Table of contents for Understanding human communication / Ronald B. Adler, George Rodman.


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Each chapter ends with a Summary, Key Terms, Activities, and For Further Exploration


PART ONE: ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION


Chapter 1: Human Communication: What and Why


Communication Defined


Communication Is Human


Communication Is a Process


Communication Is Symbolic


Types of Communication


Intrapersonal Communication


Dyadic/Interpersonal Communication


Small Group Communication


Public Communication


Mass Communication


Functions of Communication


Physical Needs


Identity Needs


Social Needs


Practical Needs


Modeling Communication


A Linear Model


A Transactional Model


Communication Competence: What Makes an Effective Communicator?


Communication Competence Defined


Characteristics of Competent Communicators


Clarifying Misconceptions about Communication


Communication Does Not Always Require Complete Understanding


Communication is Not Always a Good Thing


No Single Person or Event Causes Another's Reaction


Communication Will Not Solve All Problems


Meanings Rest in People, Not Words


Communication Is Not Simple


More Communication Is Not Always Better


Chapter 2: Perception, the Self, and Communication


Perceiving Others


Narratives and Perception


Common Perceptual Tendencies


Situational Factors Influencing Perception


Perception and Culture


Empathy and Perception


Perceiving the Self


Self-Concept Defined


Communication and Development of the Self


Culture and the Self-Concept


The Self-Concept, Personality, and Communication


The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy


Identity Management: Communication as Impression Management


Public and Private Selves


Characteristics Of Identity Management


Why Manage Impressions?


How Do We Manage Impressions?


Impression Management and Honesty


Chapter 3: Language


The Nature of Language


Language Is Symbolic


Meanings Are in People, Not Words


Language Is Rule-Governed


The Power of Language


Language Shapes Attitudes


Language Reflects Attitudes


Troublesome Language


The Language of Misunderstandings


Disruptive Language


Evasive Language


Gender and Language


Content


Reasons for Communicating


Conversational Style


Nongender Variables


Culture and Language


Verbal Communication Styles


Language and Worldview


Language Use in North American Culture


Chapter 4: Listening


Misconceptions about Listening


Listening and Hearing Are Not the Same Thing


Listening Is Not a Natural Process


Listening Requires Effort


All Listeners Do Not Receive the Same Message


Overcoming Challenges to Effective Listening


Faulty Listening Behaviors


Reasons for Poor Listening


Personal Listening Styles


Content-Oriented


People-Oriented


Action-Oriented


Time-Oriented


Informational Listening


Don't Argue or Judge Prematurely


Separate the Message from the Speaker


Be Opportunistic


Look For Key Ideas


Ask Questions


Paraphrase


Take Notes


Critical Listening


Listen for Information Before Evaluating


Evaluate the Speaker's Credibility


Examine the Speaker's Evidence and Reasoning


Examine Emotional Appeals


Empathic Listening


Advising


Judging


Analyzing


Questioning


Supporting


Prompting


Paraphrasing


When and How to Help?


Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication


Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication


Nonverbal Communication Exists


Nonverbal Behavior Has Communicative Value


Nonverbal Communication Is Primarily Relational


Nonverbal Communication Is Ambiguous


Nonverbal Communication Is Different from Verbal Communication


Nonverbal Skills are Important


Influences on Nonverbal Communication


Cultures


Gender


Functions of Nonverbal Communication


Repeating


Substituting


Complementing


Accenting


Regulating


Contradicting


Deceiving


Types of Nonverbal Communication


Posture and Gesture


Face and Eyes


Voice


Touch


Physical Attractiveness


Clothing


Distance


Time


Territoriality


Environment


PART TWO: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION


Chapter 6: Understanding Interpersonal Relationships


Characteristics of Interpersonal Relationships


What Makes Communication Interpersonal?


Interpersonal Communication and the Internet


Content and Relational Messages


Metacommunication


Intimacy in Interpersonal Relationships


Dimensions of Intimacy


Male and Female Intimacy Styles


Cultural Influences on Intimacy


Relational Development and Maintenance


A Developmental Perspective


A Dialectical Perspective


Characteristics of Relational Development and Maintenance


Self-Disclosure in Interpersonal Relationships


Models of Self-Disclosure


Characteristics of Effective Self-Disclosure


Guidelines for Appropriate Self-Disclosure


Alternatives to Self-Disclosure


Chapter 7: Improving Interpersonal Relationships


Communication Climates in Interpersonal Relationships


Confirming and Disconfirming Messages


How Communication Climates Develop


Creating Positive Communication Climates


Managing Interpersonal Conflict


The Nature of Conflict


Styles of Expressing Conflict


Characteristics of an Assertive Message


Gender and Conflict Style


Cultural Influences on Conflict


Methods of Conflict Resolution


Steps in Win-Win Problem Solving


PART THREE: COMMUNICATION IN GROUPS


Chapter 8: The Nature of Groups


What is a Group?


