, JANICE MOORE (student paper) RANDALL JARRELL, The Knight, Death, and the Devil Albrecht Durer’s Knight, Death, and the Devil ANNE SEXTON, The Starry Night Vincent van Gogh’s The Starry Night Pieter Breughel the Elder’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus W.H. AUDEN, Musee des Beaux Arts WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, The Great Figure Charles Henry Demuth’s I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold DAVID RAY, A Midnight Diner by Edward Hopper Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks SAMUEL YELLEN, Nighthawks Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks DONALD HALL, The Scream Edvard Munch’s The Scream NATALIE SAFIR, Matisse’s Dance Henri Matisse’s Dance WALLACE STEVENS, The Man With the Blue Guitar Pablo Picasso’s The Old Guitarist PATRICIA HAMPL, Woman Before an Aquarium Henri Matisse’s Woman Before an Aquarium ADAM ZAGAJEWSKI, Edgar Degas: The Millinery Shop Edgar Degas’s The Millinery Shop JON STALLWORTHY, Toulouse-Lautrec at the Moulin Rouge Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge *MARTHA HOLLANDER, The Phantom Cart Salvador Dali, The Phantom Cart Edward Hopper, Rooms by the Sea *JOHN HOLLANDER, Rooms By the Sea *KARL KIRCHWEY, Dialogue Albert Giacometti, Hands Holding the Void *MARILYN CHANDLER McENTRYRE, Jesus and theWoman at the Well Rembrant van Rijn, Christ and the Woman of Samaria

Chapter 15. Four Poets, Then and Now Making Connections Timeline: Key Events in the Lives of Three American Poets EMILY DICKINSON Biography If I can stop on heart from breaking Wild Nights – Wild Nights There’s a certain Slant of light I’m Nobody! Who are you? “Heaven” – is what I cannot reach! After great pain, a formal feeling comes-- The Brain – is wider than the Sky – This is my letter to the World The Soul selects her own Society – I felt a Cleaving in my Mind – Tell all the Truth but tell it slant – ROBERT FROST Biography Mending Wall Home Burial “Out, Out—“ Nothing Gold Can Stay Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Acquainted with the Night Desert Places A Critical Casebook on Robert Frost “Mending Wall,” DONALD CUNNINGHAM From The Figure a Poem Makes, ROBERT FROST From The Indispensable Robert Frost, DONALD J. GREINER “One Long, Wild Conversation”: Robert Frost as Teacher,” JAY PARINI *"The Place Is the Asylum": Women and Nature in Robert's Frost's Poetry *BILLY COLLINS *Biography *The History Teacher *Jack *Going Out For Cigarettes *My Life *The Names *RITA DOVE *Biography *Geometry *Adolescence—I *Grape Sherbert *Adolescence--II *Daystar *Poem in Which I Refuse Contemplation *Missing

Glossary of Literary Terms


Index of First Lines

Index of Authors, Titles, and Subjects

Library of Congress subject headings for this publication:
College readers.
English language -- Rhetoric -- Problems, exercises, etc.
Report writing -- Problems, exercises, etc.
Literature -- Collections.