Table of contents for Approaches to social research / Royce A. Singleton, Jr., Bruce C. Straits.


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Preface
1. Introduction
Why Study Research Methods?
Consuming Research Evidence
Producing Research Evidence
Methodological Approaches to the Social World
Some Preliminary Research Questions
An Experimental Answer
An Answer from Survey Research
An Answer from Field Research
An Answer from Available Data
Conclusions
An Overview of the Book
2. The Nature of Science
The Aim of Science
Science as Product
Scientific versus Nonscientific Questions
Knowledge as Description
Knowledge as Explanation and Prediction
Knowledge as Understanding
Tentative Knowledge
Science as Process
Durkeim's Study of Suicide
Logical Reasoning
Empiricism
Objectivity
Control
Science: Ideal versus Reality
Summary
I. Research Design
3. Elements of Research Design
Origins of Research Topics
Units of Analysis
Aggregate Data
Ecological Fallacy
Variables
Types of Variables
Relationships
Relationships among Qualitative Variables
Relationships among Quantitative Variables
Relationships between a Qualitative and Quantitative Variable
Statistically Significant Relationships
The Nature of Causal Relationships
Stating Problems and Hypotheses
Research Purposes and Research Design
Stages of Social Research
Stage 1: Formulation of the Research Problem
Stage 2: Preparation of the Research Design
Stage 3: Measurement
Stage 4: Sampling
Stage 5: Data Collection
Stage 6: Data Processing
Stage 7: Data Analysis and Interpretation
Summary
4. Measurement
The Measurement Process
Conceptualization
Operationalization Science
Operational Definitions in Social Research
Verbal Reportsof Research Design
Observationement
Archival Records
Selection of Operational Definitions
Levels of Measurement
Nominal Measurementesigns
Ordinal Measurementh
Interval Measurementntation
Ratio Measurementrch
Discussionarch Using Available Data
Reliability and Validity
Sources of Error Research
Reliability Assessmentlysis, and Interpretation
Test-Retest Reliabilitynd Elementary Data Analysis
Split-Half and Internal Consistency Reliability
Intercoder Reliability
Improving Reliabilityh Reports
Validity Assessment
Subjective Validation
Criterion-Related Validation
Construct Validation
A Final Note on Reliability and Validity
Summary
5. Sampling
Why Sample
Population Definition
Sampling Designs
Probability Sampling
Random Selection
Simple Random Sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
Cluster Sampling
Systematic Sampling
Nonprobability Sampling
Convenience Sampling
Purposive Sampling
Quota Sampling
Other Sampling Designs
Combined Probability and Nonprobability Sampling
Referral Sampling
Factors Affecting Choice of Sampling Design
Stage of Research and Data Use
Available Resources
Method of Data Collection
Factors Determining Sample Size
Population Heterogeneity
Desired Precision
Sampling Design
Available Resources
Number of Breakdowns Planned
Final Notes on Sampling Errors and Generalizability
Summary
II. Methods of Data Collection
6. Experimentation
The Logic of Experimentation
Testing Causal Relationships
Matching and Random Assignment
Internal and External Validity
Sampling in Experiments
Staging Experiments
An Example: Who Will Intervene?
Subject Recruitment and Acquisition of Informed Consent
Introduction to the Experiment
The Experimental Manipulation
Manipulation Checks
Measurement of the Dependent Variable
Debriefing
Pretesting
Experimental and Mundane Realism
The Experiment as a Social Occasion
Demand Characteristics
Evaluation Apprehension
Other Motives of Experimental Subjects
Experimenter Effects
Minimizing Bias Due to the Social Nature of Experimentation
Experimentation Outside the Laboratory
Field Experiments
Experimental Designs in Survey Research
Units of Analysis Other than Individuals
Summary
7. Experimental Design
Threats to Internal Validity
Pre-experimental Designs
Design 1: The One-Shot Case Study
Design 2: The One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
Design 3: The Static-Group Comparison
True Experimental Designs
Design 4: The Pretest-Posttest Control Group Study
Design 5: The Posttest Only Control Group Design
Design 6: The Solomon Four-Group Design
Within-Subjects Designs
Overview of True Experimental Designs
Factorial Experimental Designs
Interaction Effects
Quasi-experimental Designs
Example 1: Interracial Attitudes and Behavior at a Summer Camp
Example 2: The Connecticut Crackdown on Speeding
Summary
8. Survey Research
General Features of Survey Research
Large-Scale Probability Sampling
Systematic Procedures: Interviews and Questionnaires
Quantitative Data Analysis
Secondary Analysis of Surveys
The Uses and Limitations of Surveys
Survey Research Designs
Cross-Sectional Designs
Longitudinal Designs
Steps in Survey Research: Planning
Face-To-Face and Telephone Interviewing
Face-to-Face Interviewing
Telephone Interviewing
