Table of contents for Nanophysics and nanotechnology : an introduction to modern concepts in nanoscience / Edward L. Wolf.


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Preface.
Preface to 1st Edition.
1 Introduction.
1.1 Nanometers, Micrometers, Millimeters.
1.2 Moore’s Law.
1.3 Esaki’s Quantum Tunneling Diode.
1.4 Quantum Dots of ManyColors.
1.5 GMR 100Gb Hard Drive “Read” Heads.
1.6 Accelerometers in your Car.
1.7 Nanopore Filters.
1.8 Nanoscale Elements in Traditional Technologies.
2 Systematics of Making Things Smaller, Pre-quantum.
2.1 Mechanical Frequencies Increase in Small Systems.
2.2 Scaling Relations Illustrated by a Simple Harmonic Oscillator.
2.3 Scaling Relations Illustrated by_ imple Circuit Elements.
2.4 Thermal Time Constants and Temperature Differences Decrease.
2.5 Viscous Forces Become Dominant for Small Particles in Fluid Media.
2.6 Frictional Forces can Disappear in Symmetric Molecular Scale Systems.
3 What are Limits to Smallness?
3.1 Particle (Quantum) Nature of Matter: Photons, Electrons, Atoms, Molecules.
3.2 Biological Examples of Nanomotors and Nanodevices.
3.2.1 Linear Spring Motors.
3.2.2 Linear Engines on Tracks.
3.2.3 RotaryMotors.
3.2.4 Ion Channels, the Nanotransistors of Biology.
3.3 How Small can you Make it?
3.3.1 What are the Methods for Making Small Objects?
3.3.2 How Can you See What you Want to Make?
3.3.3 How Can you Connect it to the Outside World?
3.3.4 If you Can’t See it or Connect to it, Can you Make it Self-assemble and Work on its Own?
3.3.5 Approaches to Assemblyof Small Three-dimensional Objects.
3.3.6 Use of DNA Strands in Guiding Self-assemblyof Nanometer Size Structures.
4 Quantum Nature of the Nanoworld.
4.1 Bohr’s Model of the Nuclear Atom.
4.1.1 Quantization of Angular Momentum.
4.1.2 Extensions of Bohr’s Model.
4.2 Particle-wave Nature of Light and Matter, DeBroglie Formulas k= h/p, E = hm.
4.3 Wavefunction W for Electron, ProbabilityDensity W*W, Traveling and Standing Waves.
4.4 Maxwell’s Equations; E and B as Wavefunctions for Photons, Optical Fiber Modes.
4.5 The Heisenberg UncertaintyPrinciple.
4.6 Schrodinger Equation, Quantum States and Energies, Barrier Tunneling.
4.6.1 Schrodinger Equations in one Dimension.
4.6.2 The Trapped Particle in one Dimension.
4.6.3 Reflection and Tunneling at a Potential Step.
4.6.4 Penetration of a Barrier, Escape Time from a Well, Resonant Tunneling Diode.
4.6.5 Trapped Particles in Two and Three Dimensions: Quantum Dot.
4.6.6 2D Bands and Quantum Wires.
4.6.7 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator.