Interaction


Interdependence


Time


Size


Goals


Goals of Groups and Their Members


Individual Goals


Group Goals


Types of Groups


Learning Groups


Problem-Solving Groups


Social Groups


Growth Groups


Characteristics of Groups


Rules and Norms


Roles


Patterns of Interaction


Decision-Making Methods


Cultural Influences on Group Communication


Individualism versus Collectivism


Power Distance


Uncertainty Avoidance


Task versus Social Orientation


Short- versus Long-Term Orientation


Chapter 9: Solving Problems in Groups


Problem Solving in Groups: When and Why


Advantages of Group Problem Solving


When to Use Groups for Problem Solving


Group Problem-Solving Formats


Types of Problem-Solving Formats


Computer-Mediated Groups


Approaches and Stages in Problem Solving


A Structured Problem-Solving Approach


Developmental Stages in Problem-Solving Groups


Maintaining Positive Relationships


Basic Skills


Building Cohesiveness


Leadership and Power in Groups


Power in Groups


What Makes Leaders Effective?


Overcoming Dangers in Group Discussion


Information Underload and Overload


Unequal Participation


Pressure to Conform


PART FOUR: PUBLIC COMMUNICATION


Chapter 10: Choosing and Developing a Topic


Choosing a Topic


Look for a Topic Early


Choose a Topic That Interests You


Defining Purpose


General Purpose


Specific Purpose


The Thesis Statement


Analyzing the Speaking Situation


The Listener: Audience Analysis


The Occasion


Gathering Information


Internet Research


Library Research


Interviewing


Personal Observation


Survey Research


Sample Speech


Chapter 11: Organization and Support


Structuring the Speech


Working Outline


Formal Outline


Speaking Notes


Principles of Outlining


Standard Symbols


Standard Format


The Rule of Division


The Rule of Parallel Wording


Organizing Your Points in a Logical Order


Using Transitions


Beginning and Ending the Speech


The Introduction


The Conclusion


Supporting Material


Functions of Supporting Material


Types of Supporting Material


Styles of Support: Narration and Citation


Using Visual Aids


Types of Visual Aids


Media for the Presentation of Visual Aids


Rules for Using Visual Aids


Sample Speech


Chapter 12: Presenting Your Message


Dealing with Stage Fright


Facilitative and Debilitative Stage Fright


Sources of Debilitative Stage Fright


Overcoming Debilitative Stage Fright


Types of Delivery


Extemporaneous


Impromptu


Manuscript


Memorized


Practicing the Speech


Guidelines for Delivery


Visual Aspects of Delivery


Auditory Aspects of Delivery


Offering Constructive Criticism


Chapter 13: Informative Speaking


Types of Informative Speaking


By Content


By Purpose


Informative versus Persuasive Topics


An Informative Topic Tends to Be Noncontroversial


The Informative Speaker Does Not Intend to Change Audience Attitudes


Techniques of Informative Speaking


Define a Specific Informative Purpose


Create Information Hunger


Make It Easy to Listen


Emphasize Important Points


Use a Clear Organization and Structure


Use Supporting Material Effectively


Use Clear, Simple Language


Generate Audience Involvement


Sample Speech


Chapter 14: Persuasive Speaking


Characteristics of Persuasion


Persuasion is Not Coercive


Persuasion is Usually Incremental


Persuasion is Interactive


Persuasion Can Be Ethical


Categorizing Types of Persuasion


By Types of Proposition


By Desired Outcome


By Directness of Approach


Creating the Persuasive Message


Set a Clear, Persuasive Purpose


Structure the Message Carefully


Use Solid Evidence


Avoid Fallacies


Adapting to the Audience


Establish Common Ground


Organize According to the Expected Response


Neutralize Potential Hostility


Building Credibility as a Speaker


Competence


Character


Charisma


Sample Speech


APPENDIX : INTERVIEWING


The Nature of Interviewing


Interviewing Defined


How Interviewing Differs from Conversation


Planning the Interview


The Interviewer's Role


The Interviewee's Role


Conducting the Interview


Stages of an Interview


The Interviewer's Responsibilities


The Interviewee's Responsibilities


The Selection Interview


Employment Strategies


Tips for the Interviewee


The Information Gathering Interview


Prepare for the Interview


Choose the Right Interviewee


Informational Interviewing Tips


Other Interview Types


The Persuasive Interview


The Counseling Interview


The Survey Interview


Notes


Glossary


Credits


Index





Library of Congress subject headings for this publication:
Communication.