Self-Administered Mailed Questionnaires
Self-Administered Electronic Surveys
Mixed Mode Surveys
Field Administration
Interviewer Selection
Interviewer Training
Pretesting
Gaining Access
Interviewing
Supervision and Quality Control
Follow-Up Efforts
Summary
9. Survey Instrumentation
The Survey as a Social Occasion
Materials Available to the Survey Designer
Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Questions
Direct and Indirect Questions
Response Formats
Visual Aids
Existing Questions
"Sketches" or Preliminaries
The Opening
The Placement of Sensitive and Routine Questions
Order, Flow, and Transition
Filling in the Sketch: Writing the Items
Using Language Effectively
The "Frame of Reference" Problem
Reason Analysis
Memory Problems
Response Bias Problems
Format Considerations
Pretesting
Cognitive Laboratory Interviews
Field Pretesting Summary
10. Field Research
The Potentials and Limitations of Field Research
Research Design and Sampling
Sampling in Field Research
Field Observation
Nonparticipant Observation
Field Interviewing
Stages of Field Research
A Field Study of the homeless
Selecting a Research Setting
Gaining Access
Pretesting Oneself
Gathering Information
Analyzing the Data
Summary
11. Research Using Available Data
Sources of Available Data
Public Documents and Official Records
Private Documents
Mass Media
Physical, Nonverbal Evidence
Social Science Data Archives
Advantages of Research Using Available Data
Nonreactive Measurement
Analyzing Social Structure
Studying and Understanding the Past
Understanding Social Change
Studying Problems Cross-Culturally
Improving Knowledge through Replication and Increased Sample Size
Savings on Research Costs
Improving Knowledge Through Replication and Increased Sample Size
Savings on Research Costs
General Methodological Issues in Available-Data Research
Searching for and Procuring Available Data
Measurement of Key Concepts
Evaluation of Data Quality
Assessment of Data Completeness
History Analysis
Descriptive and Analytical History
Handling Documentary Evidence
Historical Interpretation
Content Analysis
Selecting and Defining Content Categories
Defining the Unit of Analysis
Deciding on a System of Enumeration
Carrying Out the Analysis
Summary
12. Multiple Methods
Triangulation
Multiple Measures of Concepts within the Same Study
Composite Measures: Indexes and Scales
Structural Equation Modeling
Multiple Tests of Hypotheses across Different Studies
Replications Using the Same Research Strategy: Compliance without Pressure
Replications Using Different Research Strategies: Deterrent Effects of Arrest
A Comparison of the Four Basic Approaches to Social Research
Meta-Analysis
Problem Formulation
Data Collection
Data Evaluation
Analysis and Interpretation
Public Presentation
Summary
13. Evaluation Research
Framework and Sample Studies
Example 1: Feeding the Homeless
Example 2: Aid to Released Prisoners
Example 3: Curbing Drunk Driving
Types of Evaluation Research
Problem Identification: Conceptualization and Diagnosis
Policy Planning: Needs and Social Impact Assessments
Program Development: Formative Evaluation
Program implementation: Program Monitoring
Program Evaluation: Effect and Efficiency Assessment
Methodological Issues in Evaluation Research
Theory as a Guide to Research
Research Design and Internal Validity
Measurement Validity
External Validity
The Social and Political Context of Evaluation Research
Summary
III. Data Processing, Analysis and Interpretation
14. Data Processing and Elementary Data Analysis
Preview of Analysis Steps
Data Processing
Editing
Coding
Entering the Data
Cleaning
Data Matrices and Documentation
The Functions of Statistics in Social Research
Inspecting and Modifying the Data
Nominal and Ordinal-Scale Variables
Interval and Ratio-Scale Variables
Summary
15. Multivariate Analysis
Modeling Relationships
Arrow Diagrams
Stochastic and Systematic Components
The Process of Modeling
Elaboration: Tables and Beyond
Multiple-Regression Analysis
Example 1: The Moral integration of American Cities
Example 2: Interscholastic Sports and Academic Achievement
Example 3: Textile Workers and Union Sentiment
Other Modeling techniques
Summary
16. Research Ethics
Data Collection and Analysis
Treatment of Human Subjects
Harm
Informed Consent
Deception
Privacy
Making Ethical Decisions
The Uses of Research: Science and Society
The Issue of Value Neutrality
The Application of Research Findings
Summary
17. Writing Research Reports
The Internet
Using the Library for Research
Indexes and Abstracts
Outlining and Preparing to Write
Major Headings
The Abstract
Introduction
Literature Reviews
Methods
Findings
Discussion
References
Other Considerations
The Writing-Reading Interface
Revisions
Length
Summary
Glossary
References
Name Index
Subject Index



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication:
Social sciences -- Research.
Social sciences -- Methodology.