4.6.8 Schrodinger Equation in Spherical Polar Coordinates.
4.7 The Hydrogen Atom, One-electron Atoms, Excitons.
4.7.1 Magnetic Moments.
4.7.2 Magnetization and Magnetic Susceptibility.
4.7.3 Positronium and Excitons.
4.8 Fermions, Bosons and Occupation Rules.
5 Quantum Consequences for the Macroworld.
5.1 Chemical Table of the Elements.
5.2 Nano-symmetry, Di-atoms, and Ferromagnets.
5.2.1 Indistinguishable Particles, and their Exchange.
5.2.2 The Hydrogen Molecule, Di-hydrogen: the Covalent Bond.
5.3 More Purely Nanophysical Forces: van der Waals, Casimir, and Hydrogen Bonding.
5.3.1 The Polar and van der Waals Fluctuation Forces.
5.3.2 The Casimir Force.
5.3.3 The Hydrogen Bond.
5.4 Metals as Boxes of Free Electrons: Fermi Level, DOS, Dimensionality.
5.4.1 Electronic Conduction, Resistivity,Mean Free Path, Hall Effect, Magnetoresistance.
5.5 Periodic Structures (e.g. Si, GaAs, InSb, Cu): Kronig–PenneyModel for Electron Bands and Gaps.
5.6 Electron Bands and Conduction in Semiconductors and Insulators; Localization vs. Delocalization.
5.7 Hydrogenic Donors and Acceptors.
5.7.1 Carrier Concentrations in Semiconductors, Metallic Doping.
5.7.2 PN Junction, Electrical Diode I(V) Characteristic, Injection Laser.
5.8 More about Ferromagnetism, the Nanophysical Basis of Disk Memory.
5.9 Surfaces are Different; SchottkyBarrier Thickness W = [2eeoVB/eND]1/2.
5.10 Ferroelectrics, Piezoelectrics and Pyroelectrics: Recent Applications to Advancing Nanotechnology.
6 Self-assembled Nanostructures in Nature and Industry.
6.1 Carbon Atom 12 6C 1s2 2p4 (0.07 nm).
6.2 Methane CH4, Ethane C2H6, and Octane C8H18.
6.3 Ethylene C2H4, Benzene C6H6, and Acetylene C2H2.
6.4 C60 Buckyball (~0.5 nm).
6.5 C¥ Nanotube (~0.5 nm).
6.5.1 Si Nanowire (~5 nm).
6.6 InAs Quantum Dot (~5 nm).
6.7 AgBr Nanocrystal (0.1–2 mm).
6.8 Fe3O4 Magnetite and Fe3S4 Greigite Nanoparticles in Magnetotactic Bacteria.
6.9 Self-assembled Monolayers on Au and Other Smooth Surfaces.
7 Physics-based Experimental Approaches to Nanofabrication and Nanotechnology.
7.1 Silicon Technology: the INTEL-IBM Approach to Nanotechnology.
7.1.1 Patterning, Masks, and Photolithography.
7.1.2 Etching Silicon.
7.1.3 Defining HighlyConducting Electrode Regions.
7.1.4 Methods of Deposition of Metal and Insulating Films.
7.2 Lateral Resolution (Linewidths) Limited byW avelength of Light, now 65nm.
7.2.1 Optical and X-rayLithography.
7.2.2 Electron-beam Lithography.
7.3 Sacrificial Layers, Suspended Bridges, Single-electron Transistors.
7.4 What is the Future of Silicon Computer Technology?
7.5 Heat Dissipation and the RSFQ Technology.
7.6 Scanning Probe (Machine) Methods: One Atom at a Time.
7.7 Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) as Prototype Molecular Assembler.
7.7.1 Moving Au Atoms, Making Surface Molecules.
7.7.2 Assembling Organic Molecules with an STM.
7.8 Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) Arrays.
7.8.1 Cantilever Arrays by Photolithography.
7.8.2 Nanofabrication with an AFM.
7.8.3 Imaging a Single Electron Spin bya Magnetic-resonance AFM.
7.9 Fundamental Questions: Rates, Accuracyand More.
8 Quantum Technologies Based on Magnetism, Electron and Nuclear Spin, and Superconductivity.
8.1 The Stern–Gerlach Experiment: Observation of Spin 1Q2 Angular Momentum of the Electron.
8.2 Two Nuclear Spin Effects: MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and the “21.1 cm Line”.
8.3 Electron Spin 1Q2 as a Qubit for a Quantum Computer: Quantum Superposition, Coherence.
8.4 Hard and Soft Ferromagnets.
8.5 The Origins of GMR (Giant Magnetoresistance): Spin-dependent Scattering of Electrons.
8.6 The GMR Spin Valve, a Nanophysical Magnetoresistance Sensor.
8.7 The Tunnel Valve, a Better (TMR) Nanophysical Magnetic Field Sensor.
8.8 Magnetic Random Access Memory(MRAM).
8.8.1 Magnetic Tunnel Junction MRAM Arrays.
8.8.2 Hybrid Ferromagnet–Semiconductor Nonvolatile Hall Effect Gate Devices.
8.9 Spin Injection: the Johnson–Silsbee Effect.
8.9.1 Apparent Spin Injection from a Ferromagnet into a Carbon Nanotube.
8.10 Magnetic Logic Devices: a MajorityUniversal Logic Gate.
8.11 Superconductors and the Superconducting (Magnetic) Flux Quantum.
8.12 Josephson Effect and the Superconducting Quantum Interference Detector (SQUID).
8.13 Superconducting (RSFQ) Logic/MemoryComputer Elements.
9 Silicon Nanoelectronics and Beyond.
9.1 Electron Interference Devices with Coherent Electrons.
9.1.1 Ballistic Electron Transport in Stubbed Quantum Waveguides: Experiment and Theory.
9.1.2 Well-defined Quantum Interference Effects in Carbon Nanotubes.
9.2 Carbon Nanotube Sensors and Dense Nonvolatile Random Access Memories.
9.2.1 A Carbon Nanotube Sensor of Polar Molecules, Making Use of the InherentlyLarge Electric Fields.
9.2.2 Carbon Nanotube Cross-bar Arrays for Ultra-dense Ultra-fast Nonvolatile Random Access Memory.
9.3 Resonant Tunneling Diodes, Tunneling Hot Electron Transistors.
9.4 Double-well Potential Charge Qubits.
9.4.1 Silicon-based Quantum Computer Qubits.
9.5 Single Electron Transistors.
9.5.1 The Radio-frequencyS ingle Electron Transistor (RFSET), a Useful Proven Research Tool.
9.5.2 Readout of the Charge Qubit, with Sub-electron Charge Resolution.
9.5.3 A Comparison of SET and RTD (Resonant Tunneling Diode) Behaviors.
9.6 Experimental Approaches to the Double-well Charge Qubit.
9.6.1 Coupling of Two Charge Qubits in a Solid State (Superconducting)_ Context.
9.7 Ion Trap on a GaAs Chip, Pointing to a New Qubit.
9.8 Single Molecules as Active Elements in Electronic Circuits.
9.9 Hybrid Nanoelectronics Combining Si CMOS and Molecular Electronics: CMOL.
10 Looking into the Future.
10.1 Drexler’s Mechanical (Molecular) Axle and Bearing.
10.1.1 Smalley’s Refutation of Machine Assembly.
10.1.2 Van der Waals Forces for Frictionless Bearings?
10.2 The Concept of the Molecular Assembler is Flawed.
10.3 Could Molecular Machines Revolutionize Technologyor even Selfreplicate to Threaten Terrestrial Life?
10.4 What about Genetic Engineering and Robotics?
10.5 Possible Social and Ethical Implications of Biotechnologyand Synthetic Biology.
10.6 Is there a Posthuman Future as Envisioned byF ukuyama?
Glossary of Abbreviations.
Exercises.
Some Useful Constants.
Index.


Library of Congress subject headings for this publication:
Nanoscience.
Nanotechnology.
Nanosciences.
Nanotechnologie.
Moleculaire nanotechnologie. -- gtt
Nanostructuren. -- gtt
Nano-elektronica. -- gtt